Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Berberis nervosa

Introductory

SPECIES: Berberis nervosa
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Tirmenstein, D. A. 1990. Berberis nervosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : BERNER SYNONYMS : Berberis nervosa Pursh. var. mendocinesis J. B. Roof Mahonia nervosa (Pursh.) Nutt [99,100] SCS PLANT CODE : MANE2 COMMON NAMES : dwarf Oregon-grape Cascades Oregon-grape Cascades mahonia dull Oregon-grape longleaf mahonia TAXONOMY : The scientific name of dwarf Oregon-grape is Berberis nervosa Pursh. (Berberidaceae)[102,103]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : None OTHER STATUS : None


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Berberis nervosa
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Dwarf Oregon-grape occurs west of the Cascade Ranges and the Sierra Nevada from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to central California [47]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES22  Western white pine    FRES23  Fir - spruce    FRES24  Hemlock - Sitka spruce    FRES27  Redwood    FRES28  Western hardwoods STATES :      CA  ID  OR  WA  BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     1  Northern Pacific Border     2  Cascade Mountains     3  Southern Pacific Border KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest    K003  Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest    K005  Mixed conifer forest    K006  Redwood forest    K007  Red fir forest    K013  Cedar - hemlock - pine forest    K026  Oregon oakwoods    K029  California mixed evergreen forest    K030  California oakwoods SAF COVER TYPES :    207  Red fir    211  White fir    213  Grand fir    215  Western white pine    221  Red alder    224  Western hemlock    225  Western hemlock - Sitka spruce    226  Coastal true fir - hemlock    227  Western redcedar - western hemlock    228  Western redcedar    229  Pacific Douglas-fir    230  Douglas-fir - western hemlock    231  Port-Orford cedar    232  Redwood    233  Oregon white oak    234  Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone    244  Pacific ponderosa - Douglas-fir    246  California black oak    247  Jeffrey pine    249  Canyon live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Dwarf Oregon-grape is an understory dominant in montane to submontane coniferous and mixed evergreen forests of the Pacific Northwest. Oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor), Alaska huckleberry (Vaccinium alaskaense), salal (Gaultheria shallon), pachistima (Pachistima myrsinites), western sword fern (Polystichum munitum), Pacific rhododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum), Sadler oak (Quercus sadleriana), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), deerfoot vanillaleaf (Achyls triphylla), Oregon oxalis (Oxalis oregana), and vine maple (Acer circinatum) occur as codominants within the forest understory.  Dwarf Oregon-grape is listed as an indicator or dominant in the following publications: Forest types of the North Cascades National Park Service Complex [2] The tanoak series of the Siskiyou region of southwest Oregon (Part 2) [6] Preliminary plant associations of the Siskiyou Mountain Province [5] Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone:   Gifford Pinchot National Forest [11] Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington [24] Understory development in Pseudotsuga forests: multiple paths of   succession [33] Forest succession on alluvial landforms of the MacKenzie River Valley,   Oregon [39] Plant communities in the old-growth forests of north coastal Oregon [44] Forest ecosystems of Mount Rainier National Park [68] Mixed evergreen forest [78].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Berberis nervosa
