Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Eragrostis intermedia

Introductory

SPECIES: Eragrostis intermedia
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Walsh, Roberta A. 1994. Eragrostis intermedia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. ABBREVIATION : ERAINT SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : ERIN COMMON NAMES : plains lovegrass TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of plains lovegrass is Eragrostis intermedia A. S. Hitchc. [25,29,49]. It is in the family Poaceae. There are no currently accepted infrataxa. LIFE FORM : Graminoid FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Eragrostis intermedia
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Plains lovegrass occurs from Florida and Georgia west to Arizona [19,49].  It extends north into Missouri and eastern Kansas [24,25] and south through Mexico to Costa Rica [25,29,31]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES12  Longleaf - slash pine    FRES15  Oak - hickory    FRES30  Desert shrub    FRES32  Texas savanna    FRES33  Southwestern shrubsteppe    FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub    FRES35  Pinyon - juniper    FRES38  Plains grasslands    FRES40  Desert grasslands STATES :      AL  AZ  AR  FL  GA  HI  KS  LA  MS  MO      NM  OK  TX  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     7  Lower Basin and Range    12  Colorado Plateau    13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont    14  Great Plains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland    K027  Mesquite bosque    K031  Oak - juniper woodlands    K044  Creosotebush - tarbush    K054  Grama - tobosa prairie    K058  Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe    K059  Trans-Pecos shrub savanna    K060  Mesquite savanna    K069  Bluestem - grama prairie    K082  Mosaic of K074 and K100    K085  Mesquite - buffalograss    K100  Oak - hickory forest    K112  Southern mixed forest SAF COVER TYPES :     40  Post oak - blackjack oak     68  Mesquite     83  Longleaf pine - slash pine    239  Pinyon - juniper    241  Western live oak    242  Mesquite SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Plains lovegrass associates in south-central Arizona desert grasslands include sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), sprucetop grama (B. chondrosioides) and other gramas (Bouteloua spp.), threeawns (Aristida spp.), muhlys (Muhlenbergia spp.), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), Arizona cottontop (Digitaria californica), wolftail (Lycurus phleoides), velvet-pod mimosa (Mimosa dysocarpa), ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Wheeler sotol (Dasylirion wheeleri), sacahuista (Nolina microcarpa), false-mesquite (Calliandra eriophylla), and larchleaf goldenweed (Aplopappus laricifolius) [14,15,34,37,47,48]. Associates in interior chaparral of Arizona include shrub live oak (Quercus turbinella), desert ceanothus (Ceanothus greggii), deerbrush (Ceanothus integerrimus), pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens), Pringle manzanita (A. pringlei), silktassels (Garrya spp.), and Stansbury cliffrose (Purshia mexicana var.  stansburiana) [38,43]. Associates of plains lovegrass in the mixed-grass and shortgrass prairie of the Southwest include buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides), Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), galleta (Hilaria jamesii), prairie junegrass (Koeleria macrantha), vine-mesquite (Panicum obtusum), alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), soapweed yucca (Yucca glauca), and broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) [12].


MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Eragrostis intermedia
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Plains lovegrass produces quality forage on the grazing lands of Arizona and New Mexico [23,25,26].  It is an important cattle forage species in oak woodland of southern Arizona [33].  However, because it has a high seedstalk to leaf ratio it is a relatively low forage producer [31]. Cattle in south-central Arizona ate plains lovegrass at 45 percent of availability.  Plains lovegrass was intermediate in preference and production compared to other grasses growing on the range [14]. Upland game birds eat plains lovegrass seeds [31,46]. PALATABILITY : Plains lovegrass is palatable [46].  Even on steeper slopes it is often the first species to be grazed [26]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Plains lovegrass was collected in Sutton County, Texas, in 1973. Nutrient composition (percent) of leaves and stems was as follows [27]:            Water    Ash    Cell Wall   Phosphorus   Protein   DOM* July        59       8        70          0.12         7       52   October     54       7        69          0.09         6       50 November    37       9        72          0.11         5       37 *DOM:  Digestible Organic Matter COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Plains lovegrass has decreased in abundance in Arizona.  This reduction is probably the result of long-continued grazing.  Because of its palatability and early greening habit, plains lovegrass is often overgrazed in early spring [26].  To renew its vigor [31] and also allow for seed production and establishment of seedlings [32], plains lovegrass should be rested from grazing during July and August about every third year [31]. In southeastern Arizona, plains lovegrass was measured in 1983 on grassland ungrazed since 1968 and on adjacent grazed grassland.  Plains lovegrass was increasing on the ungrazed area, but not on adjacent grazed sites. In an area ungrazed since the early 1950's, plains lovegrass occurred in dense, nearly pure stands [8].  In the same area in 1990, plains lovegrass made up 15 percent of canopy cover on ungrazed quadrats, but only 5 percent on grazed quadrats [5].  The grass canopy was significantly taller (p<.01) where it was protected from grazing. Plains lovegrass is not found in pure stands in areas where it is grazed [31]. Plains lovegrass production in southern Arizona semidesert grasslands is related to current summer rainfall and also to rainfall during previous growing periods [32].  (See SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT) Plains lovegrass in southwestern semidesert grass-shrub ranges is favored by light to moderate grazing.  When overgrazed, the plants lose vigor, die, and are replaced by less palatable species [32].  Plains lovegrass is a component of Southern Plains grasslands which, when overgrazed, are invaded by large-shrub monocultures and/or by short semishrubs [12].  Plains lovegrass in south-central Arizona grasslands has been greatly reduced where mesquite (Prosopis spp.) has invaded the range [37]. In the Southwest, plains lovegrass and other native species do not reestablish in areas planted with the African species Lehmann and weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana and E. curvula).  In southeastern Arizona, areas of the Appleton-Whittell Research Sanctuary were seeded with mixtures of Lehmann and weeping lovegrass in the 1940's and 1950's.  By 1984, African lovegrasses covered more than 50 percent of the ground; native grass cover was reduced by nearly 60 percent. Plains lovegrass was one of the indigenous grasses significantly reduced.  Nearby unseeded areas supported mixtures of native herbs, shrubs, and perennial grasses including plains lovegrass.  Since cattle were removed in 1968, species-rich plant assemblages have developed on the Sanctuary in all areas except those planted with African lovegrasses [6]. Plains lovegrass seed is available commercially [17].


BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Eragrostis intermedia
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Plains lovegrass is a native, warm-season, C-4, perennial bunchgrass [24,31,33,34].  Culms are wiry [19], erect, pith filled to hollow [24], and 12 to 35 inches (30-90 cm) tall [19].  Leaf blades are 4 to 10 inches [10-25 cm] long [25,26]. The inflorescence is an erect, open, diffuse, pyramidal panicle [24,25] 6 to 14 inches (15-35 cm) long. Spikelets are three- to nine-flowered [19,25,31]; the fruit is a caryopsis [25]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Plains lovegrass sprouts from perennating buds at the bases of culms [24].  It also reproduces by seed [25].  Dispersal occurs when the large, loose, fruiting stalks detach and tumble across the ground, releasing seed [8]. Plains lovegrass seeds were collected from plants growing at two semidesert grassland sites in south-central Arizona, one not irrigated and one irrigated.  Rate of germination was tested 7 months after harvest.  