Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Atriplex gardneri

        
        
      
Gardner saltbush. Creative Commons photo by Matt Lavin.

Introductory

SPECIES: Atriplex gardneri
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Reed, William R. 1993. Atriplex gardneri. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. Revisions: Varieties updated on 21 August 2014. The Natural Resources Conservation Service [35] and Flora of North America [49] citations were added then. ABBREVIATION : ATRGAR SYNONYMS : Atriplex gardneri var. tridentata (Kuntze) Macbr. [37] = Atriplex gardneri var. utahensis (Jones) Dorn NRCS [35] PLANT CODE : ATGA COMMON NAMES : Gardner's saltbush saltsage saltbush mound sage TAXONOMY : The scientific name of Gardner's saltbush is Atriplex gardneri (Moq.) D. Dietr. Recognized varieties are [35,37,49]: Atriplex gardneri var. var. aptera (A. Nels) Welsh & Crompton, Nelson's saltbush Atriplex gardneri var. bonnevillensis (C. A. Hanson) Welsh, Bonneville saltbush Atriplex gardneri var. cuneata (A. Nels) Welsh, Castle Valley saltbush Atriplex gardneri var. falcata (Jones) Welsh, Jones's saltbush Atriplex gardneri var. gardneri (Moq.) D. Dietr., Gardner's saltbush (typical variety) Atriplex gardneri var. utahensis (Jones) Dorn, basin saltbush Atriplex gardneri var. welshii (C. A. Hanson) Welsh, Welsh's saltbush LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : NO-ENTRY OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Atriplex gardneri
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Gardner's saltbush is found from Washington south to northwestern California; east to Saskatchewan and the Dakotas; south through Wyoming and Colorado to New Mexico and Arizona; and north to Nevada. It has been introduced into southern California [19,35,37]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES40 Desert grasslands STATES : AZ CA CO ID MT NV ND NM SD OR UT WY AB SK BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K038 Great Basin sagebrush K040 Saltbush - greasewood K046 Desert K055 Sagebrush steppe K057 Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass SAF COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Gardner's saltbush is an indicator species in a number of saltbush-greasewood and saltbush-grassland vegetation types and plant associations. It is listed as an indicator in the following published classifications: Presettlement vegetation of part of northwestern Moffat County, Colorado, described from remnants [2]. Soil vegetation relationships in the shadscale zone of southeastern Utah [29]. Plant associations (habitat types) of Region 2 [28]. New Mexico vegetation: past, present and future [40].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Atriplex gardneri
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Gardner's saltbush provides nutritious forage for livestock and wildlife species throughout its range [19,42]. Antelope, mule deer, rabbits, and mourning doves browse Gardner's saltbush [44]. Its persistent leaves are an important winter food source. It is particularly important for sheep because it provides the minimum nutritional requirement for maintenance of gestating ewes [1,10,18,43]. PALATABILITY : Gardner's saltbush is a generally palatable, year-round food source for livestock and wildlife [8,45]. In Utah, it is rated as fair in palatability for cattle, pronghorn, mule deer, and small nongame birds, good for sheep and small mammals, and poor for horses, elk, and waterfowl [8]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Gardner's saltbush is rated fair in energy and protein values [8]. Crude protein, expressed as percentage of dry matter, averages 7.2 for Gardner's saltbush [7]. Mineral content is as follows [23]: Percent Dry Weight P Fe K Ca Na Gardner's saltbush (dry site) 0.22 0.14 2.48 1.86 6.21 Gardner's saltbush (irrigated) 0.19 0.12 1.03 1.41 8.46 COVER VALUE : In Utah, Gardner's saltbush provides poor cover for pronghorn, elk, mule deer, and waterfowl, and fair cover for upland game birds, small nongame birds, and small mammals [8]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Gardner's saltbush has an extensive, highly branched root system, and tolerates poor site conditions. It is used to stabilize soils and to reclaim disturbed sites [45,46]. It had one of the highest survival rates of all shrubs planted on processed oil shale in the Uinta Basin of Utah. Processed oil shale is low in available phosphorous, nitrogen, and potassium. It was one of only two species to establish on coal mine spoils in Wyoming [12,31]. Cover and biomass, by year, for the Wyoming mine spoil plots are shown below [31]: Cover (%) Biomass (%) Biomass (g/m2) 1976 1978 1977 1978 1977 1978 <1.0 5.0 2.3 32.2 1.4 18.3 Direct seeding of Gardner's saltbush seed is usually unsuccessful due to conditions required for germination. Under laboratory conditions, seeds required a combination of stratification, scarification, afterripening, and washing to completely overcome dormancy [1]. Seedlings can be used to revegetate a site. Survival of transplanted Gardner's saltbush at one Wyoming site was 100 percent [15]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Although overgrazing may reduce plant vigor, winter grazing of up to 35 percent of total plant biomass allows for maintenance of Gardner's saltbush populations [10]. Halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus), a species poisonous to livestock, is unable to invade moderately grazed Gardner's saltbush sites [10].