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : In many parts of the Pacific Northwest, Douglas-fir-western hemlock/dwarf Oregon-grape and western hemlock/dwarf Oregon-grape-salal habitat types provide important big game wintering areas [43,85]. Stands often offer good structural diversity and remain relatively snow-free [43].  However, where dense shrub thickets develop, big game use may be limited [42].  Western hemlock/dwarf Oregon-grape-Oregon oxalis and western hemlock/dwarf Oregon-grape-deerfoot vanillaleaf types serve as big game summer range [43].             Browse:  In some areas, dwarf Oregon-grape is browsed by black-tailed deer [12,87].  In other locations it is seldom used [45].  Harcombe [37] reported moderate use of dwarf Oregon-grape by Roosevelt elk during winter but not in the spring or summer [37].  Various small mammals feed extensively on the foliage.  It is, for example, an extremely important dietary component of the white-footed vole in the Coast Ranges of Oregon [88].  Dwarf Oregon-grape comprised 32 percent of the vole's diet in February but declined to 17 percent by June.  The value of dwarf Oregon-grape browse to domestic livestock is apparently low in most locations.  Utilization by domestic sheep in the Cascade Ranges in Washington may reach 6.8 to 23.7 percent [49].  The fruits are readily eaten by many small birds [63] and mammals.  In some areas, black-tailed deer also eat the fruits [12].  The nectar of several species within the genus Berberis is favored by the Anna's hummingbird [55]. PALATABILITY : Dwarf Oregon-grape browse is relatively low in palatability to most big game species and domestic livestock [49,67].  The fruit is palatable to a wide range of birds and mammals. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Browse:  The nutrient content of dwarf Oregon-grape browse has been documented as follows [76]:                   average percent by weight -             N      P      Mg     Ca     Na       K stem       .44    .10    .05    .29    .0040    .51 foliage    .85    .12    .09    .24    .0020    .87 Nutrient content of fruit is listed below [70,94]:               nutrient content per gram dry weight kjoule    cal.   protein   carbo.  ash   lipid   Ca     Fe    Mg   Zn x 1,000          (g)       (g)     (g)   (g)    (mg)   (mg)  (mg)  (mg) 15.86     3.79   0.18      0.71   0.04   0.08   1.91   0.03  0.85   0.05 carbo.    fat    ash      N      P      K      Ca      Mg    Na                         (percent dry weight) 78.0      1.70   7.40   1.60    0.50   2.70    0.20   0.30    0 COVER VALUE : Dwarf Oregon-grape presumably provides cover for small birds and mammals.  The diverse structure of western hemlock/dwarf Oregon-grape-salal types provides good big game hiding cover [2]. Pacific silver fir/dwarf Oregon-grape and western hemlock/dwarf Oregon-grape-Oregon oxalis communities offer good thermal cover for deer and elk [41,43]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Dwarf Oregon-grape can be easily propagated from seed and from rhizome or stem cuttings [15,75,80].  However, plants may be slow to establish [56].  Detailed information on propagation techniques is available [15,75,80,81]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Dwarf Oregon-grape fruits are tart but edible [35].  Native peoples of the Pacific Northwest traditionally ate the fruits and made medicinal teas from the boiled roots [35,70].  Dyes for baskets were also obtained from the roots [35]. Dwarf Oregon-grape is a popular ornamental.  It is well suited for shady locations and is widely planted in gardens throughout the Pacific Northwest.  Its attractive foliage and short stature make it a particularly effective border plant [56].  Although it multiplies well under cultivation, it does not form dense thickets.  Foliage often turns a striking reddish-purple in winter after exposure to cold temperatures [81]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Timber harvest:  Dwarf Oregon-grape commonly persists on cutover sites [54,58].  In many parts of British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest, it assumes prominence in brushfields made up of such species as salal, bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), blackberries and raspberries (Rubus spp.), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.), and willows (Salix spp.) [43,54].  Brushfield species may compete with conifer regeneration in some locations [43]. Biomass:  The green weight of dwarf Oregon-grape has been estimated at 130 pounds per acre (145 kg/ha) in certain western hemlock types of Oregon [43]. Grazing:  Grazing by domestic sheep apparently has little effect on dwarf Oregon-grape [49]. Chemical control:  Percent frequency following herbicide applications combined with mechanical treatment or fire in central coastal Oregon was as follows [51]:                   glyphosate        spray and burn          spray and crush    pretreatment         13               13                        9    posttreatment        --                3                       -- The effects of various herbicides on Berberis spp. have been considered in detail [10].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Berberis nervosa
