SPECIES: Elymus canadensis


Elymus canadensis: INTRODUCTORY

INTRODUCTORY

SPECIES: Elymus canadensis

AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Simonin, Kevin A. 2000. Elymus canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].



ABBREVIATION:
ELYCAN

SYNONYMS:
No entry

NRCS PLANT CODE [89]:
ELCA4

COMMON NAMES:
Canada wildrye
nodding wild rye

TAXONOMY:
The currently accepted scientific name of Canada wildrye is Elymus canadensis L. (Poaceae) [34,39,47,53,97]. Barkworth and Dewey [8] recognize no varieties or forms in North America. Canada wildrye hybridizes with slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus) [97], Texas wildrye (E. interruptus) [39], and Virginia wildrye (E. virginicus) [22].

LIFE FORM:
Graminoid

FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status

OTHER STATUS:
No entry


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Elymus canadensis

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
Canada wildrye is widely distributed throughout North America. It is found from Alaska to Nova Scotia and occurs throughout the United States except for the extreme southeast portion [6,36,39,50]. Canada wildrye is most abundant within the Great Plains, Pacific Northwest, and the Rocky Mountain states [49].

ECOSYSTEMS [37]:
FRES10 White-red-jack pine
FRES11 Spruce-fir
FRES14 Oak-pine
FRES15 Oak-hickory
FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood
FRES18 Maple-beech-birch
FRES19 Aspen-birch
FRES20 Douglas-fir
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES23 Fir-spruce
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie
FRES40 Desert grasslands

STATES:
AK AZ CA CO CT HI ID IL IN IA
KS KY ME MD MA MI MN MO MT NE
NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR
PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA
WV WI WY

AB BC MB NB ON PE PQ SK YK

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [10]:
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

KUCHLER [57] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K015 Western spruce-fir forest
K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
K019 Arizona pine forest
K020 Spruce-fir-Douglas-fir forest
K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest
K022 Great Basin pine forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K026 Oregon oakwoods
K029 California mixed evergreen forest
K030 California oakwoods
K031 Oak-juniper woodland
K032 Transition between K031 and K037
K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K040 Saltbush-greasewood
K051 Wheatgrass-bluegrass
K055 Sagebrush steppe
K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
K057 Galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe
K063 Foothills prairie
K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass
K065 Grama-buffalo grass
K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass
K069 Bluestem-grama prairie
K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie
K074 Bluestem prairie
K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie
K076 Blackland prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K088 Fayette prairie
K098 Northern floodplain forest
K101 Elm-ash forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest

SAF COVER TYPES [33]:
5 Balsam fir
20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple
21 Eastern white pine
22 White pine-hemlock
23 Eastern hemlock
24 Hemlock-yellow birch
25 Sugar maple-beech-yellow birch
30 Red spruce-yellow birch
32 Red spruce
33 Red spruce-balsam fir
35 Paper birch-red spruce-balsam fir
40 Post oak-blackjack oak
42 Bur oak
52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak
53 White oak
59 Yellow-poplar-white oak-northern red oak
63 Cottonwood
93 Sugarberry-American elm-green ash
110 Black oak
210 Interior Douglas-fir
217 Aspen
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
222 Black cottonwood-willow
235 Cottonwood-willow
236 Bur oak
237 Interior ponderosa pine
238 Western juniper
239 Pinyon-juniper
246 California black oak

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [78]:
105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
110 Ponderosa pine-grassland
209 Montane shrubland
301 Bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama
302 Bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass
303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass
304 Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass
314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
317 Bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
409 Tall forb
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
601 Bluestem prairie
602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed
603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass
604 Bluestem-grama prairie
605 Sandsage prairie
606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass
609 Wheatgrass-grama
610 Wheatgrass
611 Blue grama-buffalo grass
612 Sagebrush-grass
615 Wheatgrass-saltgrass-grama
708 Bluestem-dropseed
709 Bluestem-grama
710 Bluestem prairie
717 Little bluestem-Indiangrass-Texas wintergrass
721 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (plains)
722 Sand sagebrush-mixed prairie
731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma
732 Cross timbers-Texas (little bluestem-post oak)
733 Juniper-oak
802 Missouri prairie
805 Riparian

HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Prairie:
Canada wildrye is widely distributed throughout the Great Plains [7]. It commonly occurs in the sand prairies of Minnesota, North Dakota, Colorado, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri, and Manitoba [92]. Canada wildrye is common in northeastern Colorado grass meadows and valley floors of the sandhill region [70]. It is also a common component of Pawnee National Grassland, Colorado [45]. Canada wildrye is found throughout all of Illinois and is a common component of Illinois' mesic prairies [12]. In Iowa, Canada wildrye is a dominant native prairie grass [31]. Lowland prairies are preferred, but widely scattered bunches infrequently occur in upland prairies [30]. Canada wildrye is native to prairie in Ohio [20]. The Edwards Plateau region of Texas supports Canada wildrye [52].

Canada wildrye is a dominant species of the Lake Huron dune system along with prairie sandreed (Calamovilfa longifolia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) [101].

In Kansas, Canada wildrye is a component of tallgrass prairie along with big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii), little bluestem, Indiangrass, (Sorghastrum nutans), switchgrass, prairie Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), and smooth brome (Bromus inermis) [32]. Canada wildrye is also found in mixed grass prairie along with buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), big bluestem [1,60] and rough dropseed (Sporobolus asper) [60]. Within Nebraska tallgrass prairies, Canada wildrye occurs in isolated clumps commonly associated with switchgrass, prairie dropseed, little bluestem, prairie Junegrass, and western wheatgrass [86].
In true prairie lowlands, where big bluestem is dominant, Canada wildrye is a principal associate along with Indiangrass and switchgrass [95].

Forested:
Canada wildrye is common to many forested areas. In California, Canada wildrye is found in the North Coast Range mixed evergreen and mixed hardwood forests [47]. In Wisconsin Canada wildrye Occurs in elm (Ulmus spp.)-ash (Fraxinus spp.)-cottonwood (Populus spp.) habitats along with switchgrass, prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) [9]. It occurs in post oak (Quercus stellata)-Hickory (Carya spp.) barrens of southern Illinois [46]. Canada wildrye is commonly found within east-central Minnesota oak savannas with bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), and northern pin oak (Quercus ellipsoidalis) [85]. It is found in ponderosa pine habitats of the southwest [58].

Riparian:
Riparian and other wetlands support populations of Canada wildrye. Canada wildrye occurs in prairie fens of the southeastern Missouri Ozarks [68]. Canada wildrye is an understory component of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) riparian habitats of northeastern Colorado [77]. Canada wildrye inhabits incised channel banks of ephemeral streams within north-central Wyoming [80]. In Montana Canada wildrye is found in association with eastern cottonwood along the Missouri River flood plain. It is a component of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) communities along with young and mature eastern cottonwood communities adjacent to the Yellowstone River [14]. Overall, Canada wildrye is a common component of riparian communities in association with red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), golden currant (Ribes aureum), Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii), and western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis). Riparian grass associates include smooth brome, and green muhly (Muhlenbergia racemosa) [41].


MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Elymus canadensis

IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Canada wildrye provides good forage for livestock early in the season but is considered inferior forage upon maturity [49,83,93]. It is considered as fair forage in Montana, readily eaten in the early spring, but avoided after development of seed stalks [62]. 

Cougars in Utah and Nevada may feed on Canada wildrye [72]. Cottontail rabbits in Missouri will also feed upon Canada wildrye [55].

PALATABILITY:
When young, Canada wildrye is palatable to all classes of livestock [98]. Overall, Canada wildrye is generally rated as fair, decreasing with maturity [49].

The degree of palatability for Canada wildrye in several western states has been rated as follows [25]:

  CO MT ND UT WY
Cattle Fair Fair Fair Good Good
Sheep Fair Fair Fair Fair Good
Horses Fair Good Fair Good Good
Pronghorn ---- ---- Poor Poor Poor
Elk ---- Fair ---- Fair Good
Mule deer ---- ---- Poor Fair Poor
White-tail deer ---- ---- Poor ---- Poor
Small mammals ---- ---- ---- Fair Fair
Small nongame birds ---- ---- ---- Fair Fair
Upland game birds ---- ---- Poor Fair Poor
Waterfowl ---- ---- ---- Fair Poor

NUTRITIONAL VALUE:
Huston and others [52] evaluated the chemical composition (%) of Canada wildrye from the Edwards Plateau, Texas. Results are summarized below:

