Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Elymus trachycaulus


SPECIES: Elymus trachycaulus
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1992. Elymus trachycaulus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : ELYTRA SYNONYMS : Agropyron caninum (L.) Beauv. Agropyron pauciforum (Schwcinitz) A. Hitchc. Agropyron tenerum Vaset Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte ex H. F. Lewis Agropyron subsecundum (Link) A. Hitchc. Agropyron violaceum (Hornem.) Lange SCS PLANT CODE : AGTR AGTRC AGTRG AGTRM AGTRN AGTRU COMMON NAMES : slender wheatgrass TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of slender wheatgrass is Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners in the tribe Triticeae of Poaceae [38,61,65]. There are at least three subspecies and six varieties of this species, which differ in awn length, size and degree of crowding of spikelets, and culm length. Generally, plants at lower elevations are tall and slender, bearing long culms, narrow spikes, and separated spikelets. Plants at higher elevations have short, thick culms, dense, shortened spikes, and crowded spikelets. All possible gradations between these two growth habits are known to occur [55]. Recognized subspecies and varieties are as follows [23,26,29,56,65]: E. t. ssp. latiglumis (Scribn. & J. G. Smith) Barkw. & D. R. Dewey E. t. ssp. trachycaulus Bark. & D. R. Dewey E. t. ssp. subsecundus (Link) Gould E. t. var. andinum (Scribn. & J. G. Smith) Beetle E. t. var. ciliatum (Scribn. & J. G. Smith) Gleason E. t. var. glaucum (Pease & A. H. Moore) Malte E. t. var. majus (Vasey) Fernald E. t. var. novae-angliae (Scribn.) Fernald E. t. var. unilaterale (Vasey) Malle Extensive hybridization and introgression occurs in Triticeae. Slender wheatgrass produces natural hybrids, some of which are unnamed, with the following species [26,35,61,65]: x Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (crested wheatgrass) x Elymus canadensis L. (Canada wildrye) x E. elymoides (Rafin) Swezey (bottlebrush squirreltail): E. X saudersii Vasey (Saunders wheatgrass) x E. glaucus Buckley (blue wildrye) x E. lanceolatus (Scribner & J. G. Smith) Gould (thickspike wheatgrass: E. X pseudorepens (Scribn. & J. G. Smith) Bark.& D. R. Dewey (false quackgrass) x E. scribneri (Vasey) M. E. Jones (Scribner wheatgrass): E. X brevifolium (Scribn.) Bark. & D. R. Dewey x Pseudelymus saxicola Bark. & D. R. Dewey (foxtail wheatgrass) LIFE FORM : Graminoid FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : Elymus t. var. unilaterale is listed as endangered by the Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board [52].


SPECIES: Elymus trachycaulus
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Slender wheatgrass is widely distributed across North America. Its range extends from Alaska to Newfoundland and south to North Carolina, Kentucky, Arkansas, Texas, and western Mexico [23,33,51]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES22 Western white pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES25 Larch FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES31 Shinnery FRES32 Texas savanna FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES36 Mountain grasslands FRES37 Mountain meadows FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie FRES40 Desert grasslands FRES41 Wet grasslands FRES42 Annual grasslands FRES44 Alpine STATES : AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE HI ID IL IN IA KS KY ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY AB BC LB MB NB NF NT NS ON PE PQ SK YT MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K005 Mixed conifer forest K006 Redwood forest K007 Red fir forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K009 Pine - cypress forest K010 Ponderosa shrub forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K013 Cedar - hemlock - pine forest K014 Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K016 Eastern ponderosa forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest K019 Arizona pine forest K020 Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest K021 Southwestern spruce - fir forest K022 Great Basin pine forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K024 Juniper steppe woodland K025 Alder - ash forest K026 Oregon oakwoods K027 Mesquite bosque K028 Mosaic of K002 and K026 K029 California mixed evergreen forest K030 California oakwoods K031 Oak - juniper woodlands K032 Transition between K031 and K037 K033 Chaparral K034 Montane chaparral K035 Coastal sagebrush K036 Mosaic of K030 and K035 K037 Mountain mahogany - oak scrub K038 Great Basin sagebrush K039 Blackbrush K040 Saltbrush - greasewood K041 Creosotebush K042 Creosotebush - bursage K043 Paloverde - cactus shrub K044 Creosotebush - tarbush K045 Ceniza shrub K047 Fescue - oatgrass K048 California steppe K050 Fescue - bluegrass K051 Wheatgrass - bluegrass K052 Alpine meadows and barren K053 Grama - galleta steppe K054 Grama - tobosa prairie K055 Sagebrush steppe K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe K057 Galleta - threeawn shrubsteppe K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna K060 Mesquite savanna K061 Mesquite - acacia savanna K062 Mesquite - live oak savanna K063 Foothills prairie K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass K065 Grama - buffalograss K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass K068 Wheatgrass - grama - buffalograss K069 Bluestem - grama prairie K070 Sandsage - bluestem prairie K071 Shinnery K073 Northern cordgrass prairie K074 Bluestem prairie K075 Nebraska sandhills prairie K076 Blackland prairie K077 Bluestem - sacahuista prairie K078 Southern cordgrass prairie K081 Oak savanna K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100 K083 Cedar glades K084 Cross Timbers K085 Mesquite - buffalograss K086 Juniper - oak savanna K087 Mesquite - oak savanna K088 Fayette prairie K089 Black Belt K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest K094 Conifer bog K095 Great Lakes pine forest K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest K098 Northern floodplain forest K099 Maple - basswood forest K100 Oak - hickory forest K101 Elm - ash forest K102 Beech - maple forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K106 Northern hardwoods K107 Northern hardwoods - fir forest K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest K109 Transition between K104 and K106 K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K114 Pocosin SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jackpine 5 Balsam fir 12 Black spruce 13 Black spruce - tamarack 15 Red pine 16 Aspen 17 Pin cherry 18 Paper birch 19 Gray birch - red maple 20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple 21 Eastern white pine 22 White pine - hemlock 23 Eastern hemlock 24 Hemlock - yellow birch 25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch 26 Sugar maple - basswood 27 Sugar maple 28 Black cherry - maple 30 Red spruce - sugar maple - beech 31 Red spruce - sugar maple - beech 32 Red spruce 33 Red spruce - balsam fir 34 Red spruce - Fraser fir 35 Paper birch - red spruce - balsam fir 37 Northern white cedar 38 Tamarack 39 Black ash - American elm - red maple 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 42 Bur oak 43 Bear oak 44 Chestnut oak 45 Pitch pine 46 Eastern redcedar 50 Black locust 51 White pine - chestnut oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 57 Yellow poplar 58 Yellow poplar - eastern hemlock 59 Yellow poplar - white oak - northern red oak 60 Beech - sugar maple 62 Silver maple - American elm 63 Cottonwood 64 Sassafras - persimmon 67 Mohrs ("shin") oak 68 Mesquite 70 Longleaf pine 71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak 72 Southern scrub oak 73 Southern redcedar 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash 94 Sycamore - sweet gum - American elm 95 Black willow 107 White spruce 108 Red maple 109 Hawthorn 110 Black oak 201 White spruce 202 White spruce - paper birch 203 Balsam poplar 204 Black spruce 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelman spruce - subalpine fir 207 Red fir 208 Whitebark pine 209 Bristlecone pine 210 Interior Douglas-fir 211 White fir 212 Western larch 213 Grand fir 215 Western white pine 216 Blue spruce 217 Aspen 218 Lodgepole pine 219 Limber pine 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 221 Red alder 222 Black cottonwood - willow 223 Sitka spruce 224 Western hemlock 225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir western hemlock 231 Port-Orford-cedar 232 Redwood 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone 235 Cottonwoood - willow 236 Bur oak 237 Interior ponderosa pine 238 Western juniper 239 Pinyon - juniper 240 Arizona cypress 241 Western live oak 242 Mesquite 243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir 245 Pacific ponderosa pine 246 California black oak 247 Jeffrey pine 248 Knobcone pine 249 Canyon live oak 250 Blue oak - Digger pine 251 White spruce - aspen 252 Paper birch 253 Black spruce - white spruce 254 Black spruce - paper birch 255 California coast live oak 256 California mixed subalpine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Slender wheatgrass is generally subdominant. When dominant in alpine meadows it indicates overgrazing [62]. Published classifications listing slender wheatgrass as a dominant, codominant, or dominant understory species in community types (cts), habitat types (hts), plant associations (pas), or vegetation types (vts) are as follows: Area Classification Authority c UT: Wasatch Plateau subalpine grassland cts Ellison 1954 sc ID; ne UT sagebrush vts Mickelsen & others 1990 ne NE sagebrush-snowberry pas Tueller & Eckert 1987 WI: Florence Co. bracken-grassland vts Vogl 1964 IL: Lake Co. prairie cts Taft & Solecki 1990 nc NM sagebrush-grassland cts Stahlecker & others 1989 c NV subalpine meadow vts Eckert 1975 e ND grassland hts Whitman & Wali 1975 Associated species: Slender wheatgrass associates are too numerous to list due to its wide geographical distribution and occurrence in disparate ecosystems.