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Dwarf Oregon-grape is a low-growing rhizomatous evergreen shrub which typically reaches 4 to 24 inches in height [28,69].  On exceptional sites, plants may grow to 7 feet (2.1 m) [81].  The simple stems are ascending to erect and generally occur in loose colonies of several stems [69,46,71].  Compound leaves are borne in terminal tufts [66,69]. Coarsely serrate to spinose, ovate to lance-ovate or acute leaflets occur in groups of 7 to 21 [46,69,95].  Leaflets are dark green, thick, and leathery [71,95].  Yellow flowers are borne in erect clusters or racemes up to 8 inches (21 cm) in length [66,69,71].  The fruit is a large, dark blue, globose berry with grayish or whitish bloom [28,69,71,95].  Berries are 0.3 to 0.4 inch (8-10 mm) in diameter, occur in clusters [35], and contain a number of black seeds [95]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Dwarf Oregon-grape can reproduce from seed or by vegetative means. Seed:  Seed of most Oregon-grapes exhibit internal dormancy and require cold stratification for germination.  However, in certain laboratory tests, dwarf Oregon-grape seed did not germinate after 90 days of cold stratification [75].  Results of other studies indicate that seed will germinate if sown immediately or if stratified and planted in the spring [15].  Maximum germination capacity in laboratory tests was estimated at 77 percent [75].  Under natural conditions, seeds of most species within the genus germinate during the spring [15].  The role of sexual reproduction on disturbed sites is poorly known [32]. Vegetative regeneration:  Dwarf Oregon-grape is rhizomatous [47] and gradually expands laterally in the absence of disturbance.  Layering has also been reported [15].  Plants generally sprout from rhizomes or "creeping rootstocks" after aboveground portions of the plant are destroyed [47,74,87,91].  Vegetative regeneration appears to be the dominant mode of regeneration after fire or other disturbances [32]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Dwarf Oregon-grape occurs across a wide range of habitats in submontane to montane forests of the Pacific Northwest [35,54].  It is a characteristic shrub of spruce-fir forests [14] but also occurs in northern coastal coniferous forests and in redwood, mixed evergreen, and bottomland forests [30,69,78].  In Pacific silver fir communities, dwarf Oregon-grape is generally restricted to warm, dry sites.  In old-growth Douglas-fir stands of northwestern Oregon, it reaches greatest abundance on relatively dry sites [82].  This shrub occurs on dry to fairly moist sites in western hemlock types but reaches greatest abundance on warmer sites [42,85].  Dwarf Oregon-grape is also common in the warmer Port-Orford-cedar communities [3]. Dwarf Oregon-grape commonly grows as scattered, or abundant, individuals but can dominate the understory of semiopen forests [54].  It frequently forms "lush carpets" in open meadows bordering coniferous stands [71] and commonly persists in coastal brushfields created by timber harvest [33,43,51].  Dwarf Oregon-grape grows well in sun or shade [54,87]. Plant associates:  Common overstory associates in addition to those mentioned above include Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflora) [2,31,42,74,84,89].  In spruce-fir forests, dwarf Oregon grape grows with understory species such as twinflower, rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.), and queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora).  Beargrass (Xerophyllum tenax) occurs on drier sites [23].  Common associates in Douglas-fir or western hemlock forests include oceanspray, trailing blackberry (Rubus ursinus), red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium), Alaska huckleberry, salal, Pacific rhododendron, vine maple, broadleaf starflower (Trientalis latifolia), and mosses such as Kindbergia oregana [21,32,44,54,67].  Old-growth stands are often characterized by a depauperate understory [48].  In redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) communities, western sword fern, salal, Oregon oxalis, and redwood violet (Viola sempervirens) are common associates [60]. Soils:  Dwarf Oregon-grape grows well on a variety of soil types [70] including coarse, shallow rocky soils, coarse alluvium, or glacial outwash [39].  