Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Panicum virgatum

Introductory

SPECIES: Panicum virgatum
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Uchytil, Ronald J. 1993. Panicum virgatum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : PANVIR SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : PAVI2 PAVIC PAVIS COMMON NAMES : switchgrass prairie switchgrass tall panic grass TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of switchgrass is Panicum virgatum L. [37,38]. Varieties are as follows: P. v. var. cubense Griseb. P. v. var. spissum Linder. P. v. var. virgatum LIFE FORM : Graminoid FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Panicum virgatum
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
In North America, switchgrass grows south of latitude 55 °N, from
Saskatchewan to Nova Scotia, and south throughout most of the United
States east of the Rocky Mountains.  It is most abundant in the Great
Plains and eastern states [15,72].
ECOSYSTEMS:
   FRES12  Longleaf - slash pine
   FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES21  Ponderosa pine
   FRES28  Western hardwoods
   FRES30  Desert shrub
   FRES32  Texas savanna
   FRES35  Pinyon - juniper
   FRES38  Plains grasslands
   FRES39  Prairie
   FRES41  Wet grasslands
STATES: 
AL AZ AR CO CT DE FL GA HI IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WV WY MB NF NS ON PQ SK MEXICO
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS:
    6  Upper Basin and Range
    7  Lower Basin and Range
    8  Northern Rocky Mountains
    9  Middle Rocky Mountains
   10  Wyoming Basin
   11  Southern Rocky Mountains
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
   14  Great Plains
   15  Black Hills Uplift
   16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
   
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
   K016  Eastern ponderosa forest
   K017  Black Hills pine forest
   K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland
   K037  Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub
   K039  Blackbrush
   K040  Saltbush - greasewood
   K041  Creosotebush
   K051  Wheatgrass - bluegrass
   K056  Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe
   K057  Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe
   K062  Mesquite - live oak savanna
   K064  Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
   K065  Grama - buffalograss
   K066  Wheatgrass - needlegrass
   K067  Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
   K069  Bluestem - grama prairie
   K070  Sandsage - bluestem prairie
   K074  Bluestem prairie
   K075  Nebraska Sandhills prairie
   K076  Blackland prairie
   K077  Bluestem - sacahuista prairie
   K078  Southern cordgrass prairie
   K079  Palmetto prairie
   K081  Oak savanna
   K082  Mosaic of K074 and K100
   K083  Cedar glades
   K084  Cross Timbers
   K086  Juniper - oak savanna
   K089  Black Belt
   K091  Cypress savanna
   K098  Northern floodplain forest
   K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest
   K114  Pocosin
   K116  Subtropical pine forest
   
SAF COVER TYPES:
    42  Bur oak
    46  Eastern redcedar
    70  Longleaf pine
    71  Longleaf pine - scrub oak
    74  Cabbage palmetto
    80  Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
    81  Loblolly pine
    82  Loblolly pine - hardwood
    83  Longleaf pine - slash pine
    98  Pond pine
   111  South Florida slash pine
   235  Cottonwood - willow
   237  Interior ponderosa pine
   239  Pinyon - juniper
   
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES:    
NO-ENTRY
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Switchgrass is a codominant of climax tallgrass prairie, which once
stretched from eastern North Dakota and Minnesota to Oklahoma.  Kuchler
[43] designated this as Bluestem Prairie (Andropogon-Panicum-Sorghastrum). 
The key dominants are big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii), little 
bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), switchgrass, and indiangrass (Sorghastrum 
nutans).  Within this region, switchgrass is common over a variety of sites 
but is generally considered a mesic grass and is most abundant on lowlands.
Along with Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis), it may codominate lowlands 
situated between more xeric big bluestem-dominated communities and more mesic 
stands of prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata) [75,76].
In coastal and blackland prairies of Texas, switchgrass may codominate poorly 
drained lowlands with eastern grama grass (Tripsacum dactyloides), tall dropseed 
(Sporobolus asper var. asper), and/or indiangrass [12,17,18].

