Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Arctostaphylos columbiana


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos columbiana
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1993. Arctostaphylos columbiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : ARCCOL SYNONYMS : Arctostaphylos tracyi Eastw. SCS PLANT CODE : ARCO3 COMMON NAMES : hairy manzanita TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of hairy manzanita is Arctostaphylos columbiana Piper [14,15,25,35]. Varieties recognized by some authorities are as follows [15,24]: A. columbiana var. columbiana A. columbiana var. tracyi (Eastwd.) Adams The latter taxon is a glabrous variant occurring in Humbolt County, California. Because it is an intrapopulational variant, Wells [35] has named it A. columbiana forma tracyi (Eastwd.) Wells. He also recognizes a highly setose form of hairy manzanita: A. columbiana forma setossima (Eastwd.) Wells, which occurs in Mendocino County, California. Hairy manzanita hybridizes with bearberry (A. uva-ursi) to produce A. Xmedia Greene. It also hybridizes with pinemat manzanita (A. nevadensis) in the Mount Hood region of Oregon, where ranges of the two species overlap [20,21,35]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos columbiana
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Hairy manzanita is distributed in the Coast Ranges from Sonoma County, California, north to Vancouver Island and Vancouver, British Columbia [21,24]. The largest populations are in southwest Oregon [10]. Hairy manzanita occurs infrequently on western slopes of the Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington [21]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods STATES : CA OR WA BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K005 Mixed conifer forest K009 Pine - cypress forest K010 Ponderosa shrub forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K029 California mixed evergreen forest K030 California oakwoods SAF COVER TYPES : 223 Sitka spruce 224 Western hemlock 225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock 231 Port-Orford-cedar 232 Redwood 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir 245 Pacific ponderosa pine 247 Jeffrey pine 249 Canyon live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Hairy manzanita is a component of understories of various western coniferous forests [20]. It also occurs as scattered plants or in small clusters interspersed with other shrub species in forest clearings [10]. Overstory associates of hairy manzanita not listed in Distribution and Occurrence include golden chinquapin (Chrysolepsis chrysophylla), bishop pine (Pinus muricata), Bolander pine (P. contorta var. bolanderi), shore pine (P. contorta var. contorta), pygmy cypress (Cupressus goveniana spp. pygmaea), and grand fir (Abies grandis) [7,12,36]. Common shrub associates are Oregon-grape (Mahonia nervosa), salal (Gaultheria shallon), whiteleaf manzanita (Arctostaphyloa viscida), snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus), deerbrush (C. integerrimus), and vine maple (Acer circinatum) [9,12]. Herbaceous associates include beargrass (Xerophyllum tenax), Canada horseweed (Conyza canadensis), darkblue penstemon (Penstemon davidsonii), Oregon stonecrop (Sedum oregonese), and Ross sedge (Carex rossii). Parsley fern (Cryptogramma acrostichoides) is a common fern associate [11,12,27]. The following publication names hairy manzanita as a dominant understory species: Terrestrial natural communities of California [16]


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos columbiana
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Black bear, coyote, black-tailed deer, and various small mammals and birds eat hairy manzanita fruit [3,21]. The leaves and stems are unpalatable to browsing wildlife and livestock [28]. Hummingbirds in British Columbia consume hairy manzanita nectar [25]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Hairy manzanita is planted as an ornamental [21]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Timber Management and Control: Hairy manzanita competes with young conifers in plantations and Christmas tree farms [20,32]. It is highly susceptible to aerosol application of 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T, which results in nearly 100 percent kill in the Pacific Northwest [31]. Gratkowski [10] reported 2,4,5-T as slightly more effective in southwest Oregon. Cultivation: Hairy manzanita is propagated from stem cuttings [21].


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos columbiana
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Hairy manzanita is a native, evergreen, erect shrub. Mature plants are from 2.5 to 16.6 feet (0.8-5.0 m) high with a broadly spreading oval crown supported by a single trunk. Hairy manzanita lacks a lignotuber [21,24]. Bristly, glandular branchlets distinguish its foliage [20]. The often viscid fruit is a drupe containing 4 to 10 irregularly separable nutlets [24]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual: Hairy manzanita seed falls beneath the parent plant or is disseminated by animals. The seedcoat requires scarification prior to germination, which is accomplished either in the stomach of animals or by fire [21]. Fire best scarifies the seedcoat and results in greater rates of germination [30]. Charred wood leachate may further stimulate germination of fire-scarified seed [1,19]. Vegetative: All manzanitas are capable of layering [5], but hairy manzanita probably layers only rarely because of its erect growth habit. It does not sprout from the root crown [1,10]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Hairy manzanita grows in a variety of soil textures and parent materials. Soil pH typically ranges from 5.0 to 7.0 [2,13,34]. It can, however, tolerate extremely acid soils; it grows in dwarfed form in podsol soils of the pygmy forest of Mendocino County, California. At a pH of 2.8 to 3.9, soils of the pygmy forest are some of the most acidic known [17]. Hairy manzanita occurs at elevations up to 2,500 feet (762 m) in California [24], up to 3,750 feet (1,143 m) in Oregon [30,34], and up to 4,950 feet (1,509 m) in Washington [34]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Hairy manzanita is an initial or secondary colonizer of disturbed plant communities. It is commonly found in communities which develop after removal of the forest overstory, such as the vine maple-parsley fern community. Hairy manzanita persists through later seres in the understory of open-canopy forest. It does not tolerate deep shade, and does not occur in closed canopy old-growth forest [11,20,21,27,29]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Hairy manzanita flowers from March through May in California [24]. In Linn County, Oregon, plants flower in early June and set fruit from mid- to late June [27]. Seeds are dispersed from late summer until the following spring [3].


