SPECIES: Sporobolus airoides


Johnson, Kathleen A. 2000. Sporobolus airoides. In: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].


No entry


alkali sacaton

The accepted scientific name of alkali sacaton is Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr. (Poaceae) [34,41,91]. Alkali sacaton probably hybridizes and intergrades with big sacaton (S. wrightii). Some authorities include S. wrightii as a variety of alkali sacaton: S. airoides var. wrightii (Munro ex Scribn.) Gould [19,91].


No special status

No entry


SPECIES: Sporobolus airoides
Alkali sacaton occurs in all western states in the U.S. It is distributed from Missouri, Arkansas, and North Dakota to eastern Washington and south to California and Texas. Isolated populations occur to the East. A U.S. distributional map for alkali sacaton appears on the PLANTS database [82]. In Canada alkali sacaton in southern British Columbia and Alberta [53,79,82]. In Mexico it is reported from as far south as Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosi [17].

FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie
FRES40 Desert grasslands




3 Southern Pacific Border
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K039 Blackbrush
K040 Saltbush-greasewood
K041 Creosote bush
K044 Creosote bush-tarbush
K046 Desert: vegetation largely lacking
K058 Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe
K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna
KO61 Mesquite-acacia savanna
K065 Grama-buffalo grass
K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass
K085 Mesquite-buffalo grass

239 Pinyon-juniper
242 Mesquite

401 Basin big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
414 Salt desert shrub
501 Saltbush-greasewood
502 Grama-galleta
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
505 Grama-tobosa shrub
508 Creosotebush-tarbush
611 Blue grama-buffalo grass
615 Wheatgrass-saltgrass-grama
701 Alkali sacaton-tobosagrass
702 Black grama-alkali sacaton
705 Blue grama-galleta
706 Blue grama-sideoats grama
712 Galleta-alkali sacaton
725 Vine mesquite-alkali sacaton
727 Mesquite-buffalo grass
728 Mesquite-granjeno-acacia

Because salty soils capable of supporting alkali sacaton are dispersed throughout thousands of acres in the Great Plains and Great Basin regions of the United States and Canada [72], the plants listed below represent only a fraction of the species associated with alkali sacaton.

Alkali sacaton is common in the Southern Great Plains, where it occurs with numerous other grasses including tobosa (Pleuraphis mutica), galleta (P. jamesii), black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), blue grama (B. gracilis), sideoats grama (B. curtipendula), buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), and vine-mesquite (Panicum obtusum). Commonly associated shrubs are winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), coldenia (Coldenia spp.), Bigelow sagebrush (Artemisia bigelovii), and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) [72,89].

In the Central and Northern Great Plains, alkali sacaton is reported in habitats characterized by buffalo grass, western wheatgrass, blue grama, sideoats grama, hairy grama (B. hirsuta), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), red threeawn (Aristida purpurea), and saltgrass (Distichlis spicata). Associated shrub species include big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus spp.), black greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia), and Gardner's saltbush (A. gardneri) [12,48,72].

In the desert shrub and grassland communities that occupy low-lying areas of the Great Basin, alkali sacaton is associated with saltgrass, galleta, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides), bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides), and basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus). Though vegetation cover is often low in these sites, important shrub species include fourwing saltbush, winterfat, black greasewood, rabbitbrush, Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), and numerous sagebrush species including basin big sagebrush (A. t. var. tridentata), Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. var. wyomingensis), black sagebrush (A. nova), and budsage (A. spinescens) [10,71,72,74,81].

In the southwestern states and northern Mexico, grasses associated with alkali sacaton may include tobosa, galleta, Indian ricegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, black grama and blue grama. Co-occurring woody species include shadscale, greasewood, winterfat, fourwing saltbush, big sagebrush, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), creosotebush (Larrea tridentata), tarbush (Flourensia cernua), and mesquite species. Associated succulents include prickly-pear and cholla (Opuntia spp.) and yucca (Yucca spp.) [46,72,73,88].

Publications listing alkali sacaton as a community dominant or codominant are listed below.