SPECIES: Elymus trachycaulus
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Slender wheatgrass is grazed by sage grouse, deer, elk, moose, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, pronghorn, various rodents, and all classes of livestock. The seeds are eaten by various seed predators [15,16,47]. PALATABILITY : Slender wheatgrass is among the preferred foods of elk and bighorn sheep [23,50], and is palatable to all classes of livestock [25,47,55]. The palatability of slender wheatgrass in several western states is rated as follows [15,17]: CA MT ND UT cattle good good good good sheep good fair fair good horses good good fair good pronghorn ---- ---- ---- poor elk ---- ---- ---- good mule deer good ---- ---- fair small mammals ---- ---- ---- fair small nongame birds ---- fair ---- fair upland game birds ---- poor ---- fair waterfowl ---- fair ---- poor NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Slender wheatgrass is rated as good in energy value and poor in protein value [15]. The nutritional composition of flowering slender wheatgrass in the United States is as follows [39]: Percent Composition Percent Digestible Protein ash 9.70 cattle 2.1 crude fiber 36.40 goats 1.1 protein 4.90 horses 1.7 calcium 0.31 rabbits 2.5 magnesium 0.36 sheep 1.6 phosphorus 0.08 sulfur 0.12 COVER VALUE : Slender wheatgrass provides hiding and thermal cover for songbirds, upland game birds, waterfowl, and small mammals. It is used as nesting cover by mallard, Northern pintail, and blue-winged teal ducks [19]. The degree to which it provides environmental protection for wildlife in several western states is rated as follows [15]: MT UT WY small mammals fair good ---- small nongame birds fair ---- ---- upland game birds good fair good waterfowl good poor ---- VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Slender wheatgrass is widely used for revegetating disturbed lands. It has been used for rehabilitating mine spoils, oil-drilling sites, livestock ranges, wildlife habitat, and watershed areas [10,12,48]. There are three commercially-available slender cultivars commonly used for rehabilitation: 'Primar', 'Revenue', and 'San Luis'. 'Primar' and 'Revenue' are recommended for use in the Great Plains [14]. 'Revenue' is greatly used for rangeland revegetation. It has high seed and forage yields, and is tolerant of saline and alkaline soils [34]. 'Primar' is also used for rangeland revegetation and has been used in subalpine range improvement. It was successfully established in a severely overgrazed subalpine meadow (elev: 7,400 ft. [2,256] m) in central Nevada [16]. 'San Luis' is recommended for use in Colorado, and is noted for good seedling vigor, robustness, tall growth, and long life [34]. Slender wheatgrass will establish in moist or dryland sites. Allison [1] has detailed seeding methods. Slender wheatgrass is used for rehabilitating alpine meadows and other high elevation habitats [9]. Cultivars are not recommended for this use; seed must be collected from alpine sites in late summer or early fall. Fall plantings yield higher rate of germination at high elevation than do spring plantings. Surface mulching is recommended [8]. Slender wheatgrass has been used in a variety of watershed projects, including reclaiming logged-over watershed areas, improvement of subalpine watershed, and streambank and streambottom improvement [30,48,60]. A watershed rehabilitation project in New Mexico increased available water run-off by 40 percent following seeding with slender wheatgrass and other grasses [13]. Slender wheatgrass is planted using a seed mix selected for the particular rehabilitative purpose. The mix consists of other grasses, and may contain forb seed as well. Possible companion seeds are too numerous to list. A selected few which have been used successfully include western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), blue wildrye (Elymus glaucus spp. glaucus), tall oatgrass (Arrhenatherum elatius), and Parry clover (Trifolium parryi). Slender wheatgrass seedlings have also been successfully transplanted onto disturbed sites [11]. Heavy metal and hydrocarbon tolerances: Slender wheatgrass does well in soils containing high levels of boron (10-20 p/m). Some research suggests that this species tolerates heavy and lead bitumen-contaminated soils. It did not establish well, however, on alkaline tailings in Quebec that were contaminated by unidentified heavy metals [23]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Slender wheatgrass is cultivated on haylands of the northern Great Plains [55]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Range: Slender wheatgrass will maintain vigor indefinitely under moderate grazing [47]. It is a decreaser on overgrazed cattle ranges because its short rootstocks cannot withstand heavy grazing as well as species with well-developed rhizomes [25,59]. Ellison [17] reported slender wheatgrass as scarce on overgrazed cattle ranges of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, but plentiful in areas inaccessible to livestock. Slender wheatgrass has increased on some mountain ranges following heavy use by sheep, however, because sheep will only lightly graze the leaves of coarser ecotypes [7]. Slender wheatgrass cover at five different levels of livestock grazing in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba was as follows [53]: Mean Foliage Cover (%) slight use 11.0 light use 8.7 moderate use 16.9 heavy use 28.5 severe use 2.0 Slender wheatgrass populations decrease when livestock are allowed to graze during flowering and seed set [42]. Slender wheatgrass has been used to inhibit the highly unpalatable Rocky Mountain iris (Iris missouriensis) on ranges overtaken by the iris [16].


