SPECIES: Leymus salinus
Choose from the following categories of information.
Salina wildrye subspecies are as follows:
Leymus salinus ssp. salinus
Leymus salinus (M.E. Jones) A. Love ssp. mohavensis Barkworth & Atkins [10,30,33]
Leymus salinus (M.E. Jones) A. Love ssp. salmonis (C.L. Hitchc.) Atkins [10,30,33]
Salina wildrye (ssp. salmonis) hybridizes with bottlebrush
squirreltail (Elymus elymoides), though
resulting plants are sterile .
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status
Salina wildrye has "Watch" status in Utah (regionally endemic but without rangewide viability concern) , and is considered rare in Nevada .
Plants database provides a distributional map of
Salina wildrye and its infrataxa.
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES40 Desert grasslands
STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)
Salina wildrye is often a dominant grass in Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) and pinyon-juniper communities . In Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis) -Utah juniper (J. osteosperma) stands, Salina wildrye occurs with black sagebrush (A. nova), plains prickly-pear (Opuntia polyacantha), Fremont's goosefoot (Chenopodium fremontii), nodding buckwheat (Eriogonum cernuum), and Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) . In singleleaf pinyon (P. monophylla)-Utah juniper/ Rocky Mountain juniper (J. scopulorum) it occurs with bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata) and green rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus) . Other common species in pinyon-juniper communities include Ross' sedge (Carex rossii), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), needle-and-thread grass (Hesperostipa comata), galleta (Pleuraphis jamesii), mutton grass (Poa fendleriana), and Sandberg bluegrass (P. secunda) .
In true mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus) types, Salina wildrye occurs with Fremont's goosefoot, nodding buckwheat, and Indian ricegrass . In curlleaf mountain-mahogany (C. ledifolius) communities, common associates are Indian ricegrass, blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) . In the Great Basin desert shrub communities, Salina wildrye is commonly found with winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), Indian ricegrass, galleta, globemallow (Sphaeralcea spp.), spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa), black sagebrush, budsage (A. spinescens), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), bottlebrush squirreltail, and dropseeds (Sporobolus spp.) .
Salina wildrye may codominate with Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia), or Gardner's saltbush (A. gardneri) in Colorado [8,9].
Classifications identifying Salina wildrye as a plant community dominant include the following:
Salina wildrye is a native perennial grass [10,19,33,69]. It grows in dense tufts that are mostly erect and 13 to 55 inches (35-140 cm) tall [10,19,69].
Salina wildrye leaves are primarily basal, 0.04 to 0.2 inch (1-5 mm) wide, and may be flat or more often strongly involute [10,19,22,69]. Leaves are glabrous to rarely pubescent [19,69]. The slender, erect spikes are 1.6 to 6 inches (4-15 cm) long and 0.1 to 0.3 inch (2.5-8 mm) wide [10,19,69]. Spikelets are usually solitary at nodes, but occasionally occur in pairs at some or all nodes [10,19,68]. Spikelets are 0.35 to 0.8 inch (9-20 mm) long with 2 to 6 flowers [10,19,69].
Salina wildrye is occasionally rhizomatous [10,69]. Rhizomes are generally stout
and short [10,22,69], though they may also be well-developed . Some controversy
exists as to the consistency with which Salina wildrye exhibits a rhizomatous growth
habit. Cronquist and others  describe large Salina wildrye bunches that give
the appearance of being nonrhizomatous, especially when growing on heavy clay soils;
however, under close inspection, short rhizomes are apparent.
RAUNKIAER  LIFE FORM:
Little information on the regeneration processes of Salina wildrye is presently available, though it apparently employs both sexual and vegetative modes of reproduction .
Breeding system: No information is available on this topic.
Pollination: No information is available on this topic.
Seed production: Seed production of Salina wildrye has been described as "good" .
Seed dispersal: When established by transplant, Salina wildrye spreads readily by seeding .
Seed banking: No information is available on this topic.
Germination: No information is available on this topic.
Seedling establishment/growth: Limited information indicates that initial seedling establishment of Salina wildrye is not highly successful due to the combined effects of low seed germination and poor seedling vigor. Once established, however, Salina wildrye spreads readily, persists on a variety of sites [47,48] and grows rapidly .
Salina wildrye spreads readily through vegetative growth .
Salina wildrye is found on dry slopes, steep rocky mountainsides and flat to gently sloping benches, ridges, saddles, and plateaus [9,10,19,30,35,47,64,68,69]. Other typical sites include alkaline bluffs, washes, canyon sides, and alluvial fans . Soils range from fine textured clays and loams [9,19,21,68] to coarse textured sand and rock [21,69], though growth is better on intermediate soil textures than on sands or clays . Atkins and others  suggest that subspecies salmonis is adapted to more xeric sites than subspecies salinus. Salina wildrye is drought resistant and moderately tolerant of alkaline environments [9,19,47,64], though it rarely occurs on low-lying alkaline sites .