Publications describing grassland communities dominated by switchgrass
are listed below:



MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Panicum virgatum
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Switchgrass is an important livestock forage. In managed stands, it is used primarily for warm-season pasture and hay. Its use as warm-season pasture for cattle has increased in recent years in the Corn Belt. In this region, 60 to 70 percent of its growth occurs after June 1, compared with cool-season grasses which make over 60 percent of their growth before June 1. Thus cattle weight gains are high when both pasture types are used in a rotational grazing system [28]. In the Southeast, switchgrass is primarily used for cattle pasture, and less often cut for hay [48]. Because it is somewhat shade-tolerant, it is an important forage of thinned-pinelands in the Southeast [34]. Switchgrass hay yields are high. Two to four tons per acre (4.5-9 t/ha) are not uncommon [14,48,72]. Switchgrass is generally unimportant in the diets of wild ungulates in the West [20,45,46]. In the Southeast, white-tailed deer paw up and eat the rhizomes when winter food is scarce [34]. For ducks, upland game birds, songbirds, and small mammals, switchgrass provides excellent cover and the seeds are an important food source [56,68]. PALATABILITY : Switchgrass is palatable to cattle, horses, and sheep during the spring and early summer before the leaves become coarse and tough. By midsummer, when the seedheads begin to mature, nutrient content and palatability decline rapidly; by late summer palatability is low [14,67]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Switchgrass in early growth stages is nutritious. After seedheads emerge, however, nutritive value declines rapidly, and the plant provides only the minimum maintenance energy needs of ruminants [35]. For example, crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of Kansas and Nebraska switchgrass strains grown in Nebraska averaged 17.5 and 68.6 percent in early June, 11.4 and 59.8 percent in late June; and 8.4 and 51.0 percent in mid-July, respectively [55]. In Pennsylvania, leaf crude protein and IVDMD of the the switchgrass cultivar 'Blackwell' was 10.2 and 66.1 percent in late June; 8.9 and 60.7 in mid-July; and 8.3 and 57.7 in early August, respectively [35]. On the Texas High Plains, switchgrass crude protein content was highest shortly after spring growth began in May, averaging 18.4 percent, but dropped to under 8.9 percent beginning in June [71]. To provide the optimum combination of forage production and nutritional quality, switchgrass hay should be harvested about the time the panicles are beginning to emerge from the boot [72]. Switchgrass hay harvested at this time averages 50 to 60 percent in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and 8 to 10 percent crude protein [72]. In Nebraska, crude protein content of switchgrass is higher than that of sand bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus) and big bluestem [54]. COVER VALUE : Switchgrass's tall, vigorous, erect growth form which remains standing throughout the winter, provides excellent protective and concealment cover for upland game birds and ducks. These birds use switchgrass cover for loafing, night roosting, escape from predators, protection from blizzards, and nesting [65]. When compared with a number of warm-season grasses and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in Iowa, ring-necked pheasant nest density and hatch success were highest in switchgrass stands [30]. Other birds which successfully nested in switchgrass in Iowa included the northern bobwhite, mourning dove, and several passerine species [29]. On the Sheyenne National Grasslands, North Dakota, switchgrass-dominated sites are preferred nesting areas of the greater prairie-chicken and sharp-tailed grouse [51]. Switchgrass can be planted to provide wildlife cover; however, large, continuous monotypes are not recommended. The maximum size of a planted stand should be about 40 acres (16 ha) [65]. In western Minnesota and the eastern Dakotas, switchgrass is recommended for planting along pond margins to provide duck nesting cover on areas where native vegetation has been destroyed by farming [21]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Switchgrass is used for a variety of revegetation and erosion control purposes. In the East, it is seeded alone or in mixture with other native grasses on mine spoils where it typically requires 2 to 4 years to develop a good ground cover [73]. Once established on graded and contoured strip-mined lands in Kentucky, switchgrass can be used as warm-season pasture or hayland [44]. In Iowa, it is seeded along rural roadsides to provide erosion control and wildlife habitat [23]. It is also commonly planted along waterways to provide erosion control and in mixture with other native grasses for prairie restoration [67,74]. Switchgrass is popular for revegetation programs because the seed of numerous cultivars is readily available, and stand establishment is relatively easy [68]. The smooth seed should be planted with a drill to a depth of 0.25 to 0.5 inch (0.6-1.2 cm) at a rate of three to six pure live seeds per acre (3.4-6.7 kg/ha) [72]. Atrazine applied as a preemergent herbicide effectively controls weeds and improves switchgrass stand establishment [65,72]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Because of early elevation of shoot apical meristems and a high ratio of reproductive to vegetative culms, switchgrass is relatively intolerant of grazing and is a decreaser [9,74]. Of numerous warm-season grasses studied in Oklahoma, swithcgrass was the most susceptible to damage from clipping [61]. Switchgrass is tolerant of winter grazing but is unpalatable at that time [67].


BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Panicum virgatum
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Switchgrass is a native, erect, coarse, warm-season perennial grass. Foliage height of mature plants is mostly between 3 and 5 feet (0.9-1.5 m),; the inflorescence, a 6- to 18-inch-long (15-46 cm) open panicle, often extends to a height of 5 to 7 feet (1.5-2.1 m) [76,77]. Switchgrass has both sodand bunch-forming ecotypes. Bunch-forming ecotypes are generally encountered on uplands, while sod-forming ecotypes occur on lowlands [61,75]. Rhizomes of sod-forming switchgrass on a floodplain in Iowa were 0.12 to 0.27 inch (3-7 mm) thick, 1 to 2 feet (0.3-0.6 m) long, and mostly 2 to 5 inches (5-12 cm) below the soil surface [77]. In the Southeast, bunch-forming ecotypes have only short, vertically oriented rhizomes averaging 0.5 inch (1.4 cm) in length, while sod-forming ecotypes have both short, vertically-oriented rhizomes and long horizontally-oriented rhizomes (2 to 4 times longer than vertical rhizomes) [7]. Switchgrass growing on Valentine fine sand in the Nebraska Sandhills is similar to sod-forming ecotypes of the Southeast in that plants develop from both vertically and horizontally oriented rhizomes [10]. Switchgrass roots may reach depths of 10 feet (3 m) or more [75]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Cryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Switchgrass reproduces both sexually and vegetatively. Rhizomes are responsible for vegetative expansion, but spreading ability depends upon growth form. Some rhizomes of sod-forming ecotypes may extend to lengths of 1 to 2 feet (0.3-0.6 m), while those of bunch-forming ecotypes may extend only a few inches [7,77]. The primary site of nonstructural carbohydrate storage is in the stem bases, roots, and rhizomes [72]. Switchgrass generally produces abundant seed. Natural stands often yield 100 pounds of seeds per acre (112 kg/ha), and cultivated stands may yield 300 to 500 pounds of seeds per acre (336-561 kg/ha) [78]. The seeds are shed in fall or winter and require winter dormancy before they germinate in the spring [61]. Germination begins when soil temperatures reach 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 deg C) [72]. Seed collected from southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming had relatively high germination rates; 70 to 90 percent at temperatures between 68 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit (20-30 deg C) [22]. Fulbright and others [26] reported germinative capacity of 40 to 70 percent. The importance of switchgrass seedling recruitment into prairie habitats is scarcely discussed in scientific literature. In tallgrass prairie, switchgrass tillering and rhizome production generally begins 5 to 7 weeks after germination, unless competition is severe [77]. Three months after germination, plants may be 12 to 20 inches (30-50 cm) tall, and roots may be 12 to 30 inches (30-76 cm) deep [77]. On sand dunes bordering Lake Erie, switchgrass maintains and expands stands primarily through seedling establishment. On the dunes, seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0 to 4.3 inches (0-11 cm) and withstood considerable postemergence sand burial [79]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Switchgrass is a mesic grass that grows on a wide variety of soil textures if soil moisture is adequate [74]. Studying its distribution along a water gradient in Kansas, Knapp [40] found that switchgrass favored mesic sites, and concomitant physiological studies showed it was less able to adjust osmotically to drought than big or little bluestem. In the tallgrass prairie region, switchgrass is generally most abundant on low-lying areas that receive some upslope moisture [77]. It is seldom found on dry uplands of the West [67] but does grow on upper-elevation sand dunes in the Nebraska Sandhills. Deep-rooted switchgrass grows well on the sand dunes because even small amounts of precipitation penetrate the coarse sand and thus subsurface moisture is available throughout the growing season [6]. Besides mesic prairies, switchgrass also commonly grows in fresh and brackish marshes, on dunes and along lakeshores, and in oak and pine savannas. Switchgrass is tolerant of spring flooding but not of high water tables [74]. It is tolerant of moderate soil salinity and acidity. It grows in soils ranging in pH from about 4.5 to 7.6 [72,74]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Climax Species Switchgrass is a climax species of tallgrass prairie. It is slow to establish on abandoned agricultural lands because of limited seed dispersal distances and relatively high soil fertility requirements [61]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : The stimulus for switchgrass to resume growth in the spring is warming soil temperatures [52]. Thus the beginning of spring growth for a given location may vary by a week or two from year to year. In the Great Plains, new shoots emerge in mid- to late spring about 1 week later than associated warm-season grasses little bluestem, big bluestem, indiangrass, and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) [2,52,59]. Initiation of spring vegetative growth by location is as follows: Georgia - March [7] central Oklahoma - early to mid-April [2,59] eastern Nebraska - mid to late April [52] west-central Kansas - late April [3] Vegetative growth is rapid after the initial spring flush. In the Missouri River Valley of eastern Nebraska and western Iowa, switchgrass regrowth resumes in April, and by early June the foliage often exceeds 18 inches (46 cm) in height [76]. The peak of flowering generally occurs in July in Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Nebraska [50,52]. In Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma flowering primarily occurs in August [52,59]. Risser and others [61] stated that in the True Prairie, switchgrass seeds are shed in late fall or winter. However, a phenological study in southeastern North Dakota found that most switchgrass seeds were shed by mid-August, only 1 month after flowering occurred [50].


FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Panicum virgatum
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : During grassland fires, the fire front passes quickly and temperatures 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the soil surface rise very little [42]. Because the rhizomes of sod-forming switchgrass ecotypes typically occur at depths of 2 to 5 inches (5-12 cm) [77], they are unharmed by the heat of fire. Plants burned during the spring when dormant send up vigorous new growth from these surviving rhizomes. Rhizomes survive summer fires also, but postfire tiller density may be reduced because of low carbohydrate reserves and damage to aboveground apical meristems [see Fire Effects On Plant]. Some bunch-forming switchgrass ecotypes are not well adapted for fire survival [see Fire Effects On Plant]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil


FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Panicum virgatum
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire removes aboveground parts of switchgrass. Switchgrass litter is resistant to matting down. This standing dead material is apparently a good fuel source which readily carries fire. Most switchgrass plants survive fire because of protected underground rhizomes, but the vigor and extent of postfire tiller growth is dependent upon season of burning, fire intensity, and plant growth form (sod- or bunch-forming ecotype). If burned when dormant, switchgrass is not harmed by fire and, drawing upon stored carbohydrate reserves, resumes growth in the spring as usual. Regrowth following summer burning, however, is hampered because (1) switchgrass's apical meristems are elevated above the soil surface at this time and can be consumed by fire and (2) carbohydrate reserves for initiation of new growth are low at this time of year. If the apical meristem is destroyed by fire, new growth must come from the initiation of new tillers from crown or rhizome buds [64]. In Nebraska, switchgrass meristems protrude above the soil surface beginning in mid-June, and extend more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) above the soil surface by late June [9,33]. During summer grass fires, fire intensity is dependent upon fuel quantity. Where fuel loads are heavy, grass fires can be relatively intense, resulting in the consumption of switchgrass's aboveground meristems. Conversely, under light fuel loads, meristems may survive. For example, during summer prescribed fires in Oklahoma tallgrass prairie (Andropogon-Sorgastrum-Panicum), fire intensity at the soil surface (measured by fire temperature and duration) was four times as high on ungrazed plots (fuel load = 1,031 grams/meter square) than on grazed plots (fuel load = 443 grams/meter square). Postfire recovery on grazed plots was quicker, with regrowth coming mostly from tillers free of apical meristem damage. On ungrazed plots, new growth came from newly initiated tillers from rhizomes, but was not vigorous, and 2 months after the fire tiller density remained well below preburn levels [25]. Both sod- and bunch-forming switchgrass ecotypes were burned annually in January in Georgia [7]. No sod-forming types were harmed by fire, but numerous bunch type clones were killed. Bunch types often had the center of the bunch elevated above the soil surface, leaving the roots and rhizomes exposed. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Switchgrass cover and biomass often increase slightly to moderately following dormant-season burns. It generally responds best to burning in late spring, just prior to the start of new growth. For example, in moderately grazed pastures that were annually burned over a 16-year period in the Flint Hills of Kansas, switchgrass cover was higher under late spring burning (May 1) than under early spring (March 20), midspring (April 10), or no burning [4,47]. Prescribed early and mid-May burning in North Dakota increased switchgrass canopy coverage, but late June burning did not. First and second year increases were as follows [57]: Switchgrass Canopy Coverage (%) June 1973 August 1973 June 1974 August 1974 burned May 8, 1973 1.2 2.7 0.6 1.9 control 0.7 0.4 0.15 1.2 burned May 14, 1973 2.8 5.85 1.55 5.1 control 2.1 3.5 0.65 2.7 Numerous other studies have documented increases in switchgrass biomass, density or cover in the first postfire growing season following dormant season burns [16,39,60,62,66]. Seedstalk production may increase dramatically following burning. Following mid-May burning in North Dakota, switchgrass seedstalk density on burned plots was more than double that of unburned plots (25.2 vs 10.4/meter square) during the first postfire year [57]. A nearly identical flowering response occurred in central Iowa following a mid-April prescribed fire, where the number of switchgrass inflorescences was more than double on burned versus unburned plots [60]. In eastern Kansas, a 5-year-old planted switchgrass stand burned in late April yielded 250 pounds of seeds per acre (280 kg/ha), while an unburned portion of the same stand yielded only 190 pounds of seeds per acre (212 kg/ha) [13]. The Research Project Summary, Herbaceous responses to seasonal burning in experimental tallgrass prairie plots provides information on postfire response of switchgrass in experimental prairie plots that was not available when this species review was originally written. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Switchgrass may increase modestly following late spring burning if moisture conditions following the fire are favorable, but it does not exhibit as dramatic an increase as other warm-season grasses such as big or little bluestem. Knapp [41] attributes this to switchgrass's growth form. It has a high ratio of reproductive to vegetative shoots and is therefore much less leafy than big bluestem. Furthermore, switchgrass litter does not matt down, and sunlight reaches emerging shoots even in unburned stands. In comparison, little sunlight reaches shoots in unburned big bluestem stands. Thus big bluestem often increases dramatically with the favorable conditions of increased solar radiation and warmer soil temperatures following burning, while preburn and postburn environments in switchgrass stands are not as different. Morrison and others [53] felt that fires in the Nebraska Sandhills may affect the vegetation differently than fires in other grasslands because the sandy soils become droughty late in the growing season, and thus increases in grass cover do no occur. On uplands of the Sandhills, they found that switchgrass cover 1 year after an October wildfire was slightly lower on burned areas than unburned areas. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Switchgrass needs periodic fire to maintain its vigor and abundance. On the Konza Prairie in Kansas, it showed a linear decrease in abundance with time since burning. On areas burned annually in the spring, it was a codominant with big bluestem, little bluestem, and indiangrass [32]. In prairie plantings and in newly seeded stands, prescribed late spring burning can be used to maintain or increase switchgrass biomass and control undesirable cool-season grasses. Cool-season grasses are harmed by this treatment, because they begin growth early in the spring, and are actively growing at the time of burning. Conversely, warm-season grasses begin growth in late spring, and are thus dormant at the time of burning. Switchgrass was the dominant warm-season grass on a 6-year-old prairie planting in Wisconsin. In late August following a prescribed fire on May 15, warm-season grass biomass on the Wisconsin planting increased 10 percent, while cool-season grass biomass decreased 81 percent [19]. Summer fires, however, favor cool-season grasses. For example, in north-central South Dakota, switchgrass and big bluestem dominated lowlands burned in late April, while cool-season grasses (Agropyron, Poa, Stipa) dominated lowlands burned in August [66]. In central North Dakota, Duebbert and others [21] recommend burning warm-season grasses between May 15 and June 15. Prescribed burning guidelines have been outlined for the Northern Great Plains [80].