SPECIES: Elymus trachycaulus
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Slender wheatgrass is a perennial, cool-season, short-lived, coarse, tufted bunchgrass. Leaves are from 3 to 13 inches (8-33 cm) long and 0.25 to 0.5 inch (0.6-1.3 cm) wide, with basal leaves longer than upper leaves. The culms are erect, ranging from 6 to 48 inches (8-120 cm) in height, and bear terminal, erect spikes [37,55]. The root system is dense, consisting of coarse and fine fibrous roots which extend beyond 12 inches (30 cm) in depth. One author has reported this species as having short rhizomes [23]. The dense root system makes this species moderately drought tolerant [44]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Chamaephyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual: Slender wheatgrass is a self-pollinated or wind-pollinated species with heavy seed production [5,20,23]. Seed is disseminated by transport on animal hides. The seed, stored in seed banks, remains viable for 3 to 6 years, with a germination capacity of 80 to 90 percent. This species requires 1- to 2-month short night/long day stratification prior to germination. The temperature and light regime required for optimal germination fluctuates from a daily minimum of 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 deg C) for 16 hours without light to a maximum of 77 degrees (25 deg C) for 8 hours with light [20,42]. Slender wheatgrass requires a moderately moist bare mineral or lightly mulched seedbed. It is a good competitor on disturbed sites for the first 2 to 3 years. Seedling establishment is often poor in older communities because seedlings to not grow well in thatch or other heavy litter [40]. Generally, seed dispersal and seedling establishment is the primary method of reproduction in this species [23]. Considerable variation, however, has been noted among northern ecotypes in both seed production and vegetative reproduction. Vegetative: Slender wheatgrass reproduces asexually by tillering [23]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Widely distributed, slender wheatgrass has numerous ecotypes that occur in widely differing climates. Slender wheatgrass is found on semiarid ranges, in temperate and boreal forests, and in subalpine, alpine, and subarctic habitats [8,23]. More detailed site characteristics are as follows: Soil: Slender wheatgrass grows in dry to moist, medium-textured soil. It tolerates silt and clay but does best on sandy loam. This species has a high salt tolerance. Soil pH usually ranges from moderately acid to moderately alkaline, although it has been reported growing in soils with a pH as high as 8.8 [20,23]. Precipitation: Slender wheatgrass requires from 10 to 20 inches (25 - 50 cm) of annual precipitation [20]. Elevation: The following ranges in elevation have been reported for slender wheatgrass in several western states [24,25,38]: AZ: 5,000-12,000 ft (1,370-3,660 m) CA: below 11,000 ft (3,330 m) CO: 4,500-12,000 ft (1,370-3,600 m) UT: 4,500-12,200 ft (1,370-3,660 m) SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Slender wheatgrass is a pioneer in primary and secondary succession. It is among the first grasses to establish in gravelly pockets of soil on talus slopes of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, and has colonized abandoned coal mine spoils in Alberta, Canada [17,46]. Slender wheatgrass is often dominant in early seral grassland communities due to its high seed production, and is also a dominant or codominant understory species in early seral forest and woodland communities [10,23]. Populations decrease in all three community types at later stages. Slender wheatgrass planted with crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) on a disturbed grassland range in Alberta declined from 69.5 percent of total herbage production in the first year to 2.6 percent after 4 years [23]. Litter buildup in older communities reduces flowering and seedling establishment in this species [41,43]. It is somewhat shade tolerant and persists in the community as a minor plant associate through the climax stage [23]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Development varies depending upon latitude, elevation, and time of snowmelt. Generally, slender wheatgrass develops as follows [17,20,55]: Northern Range Southern Range growth starts following snowmelt early spring flowers July-Aug May-Oct seeds ripe Aug-Sept June-Nov seeds disseminated Sept-Oct Sept-Nov


SPECIES: Elymus trachycaulus
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Slender wheatgrass is a short-lived species that is favored by summer or fall fires [3,41]. The dense roots survive, and plants establishes from tillers and soil-stored seed in the seed bank. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Caudex, growing points in soil Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Elymus trachycaulus