Soils are well drained to poorly drained, and dry to fresh [28,54,70].  Soils are derived from a wide range of parent material including basalt and metavolcanics, sandstone, siltstone, diorite, and gabbro [3,7,44,90].  Good growth has been reported on acidic to moderately alkaline or even somewhat saline soils [70]. Climate:  Dwarf Oregon-grape grows in maritime to submaritime climates. Growing seasons are fairly long [35].  Some sites experience summer drought [43]. Elevation:  Dwarf Oregon-grape grows at low to middle elevations [35,90].  In California, it is restricted to sites below 6,000 feet (1,829 m) [69]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Dwarf Oregon-grape is an important component of both seral and climax communities of the Pacific Northwest.  It occurs in recent clearcuts as well as in stands 300 to 600 years or older [20,82].  It is a woody survivor or residual colonizer, generally increasing dramatically after low intensity disturbances such as light fires [32,91].  It commonly persists on cutover [54] or lightly burned sites.  Residual survivors sprouted soon after the eruption of Mount St. Helens [34] and were particularly evident in protected microsites such as near the bases or rootwads of trees.  The intensity of disturbance, and of fires in particular, exerts a great influence on dwarf Oregon-grape [33,58].  In many areas, it codominates a site soon after light-severity disturbance but may decline in early seral stages when it is overtopped by rapidly growing conifer seedlings [33,49]. Annuals and weedy invaders commonly dominate early seral stages where disturbance has been intense [58].  Fireweed and wood groundsel (Senecio sylvaticus) assume dominance during the first 1 to 3 years on many intensely disturbed sites [71].  Perennials such as dwarf Oregon-grape may not become prominent on intensely burned sites until midsuccessional stages.  In some areas, 30 to 40 years or more may be required before maximum abundance of dwarf Oregon-grape is reached [79].  It does not attain maximum cover until later seral stages in many western redcedar-western hemlock-Douglas-fir forests of thge Cascade Ranges of Oregon and Washington [18,49]. Dwarf Oregon-grape can assume importance in shrub-dominated stages which develop 4 to 5 years after disturbance in western hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest [24], and can achieve peak abundance within 5 to 10 years after fire in many parts of this region [32].  In the central Oregon Coast Ranges, is exhibits rapid regrowth and shares understory dominance in 7- to 50-year-old forests [7]. Dwarf Oregon-grape is tolerant of shade and can complete its life cycle even in dense forests of the Pacific Northwest [73].  In the Coast Ranges of central Oregon, it dominates many old-growth western hemlock-western redcedar forest understories [7].  It is also an important component of many climatic or topoedaphic climax western hemlock communities [4,38,39].  Many seral Douglas-fir/dwarf Oregon-grape communities ultimately give rise to climax western hemlock types [38,39] as Douglas-fir declines late in succession [7].  Late seral Douglas-fir/vine maple-dwarf Oregon-grape communities become climax western hemlock-Pacific rhododendron-dwarf Oregon-grape communities [24]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Plants flower in early to late spring.  Fruit ripens during July and August [87].  Generalized flowering and fruiting dates are as follows [35,46,69,75,95]:             location                 flowering         fruit ripe             Northwest                March-June            --             CA                       April-June            --             OR (300 ft [91 m])       early April       mid-August             OR (3,250 ft [991 m])    mid-May           late August             w OR, sw WA              March-June            --             WA                       May                September    

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Berberis nervosa
