Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Arctostaphylos nevadensis


Introductory

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos nevadensis
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1993. Arctostaphylos nevadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : ARCNEV SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : ARNE COMMON NAMES : pinemat manzanita kinnikkinnick TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of pinemat manzanita is Arctostaphylos nevadensis Gray [6,11,12,25,41]. There are no currently recognized infrataxa [41]. Pinemat manzanita hybridizes with bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) and hairy manzanita (A. columbiana) [12,17], and possibly with Eastwood manzanita (A. glandulosa) subspecies, forming A. xknightii R. Gankin & W. Hildreth and A. xparvifolia Howell [41]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos nevadensis
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Pinemat manzanita is distributed from the Cascade Range in Washington south through the North Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada of California and east to the Blue Mountains of Washington and Oregon [12,25]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES22 Western white pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES27 Redwood FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub STATES : CA OR WA BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K005 Mixed conifer forest K006 Redwood forest K007 Red fir forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K010 Ponderosa shrub forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K029 California mixed evergreen forest K034 Montane chaparral SAF COVER TYPES : 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 207 Red fir 208 Whitebark pine 211 White fir 213 Grand fir 218 Lodgepole pine 219 Limber pine 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock 231 Port-Orford-cedar 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone 238 Western juniper 243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir 245 Pacific ponderosa pine 247 Jeffrey pine 248 Knobcone pine 256 California mixed subalpine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Pinemat manzanita is a common dominant of montane chaparral and understories of west coast coniferous forests [2,22,24,36]. Overstory associates not listed in Distribution and Occurrence are foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana), shore pine (P. contorta var. contorta), Washoe pine (P. washoensis), Brewer spruce (Picea breweriana), golden chinquapin (Chrysolepis chrysophylla), tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflora), and California bay (Umbellularia californica) [19,32,34]. Understory shrub associates include greenleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos patula), bearberry (A. uva-ursi), antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata), Fremont silktassel (Garrya fremontii), huckleberry oak (Quercus vaccinifolia), snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinous), squaw carpet (C. prostraus), mountain big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata var. vaseyana), Oregon-grape (Mahonia nervosa), blue huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum), and prince's pine (Chimaphila umbellata) [5,14,24,32,37]. Herbaceous associates are long-stolon sedge (Carex pensylvanica), California fescue (Festuca californica), Lemmon needlegrass (Stipa lemmoni), Hall bentgrass (Agrostis hallii), Rocky Mountain gentian (Gentiana affinis), purple mountain parsley (Oreonana purpurascens), spreading phlox (Phlox diffusa), and Brewer lupine (Lupinus breweri) [15,26]. Publications naming pinemat manzanita as a dominant component of forest understories are as follows: Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province [2] Terrestrial natural communities of California [13] Plant associations of south Chiloquin and Klamath Ranger Districts--Winema National Forests [14] Montane and subalpine vegetation of the Klamath Mountains [32] Plant associations of the central Oregon Pumice Zone [37]

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos nevadensis
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Black bear, black-tailed deer, coyote, and various birds and rodents eat pinemat manzanita fruits [12,31]. Black-tailed deer browse seedlings for the first 3 years following fire. Foliage of older plants is rarely consumed by wildlife or livestock [31]. PALATABILITY : Mature pinemat manzanita browse is unpalatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife [31]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Pinemat manzanita is recommended for stabilizing soils on steep slopes [2,10]. Plants are started from stem cuttings. Containerized pinemat manzanita planted to prevent erosion of soil into Lake Tahoe, California showed 63 percent survival after 12 years when planted in spring. Survival of fall-planted pinemat manzanita was 23 percent at year 12 [33]. If soil excavations are shallow, pinemat manzanita recovers rapidly from log skidding damage via adventitious rooting and stem growth [9]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Pinemat manzanita is used for ornamental landscaping [11]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos nevadensis