Arizona [31]
Colorado [7]
Montana [64]
New Mexico [24,25,72]
Texas [72]


SPECIES: Sporobolus airoides
Alkali sacaton is a native, long-lived, warm-season, densely tufted perennial bunchgrass ranging from 20 to 40 inches (50-100 cm) in height. Panicles are nearly half the length of the plant with stiff, slender, widely spreading branches. Spikelets have 1 flower and tend to diverge from the panicles, appearing scattered. Seeds are free from the lemma and fall readily from the spikelet at maturity [10]. The species is a facultative halophyte, having a broad tolerance to salinity [84,85,86].

Alkali sacaton forms vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. In a greenhouse study of effects of mycorrhizal inoculation, mean dry mass of inoculated grass plants of this species was significantly greater (p <0.001) than dry mass of uninoculated plants after 16 weeks [92].


Alkali sacaton reproduces from seeds and tillers. Seed production is abundant, and seeds remain viable for many years [10]. Seedcoats need not be scarified, but seeds must undergo an afterripening period of several months for good germination. Water movement in floodplains disperses seeds, some of which are deposited in saturated sediments where they later germinate [3].

The effects of moisture stress on germination were studied in the Rio Puerco Watershed near Albuquerque, New Mexico. The study showed that alkali sacaton is more severely affected by moisture stress than galleta and blue grama. This supports observations that alkali sacaton is restricted to frequently flooded sites, while galleta and blue grama can establish on drier sites [44]. Germination percentages decrease with increasing salt increments. Soils rich in magnesium and low in calcium inhibit germination [38,85].

Alkali sacaton seed germinates best between temperatures of 80 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit (27 and 32 oC) [2,3,43]. Minimum germination temperature was measured at 54 degrees Fahrenheit (12 oC)[40].

Alkali sacaton grows in saline and nonsaline soils, sometimes in dense, pure stands. It has a broad pH and salinity tolerance, and is common in moist alkaline flats [10,12,14,20,23,29,65,72,87]. It adapted to soils containing high sodium chloride concentrations and soils containing mixtures of other salts including bicarbonate and sulfate compounds [84,85,86]. Ungar [84,85] (and references therein) reported alkali sacaton on sites with soil salinity ranging from 0.003% to 3%, with optimum levels between 0.3% and 0.5%. This species grows in soil textures ranging from sand to clay, usually with low organic matter [20,82,85]. After establishment, it is tolerant of both drought [85] and inundation by water [75].

Elevations ranges for alkali sacaton are as follows:

Arizona 2,500 to 6,500 ft (760-1,980 m) [36]
Colorado 4,000 to 8,000 ft (1,220-2,440 m) [30]
New Mexico 3,100 to 7,500 ft (950-2,290 m) [59,72]
Utah 2,625 to 7,710 ft (800-2,350 m) [91]

Alkali sacaton is intolerant of shade [82]. It is commonly found as a primary or secondary invader on saline soils. It invades saline flats directly or follows a stage where "succulents" are dominant. In successional series on marsh borders, alkali sacaton represents the vegetation stage just prior to prairie, possibly playing a part in a cycle involving periods of decreased and increased salinity. With decreased salinity its dense root system produces hummocks. As succession proceeds, prairie species invade the hummocks [85]. 

A study of succession following lowered water tables caused by groundwater pumping in the Owens Valley of California found alkali meadow (dominated by alkali sacaton and saltgrass) was followed by either Nevada saltbush-meadow or rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus)-meadow [51].

Alkali sacaton is a warm-season grass. It blooms from July to August in the Northwest [35], from June to October in the Great Plains [29], and from April to May in the Southwest [55].  Seeds are produced from late summer to October. They usually germinate in July after a 9-month afterripening period [3]. 


SPECIES: Sporobolus airoides
Records of fire occurrence in sacaton grasslands are rare. Wright and Bailey [93] associated the fire ecology of alkali sacaton with that of tobosa because the species occur together in southern desert floodplains and are similar in density, coarseness, and structure [93]. Humphrey [36] characterized the vegetation in tobosa floodplains as flammable and sometimes dense enough to carry a fire, but suggests that because of the relatively limited area and sparse surrounding vegetation, floodplain tobosa stands probably burned less frequently than adjoining grasslands and shrublands. Factors contributing to increased fire frequency in sacaton grasslands include a lower water table, less frequent flooding, and the expansion of mesquite and acacia [93].