Though some authors report that Salina wildrye is restricted to a narrow elevational range , it actually occurs from just over 4,000 feet to 10,000 feet (1,200-3,050 m), indicating a wide range of occurrence [9,21,30,34,35,69]. Elevational ranges for Salina wildrye are presented by state below:
|Arizona||5,000 feet (1,525 m)|||
|California||4,430-6,650 feet (1,350-2,000 m)|||
|Colorado||5,200-8,500 feet (1,585-2,590 m)|||
|Nevada||5,000-6,500 feet (1,525-1,980 m)|||
|Utah||4,990-10,000 feet (1,520-3,050 m)||[21,69]|
|Wyoming||8,200 feet (2,500 m)|||
Little is known regarding the specific relationship between Salina wildrye and
fire. Salina wildrye rarely occurs in pure stands ; it is generally found as
a minor or occasionally dominant component of several plant communities.
Fire regimes for plant communities and ecosystems in which Salina wildrye occurs
are summarized below. For more information on the fire regimes of these
communities, see the FEIS species summary for the dominant species listed below.
|Community or Ecosystem||Dominant Species||Fire Return Interval Range (years)|
|silver sagebrush steppe||Artemisia cana||5-45 [29,49,72]|
|sagebrush steppe||Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata||20-70 |
|basin big sagebrush||Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata||12-43 |
|mountain big sagebrush||Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana||15-40 [3,17,44]|
|Wyoming big sagebrush||Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis||10-70 (40**) [65,73]|
|saltbush-greasewood||Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus||< 35 to < 100|
|desert grasslands||Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica||5-100 |
|plains grasslands||Bouteloua spp.||< 35 [45,72]|
|blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass||Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii||< 35 [45,52,72]|
|blue grama-buffalo grass||Bouteloua gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides||< 35 [45,72]|
|grama-galleta steppe||Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii||< 35 to < 100|
|blue grama-tobosa prairie||Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis mutica||< 35 to < 100 |
|cheatgrass||Bromus tectorum||< 10 [46,71]|
|curlleaf mountain-mahogany*||Cercocarpus ledifolius||13-1,000 [5,54]|
|mountain-mahogany-Gambel oak scrub||Cercocarpus ledifolius-Quercus gambelii||< 35 to < 100|
|blackbrush||Coleogyne ramosissima||< 35 to < 100|
|Arizona cypress||Cupressus arizonica||< 35 to 200|
|western juniper||Juniperus occidentalis||20-70|
|Rocky Mountain juniper||Juniperus scopulorum||< 35 |
|wheatgrass plains grasslands||Pascopyrum smithii||< 5-47+ [45,49,72]|
|pinyon-juniper||Pinus-Juniperus spp.||< 35 |
|Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine*||Pinus contorta var. latifolia||25-340 [11,12,59]|
|Colorado pinyon||Pinus edulis||10-400+ [24,26,36,45]|
|Jeffrey pine||Pinus jeffreyi||5-30 |
|interior ponderosa pine*||Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum||2-30 [2,7,40]|
|Arizona pine||Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica||2-15 [7,18,55]|
|galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe||Pleuraphis jamesii-Aristida purpurea||< 35 to < 100 |
|quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains)||Populus tremuloides||7-120 [2,28,43]|
|mesquite||Prosopis glandulosa||< 35 to < 100 [42,45]|
|mesquite-buffalo grass||Prosopis glandulosa-Buchloe dactyloides||< 35 |
|mountain grasslands||Pseudoroegneria spicata||3-40 (10**) [1,2]|
|Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir*||Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca||25-100 [2,3,4]|
|oak-juniper woodland (Southwest)||Quercus-Juniperus spp.||< 35 to < 200 |
|oak savanna||Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium||2-14 [45,67]|
|little bluestem-grama prairie||Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp.||< 35 |
Palatability/nutritional value: Salina wildrye provides a moderate amount of fair quality, coarse forage during the growing season, but is unpalatable when mature and dried [64,69]. Palatability has been rated poor to good for sheep and fair to good for cattle and horses . The following table presents nutritional information of Salina wildrye sampled in Utah :
|Cal./kg||% protein||% carbohydrate||% fat||% ash||% moisture|
Salina wildrye cover value has been rated poor to fair for mule deer,
poor to good for upland game birds, and fair to good for small nongame
birds and small mammals .
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Salina wildrye may be useful for revegetating burned  or otherwise disturbed areas . It establishes moderately well from transplants, and will spread by seed once established . Salina wildrye is valuable for soil stabilization on steep, erosive clay hillsides .
No information is available on this topic.
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Field trials in the eastern Central Great Plains demonstrated that Salina wildrye has high survivability and forage production potential, perhaps indicating usefulness in livestock production . However, excessive livestock grazing may decrease Salina wildrye success .