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Dwarf Oregon-grape persists in closed forest stands with long fire-free intervals.  However, as a residual survivor, it is also well-adapted to a regime of "relatively frequent surface fires" such as those common in certain Douglas-fir-western hemlock/dwarf Oregon-grape types of Oregon [43].  Fire intervals in Douglas-fir-western hemlock forest inhabited by dwarf Oregon-grape commonly range from 137 to 320 years [1,71].  Fire intervals in other forest types occupied by dwarf Oregon-grape have been estimated as follows in Desolation Peaks, Washington [1]:       ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir          52 years       lodgepole pine-Douglas-fir          76 years       Douglas-fir-grand fir               93 years       Douglas-fir-Pacific silver fir      108 years   Fire can produce gaps in old-growth redwood forests which are conducive to dwarf Oregon-grape growth [60]. Dwarf Oregon-grape commonly sprouts and grows vigorously after fire [74]. Reestablishment through seed may occur, although vegetative regeneration is the dominant mode of postfire establishment [32]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Berberis nervosa
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Dwarf Oregon-grape is moderately damaged by light- to moderate-severity fires [4].  Underground regenerative structures often survive even if aboveground portions are consumed by fire [74,91]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : No entry PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Dwarf Oregon-grape often sprouts from underground rhizomes after aboveground portions of the plant are killed [74,91].  However, response varies with fire intensity, severity [33,58], and season.  Atzet and Wheeler [4] noted sprouts after light-severity fires but did not observe sprouting after moderate-severity fires.  Seedling establishment after fire has not been documented [32] and may be insignificant. Postfire recovery:  Postfire reestablishment and growth of dwarf Oregon-grape is often rapid [74].  In western Washington, sprouts are commonly observed soon after fire [53].  Under some circumstances cover may equal or exceed that of prefire levels within several years [65]. Dwarf Oregon-grape cover 9 years after slash burning near Oakridge, Oregon, surpassed that of adjacent unburned plots [83]. Dwarf Oregon-grape abundance may not peak until mid- to late seral stages, particularly after hot fires [32].  Recovery can be slow after moderate to hot fires that damage or kill portions of underground rhizomes.  Few dwarf Oregon-grape were present by the third growing season after a moderate fire in coastal British Columbia [58]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Recovery of dwarf Oregon-grape after July, 1970 wildfires in North Cascades National Park was as follows [65]:                   1971              1972              1974             freq.    cover       freq.  cover      freq.   cover        site 1      44        --          40      .1        32        .6 site 2      82.6     1.6          82.6   2.3        82.6     3.4 site 3      90.3      .16         83.9   2.2        83.9     4.9. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Timber harvest:  Dwarf Oregon-grape commonly exhibits dramatic reductions soon after timber harvest and subsequent slash fires in western hemlock-western redcedar-Douglas-fir forests of the Cascade Ranges, but then often undergoes a dramatic recovery [32].  In some areas, dwarf Oregon-grape cover has tripled during the first 5 years after logging and slash fires [17].  However, initial recovery may be fairly slow on some sites [91].  Posttreatment cover is presumably related to a number of factors including fire intensity and severity, season of fire, and site characteristics.  Dwarf Oregon-grape commonly reaches greatest abundance during secondary succession [49].  Abundance peaked at 30 to 40 years after clearcutting, broadcast burning, and planting in western hemlock-Douglas-fir forests of the western Cascades [79].  Posttreatment recovery was as follows [79]:                       years since treatment                         (percent cover)   2     5     10     15     20     30     40     undisturbed old growth 1.88  5.04   4.22   9.48  6.98  22.18  20.97            11.52 Posttreatment response of dwarf Oregon-grape has been documented in a number of other studies [7,16,17,27,79,91]. Fuels:  Many dwarf Oregon-grape communities are characterized by low to medium fuel levels [4]. Prescribed fire:  Prescribed fire in Pacific rhododendron-dwarf Oregon-grape communities can greatly increase herb and shrub production [26].