Although not specific to alkali sacaton, Payson and others [56] provide a review of fire in shrublands and grasslands where this species is present. Among these are such widespread vegetation types [27,45] as Great Basin sagebrush, blackbrush, saltbush-greasewood, creosotebush, mesquite-acacia savanna, grama-tobosa shrubsteppe, pinyon-juniper, and Trans-Pecos and Texas savanna. These vegetation types are characterized by mixed or stand-replacing fire regimes, with varying fire return intervals. 

Fire return intervals for some communities where alkali sacaton occurs are listed below. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [56]
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [66]
Wyoming big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 (40*) [87,94]
saltbush-greasewood Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus < 35 to < 100 
desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica 5-100 
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. < 35 
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii < 35 
blue grama-buffalo grass Bouteloua gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides < 35 
grama-galleta steppe Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii < 35 to < 100 
blue grama-tobosa prairie Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis mutica < 35 to < 100 
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum < 10 
creosotebush Larrea tridentata < 35 to < 100 
Ceniza shrub Larrea tridentata-Leucophyllum frutescens-Prosopis glandulosa < 35 
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii < 35 
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. < 35 [56]
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)


SPECIES: Sporobolus airoides

Alkali sacaton is classified as tolerant of, but not resistant to, fire [82,93,94]. Top-killing by fire is probably frequent, and the plants can be killed by severe fire [78].

No entry

The recovery time of alkali sacaton following fire has been reported as 2 to 4 years. In an Arizona study alkali sacaton basal area recovered in 2 postfire years, although only 54% of plant height was recovered in that time. The effect of fires in the 1st postfire growing season was to decrease height and basal area of alkali sacaton while stimulating growth of other grasses and forbs. Summer fires had a more pronounced effect on alkali sacaton than winter fires [11,93,94].

No entry

In a 1982 summary of fire in the southern desert grasslands and shrublands, Wright and Bailey [94] conclude that if rangelands are in good condition, fire can be used as an effective management tool to reduce some shrubs and small trees during wet weather cycles. Fire probably has the greatest value for managing tobosa, big sacaton, alkali sacaton, and mixed grama ranges [13,94]. According to Wright and Bailey [94], sacaton communities are similar in density, coarseness, and structure to tobosagrass; Payson and others [58] indicate that prescribed fire causes low mortality, improves palatability, and increases biomass of tobosagrass.


SPECIES: Sporobolus airoides
Alkali sacaton is a valuable forage species in arid and semiarid regions. Plants are tolerant to moderate grazing and can produce abundant herbage utilized by livestock and wildlife [10,18,21,56,61,87].

The western saltdesert shrub and grassland communities where alkali sacaton is common support an abundance of mule deer, pronghorn, carnivores, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles [10,63].

The palatability of alkali sacaton has been rated as follows [21]:


                      CO      MT      UT      WY
Cattle               Good    Good    Good    Good
Domestic sheep       Good    Good    Fair    Good
Horses               Good    Good    Fair    Good
Pronghorn            ----    Poor    Fair    Poor
Elk                  ----    Poor    Fair    Fair
Mule deer            ----    Poor    Fair    Poor
White-tailed deer    ----    ----    Poor    ----
Small mammals        ----    ----    Good    Fair    
Small nongame birds  ----    ----    Fair    Fair
Upland game birds    ----    ----    Fair    Fair
Waterfowl            ----    ----    Fair    Poor

In a New Mexico study, protein content in alkali sacaton ranged from 4.2% in January to 8.7% in October. Calcium content ranged from 0.26% to 0.56%. Phosphorus content ranged from 0.04% to 0.17% [56]. Koostra and others [45] detected levels of in-vitro digestible dry matter in alkali sacaton ranging from 25% to 37%.

The degree to which alkali sacaton provides cover for wildlife species has been rated as follows [21]:

                         UT      WY
Pronghorn               Poor    Fair
Elk                     Poor    Poor
Mule deer               Poor    Poor
White-tailed deer       Poor    ----
Small mammals           Good    Good
Small nongame birds     Fair    Good
Upland game birds       Fair    Fair
Waterfowl               Fair    Poor            

Alkali sacaton is 1 of the most commonly used species for seeding and stabilizing disturbed lands in the semiarid Southwest [3,5,26,57,61]. Due to its salt tolerance, it was recommended for native grass seeding on subirrigated saline sites in mixtures with western wheatgrass and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) [79]. It is planted in riparian zones in major plant communities in the Intermountain region [54]. It was found superior to western wheatgrass for seeding in the drier climates of the southern and northern desert shrub types [3,47,52]. Alkali sacaton has been used in reclamation seedings on sagebrush-grasslands, pinyon-juniper communities, and shadscale saltbrush, blackbrush, and saltgrass ranges [47,76].