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Pinemat manzanita is a native, spreading to prostrate, evergreen sclerophyllous shrub from 1 to 2 feet (0.3-0.6 m) in height. It is much-branched, with branchlets becoming viscid with age. It typically lacks a lignotuber (see Taxonomy). The bark is thin and freely exfoliating. A description of its root system was not found in the literature. The fruit is a berrylike drupe containing several nutlets [6,17,21,25]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Vegetative: Pinemat manzanita roots adventitiously where stems contact soil [3]. Plants buried under tephra following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens produced 5 to 10 adventitious roots per centimeter of stem during the next growing season [1]. Manzanita species such as pinemat manzanita that lack a lignotuber generally do not sprout after aboveground portions of the plant are damaged [3,25]. Sexual: Little is known about pinemat manzanita sexual regeneration except that it establishes from soil-stored seed in large numbers following fire [27]. Seedling recruitment at other times is not documented in the literature. Manzanita species seeds are disseminated by frugivorous birds and mammals [31]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Pinemat manzanita is an indicator of cold, dry sites [23]. It occurs in a modified maritime climate: winters are wet, but high pressure systems in summer result in clear, dry weather [24]. Precipitation may be rain or snow, depending upon elevation. Pinemat manzanita occurs from 2,000 to 10,000 feet (610-3,049 m) in elevation, and is most common above 5,000 feet (1,524 m) [25]. The typical growing season is therefore short; snowpack often does not melt until July [2,24]. Soils supporting pinemat manzanita are typically shallow, infertile, and poorly developed [2]. Textures vary from sand to loam and often contain coarse fragments [26,30,37]. Pinemat manzanita tolerates serpentine soils but is not restricted to them [16,39]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Pinemat manzanita colonizes disturbed sites [17]. It grows well in open plant communities where light levels are high, and persists until late seres. It does not tolerate the low light levels of closed canopy forests. McNeil and Zobel [22] reported that pinemat manzanita in the understory of a white fir (Abies concolor) forest of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, died where the canopy had closed. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Pinemat manzanita phenological development in the Cascade Range of central Oregon is as follows [29]: growth begins: late May flowering: late May to mid-June fruit develops: mid-June to early July fruit sets: mid-July to late September

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos nevadensis
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Pinemat manzanita establishes from seed following fire [17,27]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Shrub without adventitious-bud root crown Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos nevadensis
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire kills pinemat manzanita [17]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Pinemat manzanita establishes from seed during the first postfire growing season [17]. It may be an obligate seeder, requiring fire and/or charred wood lechate to break seed dormancy. The seed, however, has not been tested under laboratory or other conditions for such fire-stimulated germination responses. Data on postfire density, frequency, or growth rates of pinemat manzanita seedlings are not available. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos nevadensis
REFERENCES : 1. Antos, Joseph A.; Zobel, Donald B. 1985. Plant form, developmental plasticity and survival following burial by volcanic tephra. Canadian Journal of Botany. 63: 2083-2090. [12553] 2. Atzet, Thomas; McCrimmon, Lisa A. 1990. Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province. Grants Pass, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siskiyou National Forest. 330 p. [12977] 3. Biswell, Harold H. 1974. Effects of fire on chaparral. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 321-364. [14547] 4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 5. del Moral, Roger; Watson, Alan F. 1978. Gradient structure of forest vegetation in the central Washington Cascades. Vegetatio. 38(1): 29-48. [8800] 6. Eastwood, Alice. 1934. A revision of Arctostaphylos with key and descriptions. Leaflets of Western Botany. 1(11): 105-127. [12207] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 9. Garrison, George A.; Rummell, Robert S. 1951. First-year effects of logging on ponderosa pine forest range lands of Oregon and Washington. Journal of Forestry. 49(10): 708-713. [16711] 10. Gratkowski, H. 1961. Brush problems in southwestern Oregon. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 53 p. [8596] 11. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 12. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 510 p. [1170] 13. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756] 14. Hopkins, William E. 1979. Plant associations of south Chiloquin and Klamath Ranger Districts-- Winema National Forest. R6-Ecol-79-005. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 96 p. [7339] 15. Keeler-Wolf, Todd. 1986. An ecological survey of the proposed Stone Corral - Josephine Peridotite Research Natural Area (L. E. Horton - Darlingtonia Bog Research Nat. Area) on the Six Rivers National Forest, Del Norte County, California. Purchase order # 40-9AD6-5-907. Unpublished report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 69 p. [12307] 16. Keeley, Jon E.; Keeley, Sterling C. 1988. Chaparral. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press: 165-207. [19545] 17. Kruckeberg, Arthur R. 1977. Manzanita (Arctostaphylos) hybrids in the Pacific Northwest: effects of human and natural disturbance. Systematic Botany. 2(4): 233-250. [13561] 18. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 19. Laudenslayer, William F., Jr.; Darr, Herman H.; Smith, Sydney. 1989. Historical effects of forest management practices on eastside pine communities in northeastern California. In: Tecle, Aregai; Covington, W. Wallace; Hamre, R. H., technical coordinators. Multiresource management of ponderosa pine forests: Proceedings of the symposium; 1989 November 14-16; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-185. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 26-34. [11305] 20. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 21. McDonald, Philip M. 1981. Adapatations of woody shrubs. In: Hobbs, S. D.; Helgerson, O. T., eds. Reforestation of skeletal soils: Proceedings of a workshop; 1981 November 17-19; Medford, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory: 21-29. [4979] 22. McNeil, Robert C.; Zobel, Donald B. 1980. Vegetation and fire history of a ponderosa pine-white fir forest in Crater Lake National Park. Northwest Science. 54(1): 30-46. [166] 23. Minore, Don. 1972. A classification of forest environments in the South Umpqua Basin. Res. Pap. PNW-129. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 28 p. [1660] 24. Mitchell, Rod; Moir, Will. 1976. Vegetation of the Abbott Creek Research Natural Area, Oregon. Northwest Science. 50(1): 42-58. [1664] 25. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 26. Norris, Larry L.; Brennan, David A. 1982. Sensitive plant species of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Tech. Rep. No. 8. Davis, CA: University of California at Davis, Institute of Ecology, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. 120 p. [18242] 27. Oosting, H. J.; Billings, W. D. 1943. The red fir forest of the Sierra Nevada: Abietum magnificae. Ecological Monographs. 13(3): 260-273. [11521] 28. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 29. Roach, A. W. 1952. Phytosociology of the Nash Crater lava flows, Linn County, Oregon. Ecological Monographs. 22: 169-193. [8759] 30. Rummell, Robert S. 1951. Some effects of livestock grazing on ponderosa pine forest and range in central Washington. Ecology. 32(4): 594-607. [16338] 31. Sampson, Arthur W.; Jespersen, Beryl S. 1963. California range brushlands and browse plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, California Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service. 162 p. [3240] 32. Sawyer, John O.; Thornburgh, Dale A. 1977. Montane and subalpine vegetation of the Klamath Mountains. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 699-732. [685] 33. Slayback, Robert D.; Clary, Raimond F., Jr. 1988. Vegetative solutions to erosion control in the Tahoe Basin. In: Rieger, John P.; Williams, Bradford K., eds. Proceedings of the second native plant revegetation symposium; 1987 April 15-18; San Diego, CA. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin - Arboretum, Society of Ecological Restoration & Management: 66-69. [4097] 34. Thornburgh, Dale. 1990. Picea breweriana Wats. Brewer spruce. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 181-186. [13383] 35. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 36. Vankat, John L.; Major, Jack. 1978. Vegetation changes in Sequoia National Park, California. Journal of Biogeography. 5: 377-402. [17353] 37. Volland, Leonard A. 1985. Plant associations of the central Oregon Pumice Zone. Rt-ECOL-104-1985. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 138 p. [7341] 38. Wells, Philip V. 1988. New combinations in Arctostaphylos (Ericaceae): Annotated list of changes in status. Madrono. 35(4): 330-341. [6448] 39. Whittaker, R. H. 1954. The ecology of serpentine soils: IV. The vegetational response to serpentine soils. Ecology. 35(2): 275-288. [10397] 40. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 41. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992] 42. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. 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