FIRE CASE STUDIES

SPECIES: Berberis nervosa
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION : Tirmenstein, D. A., compiler. 1990. Dwarf Oregon-grape response to clearcutting and spring or fall burning in a Douglas-fir-western redcedar-western hemlock forest, western British Columbia. In: Berberis nervosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. REFERENCE : Lafferty, R. R. 1972. Regeneration and plant succession as related to fire intensity on clear-cut logged areas in coastal cedar-hemlock type: an interim report. Internal Report BC-33. Victoria, BC: Department of the Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Pacific Forest Research Centre. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. 129 p. [58]. SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION : Plot 6 - May 22, 1969/high Plot 7 - September 9, 1968/moderate STUDY LOCATION : The study site was located approximately 33 miles (53 km) east of Vancouver and 14 miles (22 km) north of Mission City, British Columbia. PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY : Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) dominated the overstory, with scattered western redcedar (Thuja plicata) and western white pine (Pinus monticola) on the south and west aspects, and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western redcedar on the north and east aspects.  Dwarf Oregon-grape (Berberis nervosa), red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa), willow (Salix spp.), mountain ash (Sorbus sitchensis), vine maple (Acer circinatum), alder (Alnus spp.), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum), red and ovalleaf huckleberry (Vaccinium parviflorum, V. ovalifolium), thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), trailing blackberry (R. ursinus), salal (Gaultheria shallon), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), deer fern (Blechum spicant), and mosses were common in the preburn community. TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE : Not reported. SITE DESCRIPTION : Elevation - 500 feet (152 m).  Parent materials - bedrock was composed of quartz diorite and diorite,                 overlain with glacial till, outwash, and minor                 lacustrine and aeolian deposits. Soils - mixture of colluvium, loess, and ablation till; loamy with mixed                 gravel throughout. Climate - marine and cool.  no distinct dry season.                 average of 203 frost-frees days per year. FIRE DESCRIPTION :                 rate of spread     residence time     total fuel                 (ft/min)           (minutes)          loading (g/m sq) Plot 6                22                85               15,840 Plot 7                15                50               30,308                 energy released                     (cal/m sq x 1,000) Plot 6               22,709   Plot 7               45,799                 initial duff     residual duff    % duff reduction                 wt. (g/m sq)     wt. (g/m sq)     by weight Plot 6            6,700              3,750            44 Plot 7           10,000              6,710            33                 avg. initial     avg. initial     fuel consumed                 fuel             loading          (g/m sq x1,000)                 (g/m sq x1,000) (g/m sq x1,000) Plot 6              8.322            15.022             3.058 Plot 7             20.321            30.308             7.946                 total energy                 cal/m sq x 1,000,000 Plot 6            22.709 x 10                   Plot 7            45.799 x 10                 % moisture content of slash prior to ignition              fine           medium       large           (.04-2.5 in)   (.43-3.9 in)   (4.0 in  or >)                (.01-1.0 cm)   (1.1-10 cm)    (10.1 cm or >) Plot 6       12.5             6.6         40.3 Plot 7       17.4            16.3         21.4          % moisture content of organic fuel components prior to ignition                 litter          fermentation             humus Plot 6          21.8            102.7                   120.8 Plot 7          11.8            146.1                   197.8 FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES : Dwarf Oregon-grape recovery was as follows:                         Plot 6 -                                 1968       1969      1970     1971               (prefire)  (postfire) % freq.         49.0        11.4      --       1.1 % canopy cover   6.9         1.1      --       ---                         Plot 7 -                 1969        1970        1971               (postfire)  (postfire)   (postfire)   % freq.         6.8          6.8         6.8 % cover         0.3          0.2         0.6 On plot 7, dwarf Oregon-grape had not regained vigor within 3 years after fire. FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS : Dwarf Oregon-grape and others shrubs are more likely to dominate early seral stages after fires of low intensity.  Damage or destruction of underground regenerative structures is more probable after severe fires and can result in a slow recovery.  Shrubs in general are less severely harmed by fires in early spring or late fall when carbohydrate reserves are still concentrated in the roots than by fires occurring during growth periods.

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Berberis nervosa
REFERENCES : 1.  Agee, James K.; Finney, Mark; DeGouvenain, Roland. 1990. Forest fire        history of Desolation Peak, Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest        Research. 20: 350-356.  [11035] 2.  Agee, James K.; Kertis, Jane. 1987. Forest types of the North Cascades        National Park Service Complex. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65:        1520-1530.  [6327] 3.  Atzet, Thomas. 1979. Description and classification of the forests of        the upper Illinois River drainage of southwestern Oregon. Corvallis, OR:        Oregon State University. 211 p. Dissertation.  [6452] 4.  Atzet, Thomas; Wheeler, David L. 1982. Historical and ecological        perspectives on fire activity in the Klamath Geological Province of the        Rogue River and Siskiyou National Forests. Portland, OR: U.S. Department        of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 16 p.  [6252] 5.  Atzet, Thomas; Wheeler, David L. 1984. 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