Alkali sacaton has shown promise as a remediation species on oil well reserve pits [53] and saline waste from coal-fired electrical generating stations [66]. Retana and others [62] determined that alkali sacaton has the potential to remove selenium from contaminated soil by accumulating it in shoot biomass. In a greenhouse study, Fuller and others [27] found that soil amendment with sewage sludge improved growth of alkali sacaton in bauxite residues.

Alkali sacaton can provide abundant leafy ground cover. Establishment of seedlings is difficult without frequent irrigation. Once established, plants need little maintenance. They tolerate drought and perform well in the 12 to 18 inch (200-460 mm) mean annual precipitation zone or, with occasional irrigation, in areas of less precipitation [22,32,49,59,80,90]. Cox and others [17] asserted that a "waving sea" of alkali sacaton could not be maintained where mean annual precipitation is only 6 to 16 inches (150-400 mm).

Aldon [2] developed the following guidelines for establishing alkali sacaton from seed on harsh sites: A seed-storage study in Utah reported 99% germination in alkali sacaton seeds that were stored in an open, unheated, uncooled warehouse for 7 years.

Species in the genus Sporobolus, probably including alkali sacaton, were used by Native Americans in California for basketry and weaving [6].

Alkali sacaton is notable for its tolerance to alkaline soil, drought, flooding, moderate grazing, and mining disturbance. It is an important forage species in many areas, particularly the Southwest. Stands of this grass stabilize eroding soil [2,4,10,17,18,66]. Numerous ecotypes, accessions, and cultivars of alkali sacaton have been evaluated [17,20,22,32,59]. Discussion about the reclamation potential of this species can be found in "Value for Rehabilitation of Disturbed Sites" above.

Historical research in central California and the arid Southwest indicates that alkali sacaton grasslands were once much more abundant than they are today. Pure stands of alkali sacaton grew on playas, floodplains, hills, and terraces. Today the species is found growing only on playas and low alluvial floodplains where water and excessive concentrations of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium, or both, accumulate. The decline is attributed to overgrazing, competition from other salt-adapted plant species, and human population pressure [6,17,18,20].

Sporobolus airoides: References

1. Aldon, Earl F. 1969. Alkali sacaton seedling survival and early growth under temperature and moisture stress. Res. Note RM-136. Fort, Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p. [34837]

2. Aldon, Earl F. 1975. Establishing alkali sacaton on harsh sites in the Southwest. Journal of Range Management. 28(2): 129-132. [2872]

3. Aldon, Earl F. 1981. Long-term plant survival and density data from reclaimed Southwestern coal mine spoils. The Great Basin Naturalist. 41(3): 271-273. [298]

4. Aldon, Earl F.; Garcia, George. 1973. Seventeen-year sediment production from a semiarid watershed in the Southwest. Res. Note RM-248. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p. [8187]

5. Allison, Chris. 1988. Seeding New Mexico rangeland. Circular 525. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Cooperative Extension Service. 15 p. [11830]

6. Anderson, M. Kat. 1996. The ethnobotany of deergrass, Muhlenbergia rigens (Poaceae): its uses and fire management by California Indian tribes. Economic Botany. 50(4): 409-422. [27558]

7. Baker, William L. 1984. A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado. The Great Basin Naturalist. 44(4): 647-676. [380]

8. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

9. Biondini, Mario E.; Redente, Edward F. 1986. Interactive effect of stimulus and stress on plant community diversity in reclaimed lands. Reclamation and Revegetation Research. 4: 211-222. [449]

10. Blaisdell, James P.; Holmgren, Ralph C. 1984. Managing Intermountain rangelands--salt-desert shrub ranges. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-163. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 52 p. [464]

11. Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals, and vegetation to burning sacaton grasslands in southeastern Arizona. Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 296-300. [3075]

12. Bowman, R. A.; Mueller, D. M.; McGinnies, W. J. 1985. Soil and vegetation relationships in a Central Plains saltgrass meadow. Journal of Range Management. 38(4): 325-328. [11213]