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Atriplex gardneri
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Gardner's saltbush is a native, spreading, low-growing, evergreen, perennial subshrub. It grows from 8 to 20 inches (20-50 cm) in height and has alternate leaves 0.5 to 2.2 inches (15-55 mm) long. Herbaceous flowering stems rise above the woody, decumbent portion of the plant [17]. Plants are typically dioecious, although some monoecious individuals also occur [17]. Roots of two-foot-tall (61 cm) plants near Riverside, California, measured 3.5 to 4.5 feet (107-137 cm) deep, with a lateral spread of 5 to 7 feet (152-213 cm) [21]. Polyploidy, which may afford drought tolerance, is common in Gardner's saltbush. Diploid forms are widespread in low-lying valleys, whereas tetraploid populations more often occupy higher, steeper terrain [32]. Evidence suggests that the more drought-resistant tetraploids are increasing at the expense of diploids. Diploids and tetraploids are very similar morphologically [34]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte Chamaephyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Gardner's saltbush regenerates from long-lived, wind-dispersed seed. Most species of the genus Atriplex first bear seed at 2 to 4 years of age. The genus is characterized by wide annual fluctuations in seed production [11]. Gardner's saltbush produces seed in abundance. Seed may remain on the plant for up to 2 years. Gardner's saltbush undergoes an average afterripening period of 3 months in order to overcome seed dormancy [11]. Under laboratory conditions, a combination of stratification, scarification, washing, and dry afterripening increased germination of Gardner's saltbush. This suggests that any combination of the above processes may help overcome seed dormancy in the natural environment [1]. The percentage of filled seed is highly variable, and may depend upon genetic factors. In one study, seed planted in spring or fall exhibited the best germination and survival, with seedlings emerging in 6 to 20 days [11,26]. Gardner's saltbush reproduces vegetatively by layering and sprouting from the root [6,19]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Gardner's saltbush is most common on saline, poorly developed, or clay soils with a pH of 7.8 to 8.6. Soils are typically low in available phosphorous, nitrogen, and potassium [12]. Gardner's saltbush also grows on sodic, silty, or sandy soils [5,10,12,17]. Sites are usually harsh and arid, with widely fluctuating temperatures and high winds [1,19]. Elevational range of Gardner's saltbush in Utah is from 4,300 to 6,500 feet (1,311-1,982 m) [8]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Gardner's saltbush is a climax indicator in several saltbush-greasewood and saltbush-grassland plant communities. McKell and Goodin [18], however, note that it is not a climax species on many desert rangelands. It can be an abundant species during early secondary succession. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Gardner's saltbush begins annual growth in the spring. The flowering period extends from May through July, depending on ecotype and climatic factors, with intermittent flowering after periods of heavy rain [47]. Foliage remains succulent even during the hot, dry summer months [4,33]. In Utah, seeds mature from September 10 through March 1 [24]. Seed dispersal is variable, but typically begins in late fall and lasts until the following April or May. It is not unusual to find 1- and 2-year-old fruits on some shrubs [11].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Atriplex gardneri
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Most North American species of saltbush are highly tolerant of fire. If top-killed, they sprout prolifically. Gardner's saltbush is a vigorous root-sprouter [21]. Because it produces abundant, wind-dispersed seed, it probably also establishes on burned sites from off-site seed. Many Gardner's saltbush communities lack the fuels to carry fire [20]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Atriplex gardneri