The seeds from irrigated land were germinable (18%) in the laboratory at moderate temperature alternations representative of wet seedbeds in April (50/86 degrees Fahrenheit [10/30 deg C]).  However, maximum germination (47%) occurred at temperature alternations of 68/104 degrees Fahrenheit (20/40 deg C), which is similar to wet seedbed temperature extremes during the summer rainy period when plains lovegrass usually emerges.  Plains lovegrass seeds from unirrigated plants had much lower germination rates than those from irrigated plants.  Germination response varied with seed collection year [41]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Plains lovegrass is found on dry or sandy prairies [25], dry slopes [19], rocky hillsides, in canyons [29], open woods [24], and on disturbed sites [49].  Its occurrence is related to topography, but varies from one area to another.  Plains lovegrass in south-central Arizona showed a strong positive correlation with slope.  Over 60 percent of occurrences were on slopes steeper than 30 percent [14].  In southeastern Arizona, plains lovegrass on undisturbed grassland occurred on level to gently rolling uplands [8].  In northwestern Arizona, plains lovegrass was found on rocky ledges and among boulders in interior chaparral [13]. Plains lovegrass grows on most soil textures [15,16,20,21,35,36,48].  In south-central Arizona it is most productive on sands and sandy loams with weak profile development.  It shows intermediate productivity on soil with well developed horizons and clayey subsoils.  It is least productive on shallow, stony, and cobbly soil [14]. Plains lovegrass often grows in areas where annual precipitation is bimodal, with a wet season in winter and another in summer.  Over half the annual rainfall usually occurs in summer, when the bulk of plains lovegrass forage is produced [47,48].  Spring and fall are generally characterized by drought [48].  Mean annual precipitation usually exceeds 15.7 inches (400 mm).  Winters are mild [11,12]. In Arizona, plains lovegrass is found at elevations from 3,500 to 6,000 feet (1,067-1,829 m) [15,29,36,40].  In New Mexico, it grows at elevations from 3,800 to 8,500 feet (1,158-2,591 m) [21]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Plains lovegrass is apparently not tolerant of dense cover.  In Arizona, plains lovegrass is not abundant in interior chaparral with dense crown cover (>70%) except in the scattered interscrub openings, on rocky outcrops, or in early postfire succession [38].  Plains lovegrass did occur in chaparral with shrub cover of 60.5 percent and average herb cover of 12.4 percent.  The sparse herb layer was composed of plains lovegrass and red brome (Bromus rubens) [43]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Plains lovegrass growth starts in early spring; it is one of the first herbs to green up [31]. Plains lovegrass blooms in spring in central Florida [49] and from June to September in Arizona [29].  Seed dispersal in Arizona begins in late summer [8]. A minimum of 2 years is required for plains lovegrass to tiller.  Culms produced during the current summer originated as basal buds that broke dormancy either during the preceding spring, or more commonly, the preceding fall.  A wet fall, or a wet winter and spring, activates basal buds and enlarges individual plants.  Two good rainfall summers in succession, or a good rainfall summer preceded by an exceptionally wet spring, can be expected to produce high forage yields.  Production will be low in drought years because few culms are produced [32].


FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Eragrostis intermedia
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Plains lovegrass has basal culm buds [24] which may sprout after aerial portions are burned.  If thick tufts form, they may protect the basal buds from fire damage. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Tussock graminoid    Secondary colonizer - on-site seed


FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Eragrostis intermedia
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Plains lovegrass culms and leaves are killed by fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Plains lovegrass frequency decreases the first year after fire [28], but generally increases thereafter [7,9,48].  Seedstalk production sometimes increases after fire [48]. Plains lovegrass on native grassland in southeastern Arizona was burned in a July 16 to 17, 1987, wildfire.  When measured in August 1987, it was reduced to one-third of its prefire cover.  However, by August 1988, plains lovegrass cover had increased over prefire levels.  By August 1990, it had increased to twice its prefire cover [4,7]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Plains lovegrass abundance was lower on burned than unburned sites during the first growing season after prescribed fire in Kerr County, Texas. Plateau oak (Quercus fusiformis) and post oak (Q. stellata) savanna containing plains lovegrass was burned between 12:30 and 1:15 p.m. on February 1, 1982.  