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Moderate-severity fire will top-kill slender wheatgrass and kill some tillers [59]. Fire effects upon this species differ according to the growth habit of the variety. Elymus trachycaulus spp. trachycaulus, for example, has moderately to densely clustered long leaves and stems. Studies show that bunchgrasses of this form generate high temperatures at the soil surface because fire burns down into the clump, resulting in tiller and root damage [64]. Tall, decadent plants with many dead basal leaves sustain the most fire damage. E. trachycaulus spp. latiglumis, having a short, sparse growth form, is least likely to sustain damage to the root system during fire [22,64]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Plant response varies with season and fire severity. Slender wheatgrass is most sensitive to spring fire that coincides with its active growing period [27,64]. Three months following spring fire in a bracken fern-grassland community in northeastern Wisconsin, slender wheatgrass frequency was reduced by 19.6 percent [57]. Moderate-severity summer and fall fires usually do not affect the frequency of slender wheatgrass [31]. Postfire recovery of this species is rapid. Biomass production is lowered the first year, but original biomass is equaled or exceeded by postfire year 2. Biomass production is usually highest at postfire year 3. By postfire year 4 production has usually returned to prefire levels. Moderate-severity fire causes the greatest increase in biomass. Variations in biomass production according to fire severity were noted in western Wyoming at postfire year 3 [4]: Biomass Production (air-dry kg/ha) before light moderate severe burning burn burn burn 49 57 139 60 Flower production usually increases following fire, especially on sites already disturbed prior to fire [43]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : These Research Project Summaries: provide information on postfire response of plant communities including slender wheatgrass, that was not available when this species review was originally written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Frequent spring fire coinciding with the active growing period can be used to control slender wheatgrass [2]. In mixed stands, summer or fall burning favors slender wheatgrass by removing the thatch or litter layer that inhibits seedling establishment [41].


SPECIES: Elymus trachycaulus
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Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 307-310. [3231] 6. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 7. Bowns, James E.; Bagley, Calvin F. 1986. Vegetation responses to long-term sheep grazing on mountain ranges. Journal of Range Management. 39(5): 431-434. [15584] 8. Brown, Ray W.; Chambers, Jeanne C. 1990. Reclamation practices in high-mountain ecosystems. In: Schmidt, Wyman C.; McDonald, Kathy J., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on whitebark pine ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource; 1989 March 29-31; Bozeman, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-270. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 329-334. [11704] 9. Brown, Ray W.; Johnston, Robert S.; Richardson, Bland Z.; Farmer, Eugene E. 1976. Rehabilitation of alpine disturbances: Beartooth Plateau, Montana. In: Zuck, R. H.; Brown, L. F, eds. High-altitude revegetation workshop No. 2; [Date of conference unknown]; Fort Collins, CO. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University: 58-73. [8266] 10. Brown, R. W.; Johnston, R. S. 1978. Rehabilitation of a high elevation mine disturbance. In: Kenney, S.T., ed. Proceedings: High altitude workshop no. 3. Environmental Res. Cent. Inf. Series No. 28. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University: 116-130. [3322] 11. Brown, Ray W.; Johnston, Robert S.; Johnson, Douglas A. 1978. Rehabilitation of alpine tundra disturbances. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 33: 154-160. [14883] 12. Chambers, Jeanne C. 1989. Native species establishment on an oil drillpad site in the Uintah Mountains, Utah: effects of introduced grass density and fertilizer. Res. Pap. INT-402. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 9 p. [6885] 13. Davis, E. A.; Gottfried, G. J. 1983. Picloram pellets control New Mexico locust sprouts on a cleared forest site in Arizona. Down to Earth. 39(1): 18-21. [6827] 14. DePuit, Edward J. [n.d.]. Cool-season perennial grass establishment on Northern Great Plains mined lands: status of current technology. In: Symposium on surface coal mining and reclamation in the Northern Great Plains: Proceedings; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. [Place of publication unknown]. [Publisher unknown]. 1-24. [8123] 15. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 16. Eckert, R. E. 1975. Improvement of mountain meadows in Nevada. Research Report. Reno, NV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Land Managment. 45 p. [8124] 17. Ellison, Lincoln. 1954. Subalpine vegetation of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Ecological Monographs. 24: 89-184. [861] 18. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 19. Fritzell, Erik K. 1975. Effects of agricultural burning on nesting waterfowl. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 89: 21-27. [14635] 20. Fulbright, Timothy E.; Redente, Edward F.; Hargis, Norman E. 1982. Growing Colorado plants from seed: a state of the art: Volume II: Grasses and grasslike plants. FWS/OBS-82/29. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 113 p. [3709] 21. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 22. 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