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : The chemical composition of Gardner's saltbush renders it "fire resistant", and it burns very slowly when ignited [20]. It is sometimes top-killed by fire, however [19,21]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : Gardner's saltbush is described as fire resistant because it contains high concentrations of minerals that increase char formation, but has low concentrations of volatile, flammable compounds [22]. It is characterized by an unusually high ash content and a low volatization rate [20,23]. Ash content and volatization (Vol.) rates are as follows [23]: Ash Max. Vol. Vol. from Cellulose Cellulose Rate 175-350 deg C Exotherm Endotherm Temp. Temp. (% dry weight) (mg/percent) (deg C) (deg C) Saltsage-dry 26.78 0.049 55 318 288 Saltsage- 27.07 0.045 52 320 272 irrigated In California, the heat value of Gardner's saltbush ranged from 6,750 to 7,000 BTUs per pound, with foliage averaging 7,000 BTUs per pound [20]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Most Atriplex spp. sprout after fire, recovering fully within 2 to 3 years [30]. Vigorous root-sprouting has been well documented in a number of native and cultivated strains of Gardner's saltbush [19]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Gardner's saltbush recovered quickly along railroad right-of-ways burned repeatedly to reduce weeds [19]. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Gardner's saltbush is known for its "fire-resistant" properties. It has been considered for planting on fuelbreaks in southern California [23].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Atriplex gardneri
REFERENCES : 1. Ansley, R. James; Abernethy, Rollin H. 1984. Overcoming seed dormancy in Gardner saltbush (Atriplex gardneri (Moq)D. Dietr.) as a strategy for increasing establishment by direct seeding. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 152-158. [335] 2. Baker, William L.; Kennedy, Susan C. 1985. Presettlement vegetation of part of northwestern Moffat County, Colorado, described from remnants. Great Basin Naturalist. 45(4): 747-783. [384] 3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 4. Branson, F. A.; Miller, R. F.; McQueen, I. S. 1967. Geographic distribution and factors affecting the distribution of salt desert shrubs in the United States. Journal of Range Management. 20: 287-296. [509] 5. Carlson, Jack. 1984. Atriplex cultivar development. In: Proceedings-symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 176-182. [603] 6. Carlson, Jack R.; Scheetz, John G.; Oaks, Wendall R. 1984. Seed production techniques of two chenopods: Gardner saltbush and winterfat. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; Stevens, Richard; Johnson, Kendall L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 191-195. [602] 7. Davis, James N.; Welch, Bruce L. 1984. Protein content of Kochia prostrata. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; Stevens, Richard; Johnson, Kendall L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. General Technical Report INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 145-149. [758] 8. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 9. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 10. Fisser, Herbert G.; Joyce, Linda A. 1984. Atriplex, grass, and forb relationships under no grazing, and shifting precipitation patterns in north-central Wyoming. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R., McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; Stevens, Richard; Johnson, K.L, compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6, Provo, UT. General Technical Report INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 87-96. [930] 11. Foiles, Marvin W. 1974. Atriplex L. saltbush. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of wood plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 240-243. [933] 12. Frischknecht, Neil C.; Ferguson, Robert B. 1984. Performance of Chenopodiaceae species on processed oil shale. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 293-297. [977] 13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 14. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 15. Luke, Forrest; Monsen, Stephen B. 1984. Methods and costs for establishing shrubs on mined lands in southwestern Wyoming. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 286-291. [1485] 16. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 17. McArthur, E. Durant; Plummer, A. Perry; Davis, James N. 1978. Rehabilitation of game range in the salt desert. In: Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Wyoming shrublands: Proceedings of the 7th Wyoming shrub ecology workshop; 1978 May 31-June 1; Rock Springs, WY. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Range Management Division, Wyoming Shrub Ecology Workshop: 23-50. [1575] 18. McKell, Cyrus M.; Goodin, J. R. 1975. United States arid shrublands in perspective. In: Hyder, Donald N., ed. Arid shrublands--proceedings, 3rd workshop of the United States/Australia rangelands panel; 1973 March 26 - April 15; Tucson, AZ. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 12-18. [1614] 19. Nord, Eamor C.; Christensen, Donald R.; Plummer, A. Perry. 1969. Atriplex species [or taxa] that spread by root sprouts, stem layers, and by seed. Ecology. 50(2): 324-326. [1772] 20. Nord, Eamor C.; Countryman, Clive M. 1972. Fire relations. In: McKell, Cyrus M.; Blaisdell, James P.; Goodin, Joe R., eds. Wildland shrubs--their biology and utilization: Proceedings of the symposium; 1971 July; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-1. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 88-97. [1773] 21. Nord, Eamor C.; Hartless, Patrick F.; Nettleton, W. Dennis. 1971. Effects of several factors on saltbush establishment in California. Journal of Range Management. 24(3): 216-223. [1774] 22. Philpot, Charles W. 1968. Mineral content and pyrolysis of selected plant materials. Research Note INT-84. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p. [1882] 23. Philpot, C. W. 1970. Influence of mineral content on the pyrolysis of plant materials. Forest Science. 16(4): 461-471. [1883] 24. Plummer, A. Perry; Christensen, Donald R.; Monsen, Stephen B. 1968. Restoring big-game range in Utah. Publ. No. 68-3. Ephraim, UT: Utah Division of Fish and Game. 183 p. [4554] 25. Plummer, Mark. 1984. Considerations in selecting chenopod species for range seeding. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R. [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 183-186. [1903] 26. Shaw, Nancy; Monsen, Stephen B. 1984. Nursery propagation and outplanting of bareroot Chenopod seedlings. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 251-260. [2123] 27. Stutz, Howard C. 1984. Atriplex hybridization in western North America. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 25-27. [2284] 28. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 1983. Plant associations (habitat types) of Region 2.,3rd ed. Lakewood, CO. 224 p. [2385] 29. West, Neil E.; Ibrahim, Kamal I. 1968. Soil-vegetation relationships in the shadscale zone of southeastern Utah. Ecology. 49(3): 445-456. [2514] 30. Wright, Henry A. 1980. The role and use of fire in the semidesert grass-shrub type. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-85. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p. [2616] 31. Cleaves, D. T.; Miller, R. M.; Taylor, J. D. 1979. Jim Bridger mine project. In: Bernard, J.R.; Carter, R.P.; Cleaves, D.T. [and others], contributors. Land reclamation program, Annual Report 1978. Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory; 1979: 18-30. [649] 32. Stutz, Howard C. 1978. Biogeography of saltbush Atriplex in Wyoming. In: Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Wyoming shrublands: Proceedings of the 7th Wyoming shrub ecology workshop; 1978 May 31 - June 1; Rock Springs, WY. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Range Management Division, Wyoming Shrub Ecology Workshop: 9-15. [2280] 33. Monsen, Stephen B.; Christensen, Donald R. 1975. Woody plants for rehabilitating rangelands in the Intermountain Region. In: Stutz, Howard C., ed. Wildland shrubs: Proceedings--symposium and workshop; 1975 November 5-7; Provo, UT. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 72-119. [1680] 34. Dietz, Donald R.; Yeager, Lee E. 1959. The apparent role of sagebrush in the management of mule deer winter range. Proceedings of the Western Association of State Game and Fish Commissioners. 39: 151-158. [802] 35. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2014. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262] 36. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 37. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 38. Bayless, Stephen R. 1969. 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Banner, Roger E. 1992. Vegetation types of Utah. Journal of Range Management. 14(2): 109-114. [20298] 45. Clarke, S. E.; Tisdale, E. W.; Skoglund, N. A. 1943. The effects of climate and grazing practices on short-grass prairie vegetation in southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan. Technical Bulletin No. 46. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Dominion, Department of Agriculture. 53 p. [635] 46. Carlson, Jack R.; Scheetz, John G.; Oaks, Wendall R. 1984. Seed production techniques of two chenopods: Gardner saltbush and winterfat. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; Stevens, Richard; Johnson, Kendall L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 191-195. [602] 47. Blauer, A. Clyde; Plummer, A. Perry; McArthur, E. Durant; [and others]. 1976. 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