13. Britton, Carlton M.; Wright, Henry A. 1983. Brush management with fire. In: McDaniel, Kirk C., ed. Proceedings: brush management symposium; 1983 February 16; Albuquerque, NM. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 61-68. [521]

14. Brotherson, Jack D. 1987. Plant community zonation in response to soil gradients in a saline meadow near Utah Lake, Utah County, Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist. 47(2): 322-333. [10495]

15. Brown, David E., ed. 1982. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants: Special Issue. 4(1-4): 342 p. [534]

16. Correll, Donovan S.; Johnston, Marshall C. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Renner, TX: Texas Research Foundation. 1881 p. [4003]

17. Cox, Jerry R.; Dobrenz, Albert K.; McGuire, Bartley. 1990. Evaluation of some alkali sacaton ecotypes collected in Mexico. Applied Agricultural Research. 5(3): 164-168. [34831]

18. Cox, Jerry R.; Morton, Howard L.; LaBaume, Jimmy T.; Renard, Kenneth G. 1983. Reviving Arizona's rangelands. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 38: 342-345. [24914]

19. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; [and others]. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6. The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. [719]

20. De Alba-Avila, Abraham; Cox, Jerry R. 1988. Planting depth and soil texture effects on emergence and production of three alkali sacaton accessions. Journal of Range Management. 41(3): 216-219. [3058]

21. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

22. Everett, H. Wayne; Oaks, Wendall R. 1985. Development of conservation plant varieties. In: Vegetative rehabilitation & equipment workshop: 39th annual report; 1985 February 10-11; Salt Lake City, UT. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Equipment Development Center; 1985: 3-7. [887]

23. Fisher, Jack C., Jr. 1985. Use of native vegetation for dust control at Owens Dry Lake. In: Rieger, John P.; Steele, Bobbie A., eds. Proceedings of the native plant revegetation symposium; 1984 November 15; San Diego, CA. San Diego, CA: California Native Plant Society: 36-41. [3342]

24. Francis, Richard E. 1986. Phyto-edaphic communities of the Upper Rio Puerco watershed, New Mexico. Res. Pap. RM-272. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 73 p. [954]

25. Francis, Richard E.; Aldon, Earl F. 1983. Preliminary habitat types of a semiarid grassland. In: Moir, W. H.; Hendzel, Leonard, tech. coords. Proceedings of the workshop on Southwestern habitat types; 1983 April 6-8; Albuquerque, NM. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region: 62-66. [956]

26. Francis, Richard E.; Fresquez, P. R.; Gonzales, G. J. 1991. Vegetation establishment on reclaimed coal mine spoils in northwestern New Mexico. Res. Note RM-511. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p. [17113]

27. Fuller, Robert D.; Nelson, Emily D. P.; Richardson, Curtis J. 1982. Reclamation of red mud (bauxite residues) using alkaline-tolerant grasses with organic amendments. Journal of Environmental Quality. 11(3): 533-539. [11424]

28. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

29. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]

30. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press, Inc. 666 p. [6851]

31. Harris, Lisa K.; Ruther, Sherry. 2000. Ecological characteristics of riparian washes in southeastern Arizona, USA. Natural Areas Journal. 20(3): 221-226. [35751]

32. Hassell, Wendall G. 1982. New plant materials for reclamation. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Oaks, Wendall R., eds. Reclamation of mined lands in the Southwest: a symposium: Proceedings; 1982 October 20-22; Albuquerque, NM. Albuquerque, NM: Soil Conservation Society of America, New Mexico Chapter: 108-112. [1104]

33. Herbel, Carlton H.; Nelson, Arnold B. 1966. Species preference of Hereford and Santa Gertrudis cattle on a southern New Mexico range. Journal of Range Management. 19: 177-181. [5313]

34. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]

35. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptogams, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. [1169]

36. Humphrey, Robert R. 1960. Arizona range grasses: Description--forage value--management. Bulletin 298. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 104 p. [5004]

37. Humphrey, Robert R. 1974. Fire in the deserts and desert grassland of North America. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 365-400. [14064]

38. Hyder, S. Z.; Yasmin, Shamsa. 1972. Salt tolerance and cation interaction in alkali sacaton at germination. Journal of Range Management. 25(5): 390-392. [34579]

39. Johnston, Barry C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. 4th ed. R2-ECOL-87-2. Lakewood, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 429 p. [3519]

