Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Arctostaphylos glandulosa

Introductory

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1992. Arctostaphylos glandulosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : ARCGLA SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : ARGL3 ARGLA2 ARGLC4 ARGLG3 ARGLM2 ARGLZ2 COMMON NAMES : Eastwood manzanita crown manzanita TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Eastwood manzanita is Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw., in the family Ericaceae [7,29,43]. There are eight recognized subspecies and five recognized forms: A. glandulosa ssp. adamsii (Munz) Munz [30,37,43] f. adamsii (Munz) Wells [43] f. wieriana Wells [43] A. glandulosa ssp. campbelliae (Eastw.) Adams ex McMinn [7,37] A. glandulosa ssp. crassifolia (Jeps.) Wells [19,37,43] A. glandulosa ssp. cushingiana (Eastw.) Adams ex. McMinn [7,43] A. glandulosa ssp. glandulosa [43] A. glandulosa ssp. glaucomollis Wells [43] A. glandulosa ssp. mollis (Adams) Wells [37,43] A. glandulosa ssp. zacaensis (Eastw.) Wells [7,37,43] f. glaucoides (Eastw.) Wells [43] f. howelii (Eastw.) Wells [43] f. zacaensis (Eastw.) Wells [43] LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia is listed as endangered [46]. It occurs on siliceous sandstone coastal bluffs from Oceanside, California southward to northern Baja California [43]. OTHER STATUS : Information on state- and province-level protection status of plants in the United States and Canada is available at NatureServe.


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Eastwood manzanita occurs primarily in the Coastal Ranges of California from Del Norte County to Los Angeles County [2,7,19,29].  Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. glandulosa is also found in southwestern Oregon, and A. glandulosa ssp. crassifolia sometimes occurs in extreme northern Baja California [43]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES27  Redwood    FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub STATES :      CA  OR  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :    1  Northern Pacific Border    3  Southern Pacific Border    4  Sierra Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest    K005  Mixed conifer forest    K006  Redwood forest      K010  Ponderosa shrub forest    K029  California mixed evergreen forest    K030  California oakwoods    K033  Chaparral    K034  Montane chaparral SAF COVER TYPES :    229  Pacific Douglas-fir    232  Redwood    233  Oregon white oak    234  Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone    244  Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir    245  Pacific ponderosa pine    246  California black oak    248  Knobcone pine    249  Canyon live oak    250  Blue oak - Digger pine    255  California coast live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Eastwood manzanita is a common dominant in coastal chaparral communities.  It frequently codominates or associated with chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) [1,13,24].  Eastwood manzanita is also associated with chaparral whitethorn (Ceanothus leucodermis) and bigberry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca) [15,24]. The following published classifications list Eastwood manzanita as a dominant species: Vegetation types of the San Bernardino Mountains [17] An introduction to the plant communities of the Santa Ana and San   Jacinto Mountains [42]

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Eastwood manzanita is useless as livestock browse but is a valuable source of food for wildlife.  Manzanita spp. fruits are eaten by various chaparral mammals including coyote, dusky-footed woodrat, deer mouse, and brush rabbit.  The fruits are also consumed birds, including wild turkey and band-tailed pigeon [41].  Older leaves are sometimes eaten by black-tailed deer, although they prefer sprouts or seedlings [2,4]. PALATABILITY : The palatability of Eastwood manzanita leaves is rated as poor for goats, sheep, cattle, horses, and black-tailed deer [33].  The palatability of the fruits and seeds is fair [22]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : No species of manzanita provides high-quality browse [33,41].  The protein content of Eastwood manzanita leaves varies from 11 percent in April to 5 percent in October.  Bissell and Strong [6] state that deer need a minimum of 7 percent protein in their diet for normal maintenance. COVER VALUE : Eastwood manzanita often forms dense stands that provide good hiding, resting and nesting sites for small birds and mammals.  Horton [17] has reported dusky-footed woodrat using Eastwood manzanita as cover for their food caches.        Open stands of Eastwood manzanita provide good hiding and resting cover for black-tailed deer [35]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Eastwood manzanita's deep litter layer and deep root system help stabilize steep hillsides and road cuts.  It has been underutilized for rehabilitative purposes in the past because it is difficult to germinate and to transplant [8].  It can, however, be successfully propagated from stem cuttings [2]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Food:  The fruits of Eastwood manzanita can be used to make jelly [2]. Native Americans dried and ground the fruits to make flour [36]. Landscaping:  Eastwood manzanita is used for ornamental landscaping [2]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Watershed:  Eastwood manzanita is valuable for soil erosion control because its roots and litter layer bind soil.  Kittredge [23] states that it may have the greatest ability to build and maintain a stable ground floor of all the chaparral shrubs. Timber:  Eastwood manzanita allelopathically inhibits growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and knobcone pine (P. attenuata) seedlings [6,38,42]. Control:  Eastwood manzanita can be controlled by aerosol application of 2,4-D in late June or July.  