Salina wildrye increases in density following shrub overstory removal .
1. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. 
2. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. 
3. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. 
4. Arno, Stephen F.; Scott, Joe H.; Hartwell, Michael G. 1995. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands and its relationship to fire history. Res. Pap. INT-RP-481. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 25 p. 
5. Arno, Stephen F.; Wilson, Andrew E. 1986. Dating past fires in curlleaf mountain-mahogany communities. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 241-243. 
6. Atkins, Riley J.; Barkworth, Mary E.; Dewey, Douglas R. 1984. A taxonomic study of Leymus ambiguus and L. salinus (Poaceae: Triticeae). Systematic Botany. 9(3): 279-294. 
7. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. 
8. Baker, William L. 1984. A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado. The Great Basin Naturalist. 44(4): 647-676. 
9. Baker, William L.; Kennedy, Susan C. 1985. Presettlement vegetation of part of northwestern Moffat County, Colorado, described from remnants. The Great Basin Naturalist. 45(4): 747-783. 
10. Barkworth, Mary E.; Atkins, Riley J. 1984. Leymus Hochst. (Gramineae: Triticeae) in North America: taxonomy and distribution. American Journal of Botany. 71(5): 609-625. 
11. Barrett, Stephen W. 1993. Fire regimes on the Clearwater and Nez Perce National Forests north-central Idaho. Final Report: Order No. 43-0276-3-0112. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. 21 p. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
12. Barrett, Stephen W.; Arno, Stephen F. 1991. Classifying fire regimes and defining their topographic controls in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness. In: Andrews, Patricia L.; Potts, Donald F., eds. Proceedings, 11th annual conference on fire and forest meteorology; 1991 April 16-19; Missoula, MT. SAF Publication 91-04. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 299-307. 
13. Barrett, Stephen W.; Arno, Stephen F.; Key, Carl H. 1991. Fire regimes of western larch - lodgepole pine forests in Glacier National Park, Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1711-1720. 
14. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. 
15. Bradley, Anne F.; Fischer, William C.; Noste, Nonan V. 1992. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-290. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 92 p. 
16. Bradley, Anne F.; Noste, Nonan V.; Fischer, William C. 1992. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands in Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-287. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. 
17. Burkhardt, Wayne J.; Tisdale, E. W. 1976. Causes of juniper invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology. 57: 472-484. 
18. Cooper, Charles F. 1961. Pattern in ponderosa pine forests. Ecology. 42(3): 493-499. 
19. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; [and others]. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6. The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. 
20. Davis, Kathleen M. 1980. Fire history of a western larch/Douglas-fir forest type in northwestern Montana. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 69-74. 
21. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. 
22. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. 
23. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
24. Floyd, M. Lisa; Romme, William H.; Hanna, David D. 2000. Fire history and vegetation pattern in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecological Applications. 10(6): 1666-1680. 
25. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
26. Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; [and others]. 1995. Pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A., eds. Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-268. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-132. 
27. Greenwood, Larry R.; Brotherson, Jack D. 1978. Ecological relationships between pinyon-juniper and true mountain mahogany stands in the Uintah Basin, Utah. Journal of Range Management. 31(3): 164-167. 
28. Gruell, G. E.; Loope, L. L. 1974. Relationships among aspen, fire, and ungulate browsing in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 
29. Heyerdahl, Emily K.; Berry, Dawn; Agee, James K. 1994. Fire history database of the western United States. Final report. Interagency agreement: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency DW12934530; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service PNW-93-0300; University of Washington 61-2239. Seattle, WA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Northwest Research Station; University of Washington, College of Forest Resources. 28 p. [+ Appendices]. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
30. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. 
31. Hutchings, Selar S.; Stewart, George. 1953. Increasing forage yields and sheep production on Intermountain winter ranges. Circular No. 925. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 63 p. 
32. Jensen, Kevin B.; Redinbaugh, M.; Blood, M.; [and others]. 1999. Natural hybrids of Elymus elymoides x Leymus salinus subsp. salmonis (Poaceae: Triticeae). Crop Science. 39(4): 976-982. 
33. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. 
34. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 3 volumes]. Dissertation. 
35. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. 
36. Keeley, Jon E. 1981. Reproductive cycles and fire regimes. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others], technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 231-277. 
37. Kitchen, Stanley G.; McArthur, E. Durant; Jorgensen, Gary L. 1999. Species richness and community structure along a Great Basin elevational gradient. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Ostler, W. Kent; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings: shrubland ecotones; 1998 August 12-14; Ephraim, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-11. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 59-65. 