Air temperature was 55 degrees Fahrenheit (12.8 deg C), relative humidity was 42 to 48 percent, and wind speed was 10 to 32 miles per hour (16-51 km/hr).  Highest recorded fire temperatures were at the litter surface.  Maximum temperature was 412 degrees Fahrenheit (211 deg C) at the litter surface in the grasslands surrounding trees. Temperatures above and below the litter surface were substantially lower.  In July and early August 1982, samples from quadrats in control and burned units were collected.  Plains lovegrass biomass was lower on burned than on control sites.  Dominance (lbs/ac), relative dominance (%), relative frequency, and importance are reported [28]:                                Relative   Relative                         Dom      Dom        Freq      Importance    Plateau Oak Units      Control           10.08     6.12       8.09         7.10             Burn               3.97     3.37       7.69         5.53    Post Oak Units                                                            Control            5.95     3.33       8.70         6.01             Burn               5.43     2.97       6.89         4.92 The Research Project Summary Response of herbaceous vegetation to winter burning in Texas oak savanna provides information on postfire response of other herbaceous species in this study. Plains lovegrass decreased the first growing season following a fire in south-central Arizona desert grassland, but then increased.  In June 1963 a wildfire burned a 17-square-mile area in Pima County near Sasabe, Arizona.  After the fire, study sites were located on burned and unburned slopes at elevations from 4,000 to 4,400 feet (1,219-1,341 m). Indicators of plains lovegrass basal area (basal area index) before and for two growing seasons following the fire showed that plains lovegrass was at first reduced as a result of the fire.  However, by the second growing season, it equaled or exceeded prefire density [48]:                            Basal Area Index           West-facing        North-facing        East-facing              Sites              Sites               Sites          Burned  Control    Burned  Control        Burned  Prefire    0.7     0.7        0.5     0.2            0.8  1963       0.2     0.4        0.2     0.1            0.3  1964       1.0     0.5        0.6     0.3            0.8  The numbers of plains lovegrass plants measured along transects decreased on burned areas in postfire year 1.  In postfire year 2, plains lovegrass numbers increased slightly on control sites, but the increases on burned sites were significantly greater than on control sites [48]:           West-facing        North-facing        East-facing              Sites              Sites               Sites          Burned  Control    Burned  Control        Burned  Prefire    19      18         10       8             29    1963       10      16          9       7             22    1964       76      30         52      25             71    Plains lovegrass on the north slope burned area had significantly more seedstalks and fewer plants without seedstalks during the second growing season than did the control area.  Plains lovegrass apparently was well adapted to utilize the above normal winter precipitation of 1963. Greater seedling survival and larger plants occurred on the north and west study areas, which received more favorable precipitation, than on the east study area [48]. Plains lovegrass was more plentiful in recent than old burns in southwestern Oklahoma prairie and buffalo wallows.  Plains lovegrass was common on plots close to and in buffalo wallows.  The wallows and surrounding land were first prescribed burned in early April 1979; some were burned again in late February 1982.  Sampling occurred between late June and early July 1982.  At the time of sampling all wallows had 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) of standing water.  Exterior quadrats were placed just adjacent to wallows for comparison of compositional differences between wallow and other prairie vegetation.  Plains lovegrass was found only outside the eight buffalo wallows burned in 1972, with average cover of 43.6 percent.  It occurred throughout the six recently burned wallows (average cover 18.6% on burned land outside the wallows, 17.3% at the edge of the burned wallows, and 4.0% in the interior of the burned wallows) [16]. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In interior chaparral in Arizona, presettlement fire intervals were usually 50 to 100 years.  Postfire succession is rapid and species composition is changed little by natural fires [38]. Burning can be used in desert grassland ranges to reduce the number of shrubs competing with plains lovegrass and other perennial grasses [48]. Grazing should be deferred before burning to insure enough fuel to carry fire [50,51].   Plains lovegrass was subjected to prescribed fire in ungrazed southeastern Arizona grassland.  The fire had no persistent negative impact on plains lovegrass density [10].