REFERENCES

SPECIES: Panicum virgatum
REFERENCES : 1. Abrams, Marc D.; Hulbert, Lloyd C. 1987. Effect of topographic position and fire on species composition in tallgrass prairie in northeast Kansas. American Midland Naturalist. 117(2): 442-445. [291] 2. Ahshapanek, D. C. 1962. Phenology of a tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma. Ecology. 43: 135-138. [5598] 3. Albertson, F. W. 1937. Ecology of mixed prairie in west central Kansas. Ecological Monographs. 7: 483-547. [5057] 4. Anderson, Kling L.; Smith, Ed F.; Owensby, Clenton E. 1970. Burning bluestem range. Journal of Range Management. 23: 81-92. [323] 5. Anderson, Roger C. 1990. The historic role of fire in the North American grassland. In: Collins, Scott L.; Wallace, Linda L., eds. Fire in North American tallgrass prairies. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press: 8-18. [14192] 6. Barnes, P. W.; Harrison, A. T.; Heinisch, S. P. 1984. Vegetation patterns in relation to topography and edaphic variation in Nebraska Sandhills prairie. Prairie Naturalist. 16(4): 145-157. [396] 7. Beaty, E. R.; Engel, J. L.; Powell, John D. 1978. Tiller development and growth in switchgrass. Journal of Range Management. 31(5): 361-365. [19835] 8. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 9. Branson, Farrel A. 1953. Two new factors affecting resistance of grasses to grazing. Journal of Range Management. 6: 167-171. [508] 10. Brejda, John J.; Moser, Lowell E.; Waller, Steven S. 1989. Rhizome and tiller development of three Nebraska Sandhills warm-season grasses. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 211-215. [14048] 11. Christisen, Donald M. 1981. Significance of native prairie to greater prairie chicken (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) survival in Missouri. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The Prairie Peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 250-254. [3437] 12. Collins, O. Brown; Smeins, Fred E.; Riskind, David H. 1975. Plant communities of the blackland prairie of Texas. In: Wali, Mohan K, ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 75-88. [4431] 13. Cornelius, D. R. 1950. Seed production of native grasses under cultivation in eastern Kansas. Ecological Monographs. 20: 1-29. [5545] 14. Crawford, Hewlette S.; Kucera, Clair L.; Ehrenreich, John H. 1969. Ozark range and wildlife plants. Agric. Handb. 356. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 236 p. [18602] 15. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; [and others]. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6. The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. [719] 16. Currier, Paul J. 1989. Plant species composition and groundwater levels in a Platte River wet meadow. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 19-24. [14013] 17. Gunson, John R. 1992. Historical and present management of wolves in Alberta. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 20(3): 330-339. [5681] 18. Diamond, David D.; Smeins, Fred E. 1985. Composition, classification and species response patterns of remnant tallgrass prairies in Texas. American Midland Naturalist. 113(2): 294-307. [3421] 19. Diboll, Neil. 1986. Mowing as an alternative to spring burning for control of cool season exotic grasses in prairie grass plantings. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 204-209. [3574] 20. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 21. Duebbert, Harold F.; Jacobson, Erling T.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Podoll, Erling B. 1981. Establishment of seeded grasslands for wildlife habitat in the praire pothole region. Special Scientific Report-Wildlife No. 234. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 21 p. [5740] 22. Eddleman, Lee E.; Meinhardt, Patricia L. 1981. Seed viability and seedling vigor in selected prairie plants. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The Prairie Peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 213-217. [3410] 23. Ehley, Alan M. 1990. Program encourages use of prairie species on roadsides. Restoration & Management Notes. 8(2): 101-102. [14156] 24. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 25. Ewing, A. L.; Engle, D. M. 1988. Effects of late summer fire on tallgrass prairie microclimate and community composition. American Midland Naturalist. 120(1): 212-223. [5322] 26. Fulbright, Timothy E.; Redente, Edward F.; Hargis, Norman E. 1982. Growing Colorado plants from seed: a state of the art: Volume II: Grasses and grasslike plants. FWS/OBS-82/29. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 113 p. [3709] 27. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 28. Gates, G. A. 1982. Warm-season grasses for livestock and wildlife. Missouri Conservation. 