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos columbiana
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Fire activates hairy manzanita seed by scarifying the seedcoat. Oligosaccharides in charred wood leachate may further enhance rates of postfire germination [1,20]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Shrub without adventitious-bud root crown Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community) Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos columbiana
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire kills hairy manzanita [1,10,18,37]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Current information concerning hairy manzanita's response to fire is limited to studies of its regeneration following clearcutting and slash burning in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest types. It was reported as establishing from seed after such forest management near Blue River, Oregon [37]. Further details were not available. Schoonmaker and McKee [29] reported postfire hairy manzanita seedling recruitment on the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Sites were broadcast burned and planted with Douglas-fir seedlings. No hairy manzanita seedlings were found on transects at postfire year 2, but mean transect cover value of hairy manzanita seedlings was 0.04 percent at postfire year 5. Mean transect cover value was greatest (0.15%) at postfire year 15. A comparison of hairy manzanita cover on burned versus adjacent unburned plots was made near Oakridge, Oregon. Fire treatment was broadcast burning of slash. At postfire year 9, hairy manzanita cover was 3.2 percent on burned plots and 0.3 percent on unburned plots [30]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Arctostaphylos columbiana
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T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 321-364. [14547] 6. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 7. Gardner, Robert A. 1958. Soil-vegetation associations in the redwood - Douglas-fir zone of California. In: Proceedings, 1st North American forest soils conference; [Date of conference unknown]; East Lansing, MI. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, Agricultural Experiment Station: 86-101. [12581] 8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 9. Gratkowski, H. 1961. Brush problems in southwestern Oregon. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 53 p. [8596] 10. Gratkowski, H. 1978. Herbicides for shrub and weed control in western Oregon. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-77. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. [6539] 11. Halpern, Charles B. 1988. Early successional pathways and the resistance and resilience of forest communities. Ecology. 69(6): 1703-1715. [6390] 12. Harrington, Timothy B.; Tappeiner, John C., II. 1991. Competition affects shoot morphology, growth duration, and relative growth rates of Douglas-fir saplings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21(4): 474-481. [15236] 13. Hermann, Richard K.; Lavender, Denis P. 1990. Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco Douglas-fir. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 527-540. [13413] 14. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. 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Manzanita (Arctostaphylos) hybrids in the Pacific Northwest: effects of human and natural disturbance. Systematic Botany. 2(4): 233-250. [13561] 21. Kruckeberg, A. R. 1982. Gardening with native plants of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 252 p. [9980] 22. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 23. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 24. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 25. Pojar, Jim. 1975. Hummingbird flowers of British Columbia. Syesis. 8: 25-28. [6537] 26. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 27. Roach, A. W. 1952. Phytosociology of the Nash Crater lava flows, Linn County, Oregon. Ecological Monographs. 22: 169-193. [8759] 28. Sampson, Arthur W.; Jespersen, Beryl S. 1963. California range brushlands and browse plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, California Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service. 162 p. [3240] 29. Schoonmaker, Peter; McKee, Arthur. 1988. Species composition and diversity during secondary succession of coniferous forests in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Forest Science. 34(4): 960-979. [6214] 30. Steen, Harold K. 1966. Vegetation following slash fires in one western Oregon locality. Northwest Science. 40(3): 113-120. [5671] 31. Stewart, R. E. 1978. Site preparation. In: Cleary, Brian D.; Greaves, Robert D.; Hermann, Richard K., eds. Regenerating Oregon's forests: A guide for the regeneration forester. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Extension Service: 99-129. [7205] 32. Strothmann, R. O.; Roy, Douglass F. 1984. Regeneration of Douglas-fir in the Klamath Mountains Region, California and Oregon. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-81. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 35 p. [5640] 33. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 34. Van Hooser, Dwane D.; Keegan, Charles E., III. 1988. Distribution and volumes of ponderosa pine forests. In: Baumgartner, David M.; Lotan, James E., compilers. Ponderosa pine: The species and its management: Symposium proceedings; 1987 September 29 - October 1; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 1-6. [9395] 35. Wells, Philip V. 1987. The leafy-bracted, crown-sprouting manzanitas, an ancestral group in Arctostaphylos. Four Seasons. 7(4): 5-27. [20833] 36. Westman, W. E. 1975. Edaphic climax pattern of the pygmy forest region of California. Ecological Monographs. 45: 109-135. [10695] 37. Yerkes, Vern P. 1960. Occurrence of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation after clear cutting old-growth Douglas-fir. Res. Pap. PNW-34. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p. [8937] 38. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090]

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