Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Arctostaphylos glandulosa


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1992. Arctostaphylos glandulosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : ARCGLA ARCGLAA ARCGLAC ARCGLAG SYNONYMS : Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. cushingiana (Eastw.) Adams ex. McMinn [7,43] = Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. glandulosa NRCS PLANT CODE [47]: ARGL3 COMMON NAMES : Eastwood's manzanita crown manzanita TAXONOMY : The scientific name of Eastwood's manzanita is Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw. (Ericaceae) [7,29,43]. There are seven subspecies: Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. adamsii (Munz) Munz [30,37,43], Adams' manzanita Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. crassifolia (Jeps.) Wells [19,37,43], Del Mar manzanita Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. glandulosa [43], Eastwood's manzanita Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. glaucomollis Wells [43], Eastwood's manzanita Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. mollis (Adams) Wells [37,43], Eastwood's manzanita] Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. zacaensis (Eastw.) Wells [7,37,43], Zaca manzanita Campbell's manzanita (Arctostaphylos × campbelliae Eastw. ) is an Eastwood's manzanita × woolyleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos tomentosa) hybrid [47]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. crassifolia is listed as Endangered [46]. It occurs on siliceous sandstone coastal bluffs from Oceanside, California, southward to northern Baja California [43]. OTHER STATUS : Information on state- and province-level protection status of plants in the United States and Canada is available at NatureServe.


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Eastwood's manzanita occurs primarily in the Coastal Ranges of California from Del Norte County to Los Angeles County [2,7,19,29].  Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. glandulosa is also found in southwestern Oregon, and A. glandulosa subsp. crassifolia sometimes occurs in extreme northern Baja California [43]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES27  Redwood    FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub STATES :      CA  OR  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :    1  Northern Pacific Border    3  Southern Pacific Border    4  Sierra Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest    K005  Mixed conifer forest    K006  Redwood forest      K010  Ponderosa shrub forest    K029  California mixed evergreen forest    K030  California oakwoods    K033  Chaparral    K034  Montane chaparral SAF COVER TYPES :    229  Pacific Douglas-fir    232  Redwood    233  Oregon white oak    234  Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone    244  Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir    245  Pacific ponderosa pine    246  California black oak    248  Knobcone pine    249  Canyon live oak    250  Blue oak - Digger pine    255  California coast live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Eastwood's manzanita is a common dominant in coastal chaparral communities.  It frequently codominates or associated with chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) [1,13,24].  Eastwood's manzanita is also associated with chaparral whitethorn (Ceanothus leucodermis) and bigberry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca) [15,24]. The following published classifications list Eastwood's manzanita as a dominant species: Vegetation types of the San Bernardino Mountains [17] An introduction to the plant communities of the Santa Ana and San   Jacinto Mountains [42]


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Eastwood's manzanita is useless as livestock browse but is a valuable source of food for wildlife.  Manzanita spp. fruits are eaten by various chaparral mammals including coyote, dusky-footed woodrat, deer mouse, and brush rabbit.  The fruits are also consumed birds, including wild turkey and band-tailed pigeon [41].  Older leaves are sometimes eaten by black-tailed deer, although they prefer sprouts or seedlings [2,4]. PALATABILITY : The palatability of Eastwood's manzanita leaves is rated as poor for goats, sheep, cattle, horses, and black-tailed deer [33].  The palatability of the fruits and seeds is fair [22]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : No species of manzanita provides high-quality browse [33,41].  The protein content of Eastwood's manzanita leaves varies from 11 percent in April to 5 percent in October.  Bissell and Strong [6] state that deer need a minimum of 7 percent protein in their diet for normal maintenance. COVER VALUE : Eastwood's manzanita often forms dense stands that provide good hiding, resting and nesting sites for small birds and mammals.  Horton [17] has reported dusky-footed woodrat using Eastwood's manzanita as cover for their food caches.        Open stands of Eastwood's manzanita provide good hiding and resting cover for black-tailed deer [35]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Eastwood's manzanita's deep litter layer and deep root system help stabilize steep hillsides and road cuts.  It has been underutilized for rehabilitative purposes in the past because it is difficult to germinate and to transplant [8].  It can, however, be successfully propagated from stem cuttings [2]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Food:  The fruits of Eastwood's manzanita can be used to make jelly [2]. Native Americans dried and ground the fruits to make flour [36]. Landscaping:  Eastwood's manzanita is used for ornamental landscaping [2]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Watershed:  Eastwood's manzanita is valuable for soil erosion control because its roots and litter layer bind soil.  Kittredge [23] states that it may have the greatest ability to build and maintain a stable ground floor of all the chaparral shrubs. Timber:  Eastwood's manzanita allelopathically inhibits growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and knobcone pine (P. attenuata) seedlings [6,38,42]. Control:  Eastwood's manzanita can be controlled by aerosol application of 2,4-D in late June or July.  Precautions for its use with ponderosa pine seedlings have been detailed [38].