40. Jordan, Gilbert L.; Haferkamp, Marshal R. 1989. Temperature responses and calculated heat units for germination of several range grasses and shrubs. Journal of Range Management. 42(1): 41-45. [6083]

41. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume I--checklist. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 622 p. [23877]

42. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]

43. Knipe, O. D. 1967. Influence of temperature on the germination of some range grasses. Journal of Range Management. 20: 298-299. [114]

44. Knipe, O. D. 1968. Effects of moisture stress on germination of alkali sacaton, galleta, and blue grama. Journal of Range Management. 21: 3-4. [119]

45. Koostra, James B.; Kinucan, Robert J.; Davis, Delmer I. 1992. A comparison of microbial cellulase and live cell rumen inoculum for estimating in vitro digestibility of range grasses. Texas Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 5: 67-71. [34980]

46. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]

47. Kupferschmid, Andrea D.; Bugmann, Harald. 2005. Erratum to "effect of microsites, logs, and ungulate browsing on Picea abies regeneration in a mountain forest". Forest Ecology and Management. 205: 251-265. [171]

48. Lindauer, Ivo E. 1983. A comparison of the plant communities of the South Platte and Arkansas River drainages in eastern Colorado. The Southwestern Naturalist. 28(3): 249-259. [5886]

49. Lugg, D. G.; Smith, F., Jr.; Gomez, J. F. 1987. Performance of warm-season perennial grasses in New Mexico. Bulletin 729. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 30 p. [6578]

50. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496]

51. Manning, Sara J. 1999. The effects of water table decline on groundwater-dependent Great Basin plant communities in the Owens Valley, California. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Ostler, W. Kent; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings: shrubland ecotones; 1998 August 12-14; Ephraim, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-11. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 231-237. [36092]

52. McArthur, E. Durant; Plummer, A. Perry; Davis, James N. 1978. Rehabilitation of game range in the salt desert. In: Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Wyoming shrublands: Proceedings of the 7th Wyoming shrub ecology workshop; 1978 May 31-June 1; Rock Springs, WY. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Range Management Division, Wyoming Shrub Ecology Workshop: 23-50. [1575]

53. McFarland, Mark L.; Ueckert, Darrell N.; Hartmann, Steve. 1987. Revegetation of oil well reserve pits in west Texas. Journal of Range Management. 40(2): 122-127. [24481]

54. Monsen, Stephen B. 1983. Plants for revegetation of riparian sites within the Intermountain region. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 83-89. [9652]

55. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]

56. Nelson, A. B.; Herbel, H. M.; Jackson, H. M. 1970. Chemical composition of forage species grazed by cattle on an arid New Mexico range. Bulletin 561. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 33 p. [4034]

57. Oaks, Wendall R. 1982. Reclamation and seeding of plant materials for reclamation. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Oaks, Wendall R., eds. Reclamation of mined lands in the Southwest: a symposium; 1982 October 20-22; Albuquerque, NM. Albuquerque, NM: Soil Conservation Society of America--New Mexico Chapter: 145-150. [1791]

58. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]

59. Quinones, Ferdinand A. 1974. Performance of blue grama, sideoats grama, and alkali sacaton accessions under irrigation near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Research Report 289. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 8 p. [30526]

60. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

61. Reith, Charles C. 1988. Mine reclamation restores overgrazed habitat in the San Juan Basin (New Mexico). Restoration & Management Notes. 6(1): 52. [5472]

62. Retana, J.; Parker, D. R.; Amrhein, C.; Page, A. L. 1993. Growth and trace element concentrations of five plant species grown in a highly saline soil. Journal of Environmental Quality. 22(4): 805-811. [34692]

63. Rice, Jane Anderson; Smith, Norman. 1988. Hunting area preferences of red-tailed hawks and American kestrels in range lands. In: Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; [and others], eds. Proceedings of the southwest raptor management symposium and workshop; 1986 May 21-24; Tucson, AZ. NWF Science and Technology Series No. 11. Washington, DC: National Wildlife Federation: 265-273. [22698]

64. Ross, Robert L.; Hunter, Harold E. 1976. Climax vegetation of Montana: Based on soils and climate. Bozeman, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 64 p. [2028]