Precautions for its use with ponderosa pine seedlings have been detailed [38].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Eastwood manzanita is a long-lived, erect, spreading evergreen shrub. It ranges from 5 to 8 feet (1.5-2.5 m) in height, with a lignotuber from 2 to 15 feet (0.6-2.5 m) in diameter.  Root depth is from 8 to 28 inches (20-70 cm).  The leaves, stems, and fruits are glandular.  The fruit is a small drupe bearing hardcoated seeds [5,7,19,29]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual:  Eastwood manzanita reproduces by seed [2,20,14].  Seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals and can remain dormant for years [21]. Germination does not occur until after a fire, and is triggered by an oligosaccharin leached from charred wood [20].  Seedling success rates are low [14]. Vegetative:  Eastwood manzanita sprouts from the lignotuber [7,14,18,19,20,44]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Eastwood manzanita is found on dry, rocky, often steep slopes [16,29]. Soil:  Eastwood manzanita grows in gravelly-clay soil.  The soil layer is typically less than 10 inches (25 cm) with a pH of 5.7 [10].  Elevation:  Eastwood manzanita occurs between 1,000 to 6,000 feet (305-1,829 m) [29]. Climate:  Eastwood manzanita grows in a mediterranean climate, with cool moist winters and hot dry summers [7,29]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Eastwood manzanita is shade-intolerant.  It occurs in climax chaparral, but is replaced by oak (Quercus spp.) woodland or coniferous forest in the absence of fire [14,31,44]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Eastwood manzanita flowers from February to April.  The fruit ripens from April to August, and seeds are disseminated from August to November.  Older leaves are dropped from August to February [2].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Plant adaptations:  Eastwood manzanita sprouts from the lignotuber after aboveground portions of the plant have burned [7,14,18,19,20,44]. It also regenerates by fire-stimulated germination of dormant soil-stored seed [21]. Fire ecology:  Eastwood manzanita produces more ground litter than most chaparral shrubs.  Kittredge [23] has measured its litter volume at 1.1 tons per acre (2.5 t/ha) per year.  The leaves, twigs, and fruits contain flammable resins [6]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown    Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire top-kills Eastwood manzanita [42]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Charate-induced germination of a few seedlings occurs the first year following fire [21].  Lignotubers of top-killed plants sprout during the first postfire growing season.  Rapid growth continues, and preburn cover is regained by postfire year 4 [17]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Response of vegetation to prescribed burning in a Jeffrey pine-California black oak woodland and a deergrass meadow at Cuyamaca State Park, California provides information on  provides information on prescribed fire use and postfire response of many mixed-conifer woodland species including Eastwood manzanita. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Effects of fire suppression:  Fuel build-up resulting from fire suppression can result in extreme fire and flood danger.  Manzanita fires are severe and typically consume all standing material down to ground level [42].  Loss of watershed vegetation results in downstream flooding and the filling in of reservoirs with debris [26].  Fuel management:  Manzanita communities have a natural fire cycle of 10 to 25 years [34].  To reduce fire danger in these communities, prescribed winter burns are recommended at intervals of 10 to 20 years. Humidity should be under 30 percent and winds less then 10 miles per hour [12,39].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Arctostaphylos glandulosa
REFERENCES :  1.  Bentley, Jay R. 1967. Conversion of chaparral areas to grassland:        techniques used in California. Agric. Handb. 328. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 35 p.  [195]  2.  Berg, Arthur R. 1974. Arctostaphylos Adans. manzanita. In: Schopmeyer,        C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United        States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 228-231.  [7428]  3.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]  4.  Bissell, Harold D.; Strong, Helen. 1955. The crude protein variations in        the browse diet of California deer. California Fish and Game. 41(2):        145-155.  [10524]  5.  Conrad, C. Eugene. 1987. Common shrubs of chaparral and associated        ecosystems of southern California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-99. Berkeley, CA:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest        and Range Experiment Station. 86 p.  [4209]  6.  del Moral, Roger; Cates, Rex G. 1971. Allelopathic potential of the        dominant vegetation of western Washington. Ecology. 52(6): 1030-1037.        [4794]  7.  Eastwood, Alice. 1934. A revision of Arctostaphylos with key and        descriptions. Leaflets of Western Botany. 1(11): 105-127.  [12207]  8.  Everett, Percy C. 1957. A summary of the culture of California plants at        the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden 1927-1950. Claremont, CA: The Rancho        Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 223 p.  [7191]  9.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905] 10.  Gardner, Robert A. 1958. Soil-vegetation associations in the redwood -        Douglas-fir zone of California. In: Proceedings, 1st North American        forest soils conference; [Date of conference unknown]; East Lansing, MI.        East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, Agricultural Experiment        Station: 86-101.  [12581] 11.  Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].        1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range        ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  [998] 12.  Green, Lisle R. 1970. An expermintal prescribed burn to reduce fuel        hazard in chaparral. Res. Note PSW-216. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range        Experiment Station. 6 p.  [16164] 13.  Griffin, James R. 1974. 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PSW-44. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range        Experiment Station. 29 p.  [10687] 18.  James, Susanne Marie. 1983. Lignotubers and vegetative regeneration of        Arctostaphylos in the California chaparral--anatomy , morphology and        ecological significance. Riverside, CA: University of California. 133 p.        Dissertation.  [12197] 19.  Jepson, Willis L. 1916. Regeneration in Manzanita. Madrono. 1: 3-11.        [12206] 20.  Keeley, Jon E. 1987. Role of fire in seed germination of woody taxa in        California chaparral. Ecology. 68(2): 434-443.  [5403] 21.  Keeley, Jon E. 1987. Ten years of change in seed banks of the chaparral        shrubs, Arctostaphylos glauca and A. glandulosa. American Midland        Naturalist. 117(2): 446-448.  [5607] 22.  Keeley, Jon E.; Hays, Robert L. 1976. Differential seed predation on two        species of Arctostaphylos (Ericaceae). Oecologia. 24: 71-81.  [13728] 23.  Kittredge, Joseph. 1955. Litter and forest floor of the chaparral in        parts of the San Dimas Experimental Forest, California. Hilgardia.        23(13): 563-596.  [10931] 24.  Klinger, Robert C.; Kutilek, Michael J.; Shellhammer, Howard S. 1989.        Population responses of black-tailed deer to prescribed burning. Journal        of Wildlife Management. 53(4): 863-871.  [10686] 25.  Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation        of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:        American Geographical Society. 77 p.  [1384] 26.  Lee, Robert G.; Bonnicksen, Thomas M. 1978. Brushland watershed fire        management policy in southern California: biosocial considerations.        Contribution No. 172. Davis, CA: University of California, California        Water Resources Center. 74 p.  [11886] 27.  Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession        following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall        Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council        fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No.        14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373.  [1496] 28.  Moore, Michael. 1979. Medicinal plants of the Mountain West. Santa Fe,        NM: Museum of New Mexico Press. 200 p.  [12905] 29.  Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1905 p.  [6155] 30.  Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1086 p.  [4924] 31.  Patric, James H.; Hanes, Ted L. 1964. Chaparral succession in a San        Gabriel Mountain area of California. Ecology. 45(2): 353-360.  [9825] 32.  Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant        geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  [2843] 33.  Sampson, Arthur W.; Jespersen, Beryl S. 1963. California range        brushlands and browse plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California,        Division of Agricultural Sciences, California Agricultural Experiment        Station, Extension Service. 162 p.  [3240] 34.  Sweeney, James R. 1956. Responses of vegetation to fire: A study of the        herbaceous vegetation following chaparral fires. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 249 p.  [3776] 35.  Taber, Richard D. 1953. Studies of black-tailed deer reproduction on        three chaparral cover types. California Fish and Game. 39(2): 177-186.        [16373] 36.  Timbrook, Jan. 1990. Ethnobotany of Chumash Indians, California, based        on collections by John P. Harrington. Economic Botany. 44(2): 236-253.        [13777] 37.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants        of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p.  [23104] 38.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of the Interior; Range        Seeding Equipment Committee. 1959. Handbook: Chemical control of range        weeds. Washington, DC: [Publisher unknown]. 93 p.  [12129] 39.  Linne, James. [n.d.]. Prescribed burning. BLM Manual 9215. [Place of        publication unknown]: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land        Management. 217 p.  [1460] 40.  U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. 50 CFR        Pt 17. Endangered & threatened wildlife & plants; review of plant taxa        for listing as endangered or threatened species; notice of review.        Federal Register. 55(35): 6184-6229.  [14528] 41.  Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States,        their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture. 362 p.  [4240] 42.  Vogl, Richard J. 1976. An introduction to the plant communities of the        Santa Ana and San Jacinto Mountains. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium        proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4;        Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California        Native Plant Society: 77-98.  [4230] 43.  Wells, Philip V. 1987. The leafy-bracted, crown-sprouting manzanitas, an        ancestral group in Arctostaphylos. Four Seasons. 7(4): 4-27.  [8799] 44.  Zedler, Paul H. 1981. Vegetation change in chaparral and desert        communities in San Diego County, California. In: West, D. C.; Shugart,        H. H.; Botkin, D. B., eds. Forest succession: Concepts and application.        New York: Springer-Verlag: 406-430.  [4241] 45.  Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern        Rocky Mountain forests. 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