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Eastwood's manzanita is a long-lived, erect, spreading evergreen shrub. It ranges from 5 to 8 feet (1.5-2.5 m) in height, with a lignotuber from 2 to 15 feet (0.6-2.5 m) in diameter.  Root depth is from 8 to 28 inches (20-70 cm).  The leaves, stems, and fruits are glandular.  The fruit is a small drupe bearing hardcoated seeds [5,7,19,29]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual:  Eastwood's manzanita reproduces by seed [2,20,14].  Seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals and can remain dormant for years [21]. Germination does not occur until after a fire, and is triggered by an oligosaccharin leached from charred wood [20].  Seedling success rates are low [14]. Vegetative:  Eastwood's manzanita sprouts from the lignotuber [7,14,18,19,20,44]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Eastwood's manzanita is found on dry, rocky, often steep slopes [16,29]. Soil:  Eastwood's manzanita grows in gravelly-clay soil.  The soil layer is typically less than 10 inches (25 cm) with a pH of 5.7 [10].  Elevation:  Eastwood's manzanita occurs between 1,000 to 6,000 feet (305-1,829 m) [29]. Climate:  Eastwood's manzanita grows in a mediterranean climate, with cool moist winters and hot dry summers [7,29]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Eastwood's manzanita is shade-intolerant.  It occurs in climax chaparral, but is replaced by oak (Quercus spp.) woodland or coniferous forest in the absence of fire [14,31,44]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Eastwood's manzanita flowers from February to April.  The fruit ripens from April to August, and seeds are disseminated from August to November.  Older leaves are dropped from August to February [2].


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Plant adaptations:  Eastwood's manzanita sprouts from the lignotuber after aboveground portions of the plant have burned [7,14,18,19,20,44]. It also regenerates by fire-stimulated germination of dormant soil-stored seed [21]. Fire ecology:  Eastwood's manzanita produces more ground litter than most chaparral shrubs.  Kittredge [23] has measured its litter volume at 1.1 tons per acre (2.5 t/ha) per year.  The leaves, twigs, and fruits contain flammable resins [6]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown    Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire top-kills Eastwood's manzanita [42]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Charate-induced germination of a few seedlings occurs the first year following fire [21].  Lignotubers of top-killed plants sprout during the first postfire growing season.  Rapid growth continues, and preburn cover is regained by postfire year 4 [17]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Response of vegetation to prescribed burning in a Jeffrey pine-California black oak woodland and a deergrass meadow at Cuyamaca State Park, California provides information on  provides information on prescribed fire use and postfire response of many mixed-conifer woodland species including Eastwood's manzanita. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Effects of fire suppression:  Fuel build-up resulting from fire suppression can result in extreme fire and flood danger.  Manzanita fires are severe and typically consume all standing material down to ground level [42].  Loss of watershed vegetation results in downstream flooding and the filling in of reservoirs with debris [26].  Fuel management:  Manzanita communities have a natural fire cycle of 10 to 25 years [34].  To reduce fire danger in these communities, prescribed winter burns are recommended at intervals of 10 to 20 years. Humidity should be under 30 percent and winds less then 10 miles per hour [12,39].


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
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