65. Roundy, Bruce A.; Cluff, Greg J.; Young, James A.; Evans, R. A. 1983. Treatment of inland saltgrass and greasewood sites to improve forage production. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 54-66. [2036]

66. Salo, L. F.; Artiola, J. F.; Goodrich-Mahoney, J. W. 1996. Plant species for revegetation of a saline flue gas desulfurization sludge pond. Journal of Environmental Quality. 25(4): 802-808. [34693]

67. Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. [16579]

68. Scheetz, J. G.; Majerus, M. E.; Carlson, J. R. 1981. Improved plant materials and their establishment to reclaim saline seeps in Montana. Agronomy Abstracts. 1981: 96. [2073]

69. Schirman, Roland. 1981. Seed production and spring seedling establishment of diffuse and spotted knapweed. Journal of Range Management. 34(1): 45-47. [62]

70. Scholl, D. G.; Miyamoto, S. 1983. Response of alkali sacaton and fourwing saltbush to various amendments on coal mine spoils from northwestern New Mexico. Reclamation and Revegetation Research. 2: 227-236. [2085]

71. Shantz, H. L.; Piemeisel, R. L. 1940. Types of vegetation in Escalante Valley, Utah, as indicators of soil conditions. Tech. Bull. 713. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. [2117]

72. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

73. Shreve, Forrest. 1942. Grassland and related vegetation in northern Mexico. Madrono. 6: 190-198. [5058]

74. Shreve, Forrest. 1942. The desert vegetation of North America. Botanical Review. 8(4): 195-246. [5051]

75. Steuter, Allen A; Plumb, Glenn. 1988. Wormwood sage controlled by spring fires (South Dakota). Restoration & Management Notes. 6(1): 35. [69]

76. Stevens, Richard. 1983. Species adapted for seeding mountain brush, big, black, and low sagebrush, and pinyon-juniper communities. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 78-82. [2240]

77. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]

78. Stocklin, Jurg; Favre, Pascal. 1994. Effects of plant size and morphological constraints on variation in reproductive components in two related species of Epilobium. Journal of Ecology. 82: 73-746. [24456]

79. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 465 p. [43453]

80. Thornburg, Ashley A. 1982. Plant materials for use on surface-mined lands. SCS-TP-157. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 88 p. [3769]

81. Tueller, Paul T. 1989. Vegetation and land use in Nevada. Rangelands. 11(5): 204-210. [9295]

82. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2005. PLANTS database (2005), [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]

83. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104]

84. Ungar, Irwin A. 1966. Salt tolerance of plants growing in saline areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Ecology. 47(1): 154-155. [11193]

85. Ungar, Irwin A. 1974. Inland halophytes of the United States. In: Reinold, Robert J.; Queen, William H., eds. Ecology of halophytes. New York: Academic Press, Inc: 235-305. [11429]

86. Ungar, Irwin A. 1976. Sporobolus airoides Torrey, an extension of its range in Lincoln, Nebraska salt marshes. Rhodora. 78: 143-144. [34695]

87. Vallentine, John F. 1961. Important Utah range grasses. Extension Circular 281. Logan, UT: Utah State University. 48 p. [2937]

88. Vincent, Dwain W. 1992. The sagebrush/grasslands of the upper Rio Puerco area, New Mexico. Rangelands. 14(5): 268-271. [19698]

89. Weigel, Jeffrey R.; McPherson, Guy R.; Britton, Carlton M. 1989. Effects of short-duration grazing on winter annuals in the Texas Rolling Plains. Journal of Range Management. 42(5): 372-375. [9325]

90. Weiler, Gregory J. 1982. The use of saline water to establish native species on topsoiled mine spoil. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Oaks, Wendall R., eds. Reclamation of mined lands in the Southwest: a symposium; 1982 October 20-22; Albuquerque, NM. Albuquerque, NM: Soil Conservation Society of America--New Mexico Chapter: 174-177. [2476]

91. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

92. Wilson, Gail W. T.; Hartnett, David C. 1998. Interspecific variation in plant responses to mycorrhizal colonization in tallgrass prairie. American Journal of Botany. 85(12): 1732-1738. [30311]

93. Wright, Henry A. 1980. The role and use of fire in the semidesert grass-shrub type. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-85. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p. [2616]

94. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]

95. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1981. Demography and fire history of a western juniper stand. Journal of Range Management. 34(6): 501-505. [2659]