43(1): 8-13. [5813] 29. George, Ronnie R. 1978. Native prairie grass pastures as nesting habitat for bobwhite quail and ring-necked pheasant. In: Glenn-Lewin, David C.; Landers, Roger Q., Jr., eds. Proceedings, 5th Midwest prairie conference; 1976 August 22-24; Ames, IA. Ames, IA: Iowa State University: 104-106. [3357] 30. George, Ronnie R.; Farris, Allen L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; [and others]. 1979. Prairie grass as nest cover for upland birds. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 7(1): 4-9. [19836] 31. Gibson, David J. 1989. Effects of animal disturbance on tallgrass prairie vegetation. American Midland Naturalist. 121: 144-154. [6641] 32. Gibson, David J.; Hulbert, Lloyd C. 1987. Effects of fire, topography and year-to-year climatic variation on species composition in tallgrass prairie. Vegetatio. 72: 175-185. [3866] 33. Gilbert, W. L.; Perry, L. J.,Jr.; Stubbendieck, J. 1979. Dry matter accumulation of four warm season grasses in the Nebraska Sandhills. Journal of Range Management. 32(1): 52-54. [5538] 34. Grelen, Harold E.; Hughes, Ralph H. 1984. Common herbaceous plants of Southern forest range. Res. Pap. SO-210. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest and Range Experiment Station. 147 p. [2946] 35. Griffin, J. L.; Jung, G. A. 1983. Leaf and stem forage quality of big bluestem and switchgrass. Agronomy Journal. 75(5): 723-726. [4153] 36. Hackney, Courtney T.; de la Cruz, Armando A. 1981. Effects of fire on brackish marsh communities: managememt implications. Wetlands. 1: 75-86. [14534] 37. Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Misc. Publ. No. 200. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration. 1051 p. [2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase in two volumes. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.]. [1165] 38. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 39. Kelting, Ralph W. 1957. Winter burning in central Oklahoma grassland. Ecology. 38(3): 520-522. [16157] 40. Knapp, Alan K. 1984. Water relations and growth of three grasses during wet and drought years in a tallgrass prairie. Oecologia. 65: 35-43. [1357] 41. Knapp, Alan K. 1985. Effect of fire and drought on the ecophysiology of Andropogon gerardii and Panicum virgatum in a tallgrass prairie. Ecology. 66(4): 1309-1320. [1358] 42. Kucera, Clair L. 1981. Grasslands and fire. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others], technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 90-111. [4389] 43. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 44. Kuenstler, William F.; Henry, Donald S.; Sanders, Samuel A. 1983. Using prairie grasses for forage production on mine spoil. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 215-218. [3221] 45. Kufeld, Roland C. 1973. Foods eaten by the Rocky Mountain elk. Journal of Range Management. 26(2): 106-113. [1385] 46. Davis, James R. 1965. A survey of an intentional burn in Arizona ponderosa pine. Res. Note RM-41. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 2 p. [1318] 47. Launchbaugh, John L.; Owensby, Clenton E. 1978. Kansas rangelands: Their management based on a half century of research. Bull. 622. Hays, KS: Kansas State University, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. 56 p. [9477] 48. Leithead, Horace L.; Yarlett, Lewis L.; Shiflet, Thomas N. 1971. 100 native forage grasses in 11 southern states. Agric. Handb. 389. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 216 p. [17552] 49. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 50. Manske, Llewellyn Leo. 1980. Habitat, phenology and growth of selected sandhills range plants. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 154 p. Dissertation. [4549] 51. Manske, Llewellyn L.; Barker, William T. 1988. Habitat usage by prairie grouse on the Sheyenne National Grasslands. In: Bjugstad, Ardell J., technical coordinator. Prairie chickens on the Sheyenne National Grasslands [symposium proceedings]; 18 September 18; Crookston, MN. General Technical Report RM-159. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 8-20. [5200] 52. McMillan, C. 1959. The role of ecotypic variation in the distribution of the central grassland of North America. Ecological Monographs. 29: 285-308. [5523] 53. Morrison, Linda C.; DuBois, John D.; Kapustka, Lawrence A. 1986. The vegetational response of a Nebraska sandhills grassland to a naturally occurring fall burn. Prairie Naturalist. 18(3): 179-184. [1696] 54. Newell, L. C. 1968. Chemical composition of two warm-season prairie grasses in three environments. Crop Science. 