FIRE CASE STUDIES

SPECIES: Eragrostis intermedia
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION : Walsh, Roberta A., compiler. 1994. Plains lovegrass response to prescribed fire in an oak/grass woodland in the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona. In: Eragrostis intermedia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. REFERENCE : Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1987. Fire effects following prescribed burning in two desert ecosystems. Final Report on Cooperative Agreement No. 28-03-278. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. [9]. Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1992. Short-term reduction in plant densities following prescribed fire in an ungrazed semidesert shrub-grassland. Southwestern Naturalist. 37(1): 49-53. [10]. SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION : spring/moderate STUDY LOCATION : Prescribed fires were carried out at the Appleton-Whittell Research Sanctuary of the National Audubon Society in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The field site is located in southeastern Arizona on the west side of the Huachuca Mountains. PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY : Prefire vegetation at the oak woodland site in Lyle Canyon included Emory oak (Quercus emoryi), Arizona white oak (Q. arizonica), plains lovegrass (Eragrostis intermedia), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Texas beardgrass (Andropogon cirratus), Hall's panic grass (Panicum hallii), longleaf falsegoldeneye (Heliomeris longifolia var. annua), spreading snakeherb (Dyschoriste decumbens), Louisiana sagewort (Artemisia ludoviciana), bindweeds (Convolvulus spp.), warty caltrop (Kallstroemia parviflora), catclaw mimosa (Mimosa biuncifera), velvet-pod mimosa (M. dysocarpa), and yerba de pasmo (Baccharis pteronioides). Prefire vegetation at the grassland site on Bald Hill included plains lovegrass, wolftail (Lycurus phleoides), threeawns (Aristida spp.), sprucetop grama (Bouteloua chondrosioides), sideoats grama, spreading fleabane (Erigeron divergens), shrubby false mallow (Malvastrum bicuspidatum), dwarf morningglories (Evolvulus spp.), spreading snakeherb, tanseyleaf aster (Machaeranthera tanacetifolia), catclaw mimosa, velvet-pod mimosa, and yerba de pasmo. Prefire vegetation data was collected during August 1983. TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE : Unknown SITE DESCRIPTION : The study sites have 17 inches (430 mm) average annual precipitation, with half to two-thirds occurring between July and September.  Elevation is 4,922 feet (1,500 m).  At the time of the study no fires or grazing had occurred at the sites since 1969. FIRE DESCRIPTION : There were five burned plots and five control plots each at the grassland and woodland sites.  All fires were conducted under hot, dry, relatively calm conditions prior to the onset of summer rains. Plots in oak woodland were burned between 10:00 a.m. and noon on May 25, 1984.  Air temperatures ranged from 90 to 92 degrees Fahrenheit (32-33 deg C).  Relative humidity varied from 16 to 18 percent.  Winds were variable, gusting from 5 to 10 miles per hour (8-16 km/hr).  Fine dead fuel moisture was estimated at between 5 and 6 percent.  In four of the five burned plots, fires moved slowly (1.6 to 4.9 feet per minute [0.5-1.5 m/min]) with flame lengths of 0.7 to 1.6 feet (0.2-0.5 m) and fireline intensities of 8-58 kW/m.  In the fifth plot the fire moved very rapidly (about 98 feet per minute [30 m/min]) with fireline intensity of 260 kW/m. Semidesert grassland plots were burned between 10:00 and 11:30 a.m. on June 12, 1984.  Air temperatures ranged from 84 to 88 degrees Fahrenheit (29-31 deg C).  Relative humidity varied from 13 to 16 percent.  Winds were variable, gusting from 5 to 22 miles per hour (8-35 km/hr).  Fires moved slowly on all burned plots (3.3-13.1 feet per minute [1-4 m/min]) with flame lengths ranging from 2.6 to 4.6 feet (0.8-1.4 m).  These fires produced fireline intensities of 160 to 540 kW/m. FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES : Prefire vegetation data were collected on all plots during summer 1983. Postfire data were collected on the burned plots and their controls during the summers of 1984 and 1985.  All vegetation sampling was carried out in August, the time of maximum growth during the summer wet period.  Density and plant height were recorded within each quadrat each year, as were bare ground cover and overall aboveground plant biomass. In oak woodland plots, plains lovegrass densities on burned and control plots were similar prior to the fires.  Plains lovegrass declined significantly (p<0.5) in density on burned plots in the first postfire growing season of 1984, but this difference had disappeared by the growing season of 1985. In semidesert grassland plots, plains lovegrass densities on burned and control plots were similar prior to the fires.  Plains lovegrass declined significantly (p<.01) in density on burned plots in 1984, the first postfire growing season, but this difference had disappeared by the second postfire year. FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS : Plains lovegrass usually declines the first growing season after fire, but by the second growing season it has regained or exceeded its original cover. This fire study was part of an extensive of body of research on fire effects in semidesert grassland, oak savanna, and Madrean oak woodlands of southeastern Arizona. See the Research Project Summary of this work for more information on burning conditions, fires, and fire effects on more than 100 species of plants, birds, small mammals, and grasshoppers.