38. Klebenow, D.; Beall, R.; Bruner, A.; Mason, R.; Roundy, B.; Stager, W.; Ward, K. 1976. Controlled fire as a management tool in the pinyon-juniper woodland, Nevada. Annual Progress Report: FY 1976. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Agricultural Experiment Station. 73 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
39. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. 
40. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. 
41. Love, Askell. 1980. Poaceae-Triticeae-americanae. Taxon. 29: 166-169. 
42. McPherson, Guy R. 1995. The role of fire in the desert grasslands. In: McClaran, Mitchel P.; Van Devender, Thomas R., eds. The desert grassland. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press: 130-151. 
43. Meinecke, E. P. 1929. Quaking aspen: A study in applied forest pathology. Tech. Bull. No. 155. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. 
44. Miller, Richard F.; Rose, Jeffery A. 1995. Historic expansion of Juniperus occidentalis (western juniper) in southeastern Oregon. The Great Basin Naturalist. 55(1): 37-45. 
45. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. 
46. Peters, Erin F.; Bunting, Stephen C. 1994. Fire conditions pre- and postoccurrence of annual grasses on the Snake River Plain. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., compilers. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 31-36. 
47. Plummer, A. Perry. 1977. Revegetation of disturbed Intermountain area sites. In: Thames, J. C., ed. Reclamation and use of disturbed lands of the Southwest. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press: 302-337. 
48. Plummer, A. Perry; Christensen, Donald R.; Monsen, Stephen B. 1968. Restoring big-game range in Utah. Publ. No. 68-3. Ephraim, UT: Utah Division of Fish and Game. 183 p. 
49. Quinnild, Clayton L.; Cosby, Hugh E. 1958. Relicts of climax vegetation on two mesas in western North Dakota. Ecology. 39(1): 29-32. 
50. Range, Phil; Veisze, Paul; Beyer, Cheryl; Zschaechner, Greg. 1982. Great Basin rate-of-spread study: Fire behavior/fire effects. Reno, Nevada: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Nevada State Office, Branch of Protection. 56 p. 
51. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
52. Rowe, J. S. 1969. Lightning fires in Saskatchewan grassland. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 83: 317-324. 
53. Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. 
54. Schultz, Brad W. 1987. Ecology of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) in western and central Nevada: population structure and dynamics. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 111 p. Thesis. 
55. Seklecki, Mariette T.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1996. Fire history and the possible role of Apache-set fires in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; DeBano, Leonard F.; Baker, Malchus, B., Jr.; [and others], tech. coords. Effects of fire on Madrean Province ecosystems: a symposium proceedings; 1996 March 11-15; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-289. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 238-246. 
56. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. 
57. Simms, Steven R. 1985. Acquisition cost and nutritional data on Great Basin resources. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology. 7(1): 117-126. 
58. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. 
59. Tande, Gerald F. 1979. Fire history and vegetation pattern of coniferous forests in Jasper National Park, Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 1912-1931. 
60. Thompson, Robert M. 1990. The long-term response of curlleaf mountain mahogany to top pruning in south central Utah. In: Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Proceedings, 5th Utah shrub ecology workshop: The genus Cercocarpus; 1988 July 13-14; Logan, UT. Logan, UT: Utah State University, College of Natural Resources: 75-88. 
61. Thompson, Robert M. 1999. An example of pinyon-juniper woodland classification in southeastern Utah. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Stevens, Richard, compilers. Proceedings: ecology and management of pinyon-juniper communities within the Interior West: Sustaining and restoring a diverse ecosystem; 1997 September 15-18; Provo, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-9. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 60-63. 
62. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resource Conservation Service. 2004. PLANTS database (2004), [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. 
63. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. 1998. Inventory of sensitive species and ecosystems in Utah. Endemic and rare plants of Utah: an overview of their distribution and status. Central Utah Project Completion Act: Title III, Section 306(b). Cooperative Agreement No. UC-95-0015: Section V.A.10.a. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission. 566 p. (+ Appendices). 
64. Vallentine, John F. 1961. Important Utah range grasses. Extension Circular 281. Logan, UT: Utah State University. 48 p. 
65. Vincent, Dwain W. 1992. The sagebrush/grasslands of the upper Rio Puerco area, New Mexico. Rangelands. 14(5): 268-271. 
66. Vogel, Kenneth P.; Jensen, Kevin J. 2001. Adaptation of perennial Triticeae to the eastern central Great Plains. Journal of Range Management. 54(6): 674-679. 
67. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. 
68. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. 
69. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. 
70. West, Neil E.; Tausch, Robin J.; Tueller, Paul T. 1998. A management-oriented classification of pinyon-juniper woodlands of the Great Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-12. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 42 p. 
71. Whisenant, Steven G. 1990. Postfire population dynamics of Bromus japonicus. The American Midland Naturalist. 123: 301-308. 
72. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. 
73. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1981. Demography and fire history of a western juniper stand. Journal of Range Management. 34(6): 501-505.