8: 325-329. [5540] 55. Newell, L. C.; Moline, W. J. 1978. Forage quality evaluations of twelve grasses in relation to season for grazing. Res. Bull. 283. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Agricultural Experiment Station. 43 p. [5741] 56. Ohlenbuseh, Paul D.; Hodges, Elizabeth P.; Pope, Susan. 1983. Range grasses of Kansas. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 23 p. [5316] 57. Olson, Wendell W. 1975. Effects of controlled burning on grassland within the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. Fargo, ND: North Dakota University of Agriculture and Applied Science. 137 p. Thesis. [15252] 58. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 59. Rice, E. 1950. Growth and floral development of five species of range grasses in central Oklahoma. Botanical Gazette. 3: 361-377. [5580] 60. Richards, Mary S.; Landers, R. Q. 1973. Responses of species in Kalsow Prairie, Iowa, to an April fire. Proceedings Iowa Academy of Science. 80: 159-161. [19837] 61. Risser, P. G.; Birney, E. C.; Blocker, H. D.; [and others]. 1981. The true prairie ecosystem. US/IBP Synthesis Series 16. Stroudsburg, PA: Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company. 557 p. [16874] 62. Robocker, W. C.; Miller, Bonita J. 1955. Effects of clipping, burning and competition on establishment and survival of some native grasses in Wisconsin. Journal of Range Management. 8: 117-120. [3886] 63. Rohn, Sherry R.; Bragg, Thomas B. 1989. Effect of burning on germination of tallgrass prairie plant species. In: Bragg, Thomas A.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 169-171. [14038] 64. Sims, Phillip L.; Ayuko, Lucas J.; Hyder, D. N. 1971. Developmental morphology of switchgrass and sideoats grama. Journal of Range Management. 24: 354-360. [19838] 65. Snyder, Warren D. 1990. Establishing switchgrass for wildlife in eastern Colorado. Outdoor Facts: Game Information Leaflet No. 113. Denver, CO: Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife. 4 p. [16177] 66. Steuter, Allen A. 1987. C3/C4 production shift on seasonal burns--northern mixed prairie. Journal of Range Management. 40(1): 27-31. [2237] 67. Stubbendieck, J.; Nichols, James T.; Roberts, Kelly K. 1985. Nebraska range and pasture grasses (including grass-like plants). E.C. 85-170. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 75 p. [2269] 68. Thornburg, Ashley A. 1982. Plant materials for use on surface-mined lands. SCS-TP-157. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 88 p. [3769] 69. Towne, Gene; Owensby, Clenton. 1984. Long-term effects of annual burning at different dates in ungrazed Kansas tallgrass prairie. Journal of Range Management. 37(5): 392-397. [2357] 70. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 71. Undersander, D. J.; Hutcheson, D. P. 1984. Seasonal changes in composition of range grasses on the Texas High Plain Plains. In: Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conferance; [Date of conference unknown]; Lexington, KY. [Place of publication unknown]. American Forage and Grassland Council: 191-196. [5683] 72. Vogel, K. P.; Dewald, C. L.; Gorz, H. J.; Haskins, F. A. 1985. Improvement of switchgrass, indiangrass, and eastern gamagrass--current status and future. In: Carlson, Jack R.; Mcarthur, E. Durant, chairmen. Range plant improvement in western North America: Proceedings of a symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Range Management; 1985 February 14; Salt Lake City, UT. Denver, Co: Society for Range Management: 51-62. [4386] 73. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15575] 74. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Western Energy and Land Use Team. 347 p. Available from NTIS, Springfield, VA 22161; PB-83-167023. [2458] 75. Weaver, J. E. 1954. North American prairie. Lincoln, NE: Johnsen Publishing Company. 348 p. [4237] 76. Weaver, J. E. 1960. Extent of communities and abundance of the most common grasses in prairie. Botanical Gazette. 122: 25-33. [5532] 77. Weaver, J. E. 1968. Prairie plants and their environment: A fifty-year study in the Midwest. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 276 p. [17546] 78. Wheeler, W. A.; Hill, D. D. 1957. Grassland seeds. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. 628 p. [18902] 79. Zhang, Jianhua; Maun, M. A. 1991. Establishment and growth of Panicum virgatum L. seedlings on a Lake Erie sand dune. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118(2): 141-153. [15700] 80. Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kruse, Arnold D.; Piehl, James L. 1989. Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains. Ext. Circ. EC-760. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. 36 p. [14185] 81. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090]


FEIS Home Page