REFERENCES

SPECIES: Eragrostis intermedia
REFERENCES :  1.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]  2.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1990. Effects of fire on wildlife in        southwestern lowland habitats. In: Krammes, J. S., technical        coordinator. Effects of fire management of Southwestern natural        resources: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 November 15-17; Tucson,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 50-64.  [11273]  3.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1991. Response of grasshoppers (Orthoptera:        Acrididae) to wildfire in a southeastern Arizona grassland. American        Midland Naturalist. 125: 162-167.  [15598]  4.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1992. Response of birds to wildfire in        native versus exotic Arizona grassland. Southwestern Naturalist. 37(1):        73-81.  [18594]  5.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1993. Cover of perennial grasses in        southeastern Arizona in relation to livestock grazing. [Journal name        unknown]. 7(2): 371-377.  [22152]  6.  Sorenson, Frank C.; Adams, W. T. 1993. Self fertility and natural        selfing in three Oregon Cascade populations of lodgepole pine. In:        Lindgren, D., ed. Pinus contorta--from untamed forest to domesticated        crop; Proceedings of a meeting with IUFRO working party S2.02-06: Pinus        contorta provenances and breeding and Frans Kempe symposium; 1992 August        24-28; Umea, Sweden. Umea, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural        Sciences, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology: [Report        11]: 358-374.  [8790]  7.  Bock, J. H.; Bock, C. E. 1992. Vegetation responses to wildfire in        native versus exotic Arizona grassland. Journal of Vegetation Science.        3: 439-446.  [20082]  8.  Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1986. Habitat relationships of some native        perennial grasses in southeastern Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(1): 3-14.        [478]  9.  Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1987. Fire effects following prescribed        burning in two desert ecosystems. Final Report on Cooperative Agreement        No. 28-03-278. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p.        [12321] 10.  Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1992. Short-term reduction in plant        densities following prescribed fire in an ungrazed semidesert        shrub-grassland. Southwestern Naturalist. 37(1): 49-53.  [18651] 11.  Brown, David E. 1982. Madrean evergreen woodland. In: Brown, David E.,        ed.  Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and        Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 59-65.  [8886] 12.  Brown, David E. 1982. Plains and Great Basin grasslands. In: Brown,        David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United        States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 115-121.  [536] 13.  Butterwick, Mary; Parfitt, Bruce D.; Hillyard, Deborah. 1992. Vascular        plants of the northern Hualapai Mountains, Arizona. Journal of the        Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 24-25: 31-49.  [18327] 14.  Cable, Dwight R.; Martin, S. Clark. 1975. Vegetation responses to        grazing, rainfall, site condition, and mesquite control on semidesert        range. Res. Pap. RM-149. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station. 24 p.  [4887] 15.  Canfield, R. H. 1948. 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