Collection date Water Ash Cell wall Phosphorus Protein
Leaves 4/13/73 62 0 56 0.11 14
Leaves and stem 5/24/73 41 12 64 0.13 9
Leaves and stem 6/28/73 57 10 65 0.22 8
Leaves and stem 7/27/73 50 13 60 0.20 7
Leaves and stem 10/25/73 60 13 66 0.22 9

COVER VALUE:
Canada wildrye provides good habitat for many bird species [7]. The degree to which Canada wildrye provides environmental protection for wildlife species is rated as follows [25]:

  MT ND UT WY
Pronghorn ---- Poor Poor Poor
Elk ---- ---- Poor Poor
Mule deer ---- Fair Poor Fair
White-tailed deer ---- Good ---- Fair
Small mammals Poor ---- Good Good
Small nongame birds Poor Fair Good Good
Upland game birds Fair Good Fair Good
Waterfowl ---- ---- Fair Good

VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Ecotypic variation should be considered when implementing revegetation projects. McMillan [61] observed Canada wildrye individuals obtained from different location after transplanting to a community garden in Lincoln, Nebraska. Individuals obtained from Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado flowered earlier than individuals from the remainder of the Great Plains states. Canada wildrye Individuals from Iowa, Illinois, eastern Nebraska, and Missouri showed the latest flowering dates, generally between 15 July to 19 July. Individuals form Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado generally flower during the middle to end of June.

Once established, Canada wildrye increases habitat stability. It provides a good source of litter, seed, and soil organic matter [66]. Canada wildrye also provides good erosion control [7,58]. Seedlings of Canada wildrye are vigorous. Good stands are generally formed the 1st year with peak production occurring the 2nd and 3rd years; after which populations thin rapidly [93].

Canada wildrye is readily grown for seed production [5,21], and seed is commercially available [23,43,67]. Cooper and others [21] along with Atkins and Smith [5], provide suggestions for producing and harvesting Canada wildrye seed within the Great Plains.

Greene and Curtis [40] found cold stratification (storing seeds in loam soil at 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4.4 C) for 2 months) greatly increased germination compared to unstratified seed. Seeds observed were collected in the prairie of southern Wisconsin. Blake [13] found dry storage to produce better germination results than stratification.

Mine spoil soils:
Canada wildrye is tolerant of heavy metals from abandoned tailings [19,42]. Eddleman and Doescher [27] found no significant difference in Canada wildrye shoot biomass when grown in native soil and strip mine spoil soils of southeastern Montana. Hardell and Darrell [42] achieved high germination from hand broadcast and raking Canada wildrye seed on an open pit surface mine in Wisconsin. Noyd and others [66] had great success seeding Canada wildrye for reclamation of a mine in northeastern Minnesota. The 2nd growing season Canada wildrye was the dominant species. Smith [80] was successful revegetation mine spoil soils in British Columbia with Canada wildrye seed. Amending revegetation sites with 5cm of topsoil allowed for the greatest persistence of Canada wildrye which achieved 5% cover at 5 postseeding years, outperforming all other grass species used in the seed mixture.

Robocker and others [74] found Canada wildrye seedlings to have rapid root and shoot growth when compared to the prairie associates big bluestem, switchgrass, and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) when grown in greenhouse conditions of 60 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit (15.5-18.3 °C) or 80 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit (26.7-29.4 °C). Root and shoot growth of Canada wildrye was approximately 10 times greater at 60 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit (15.5-18.3 °C) and approximately 2 times greater at 80 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit (26.7-29.4 °C).

Canada wildrye does not compete well with Kentucky bluegrass or quackgrass (Elymus repens) [74]. Mycorrhizae may decrease Canada wildrye's competitive ability when associated with obligate mycotrophs [43].

Canada wildrye was a component of seed mixtures used to revegetate rural roadsides in Iowa [29].

OTHER USES AND VALUES:
A food source for Native Americans [48,54].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Turnball and Gossan [87] observed an infrequent occurrence of head smut (Ustillago bullata) on Canada wildrye when inoculated with spores obtained from different host plants. The infection (%) of Canada wildrye inoculated with head smut from 3 host species is summarized below:  

Host plant Cheatgrass   (Bromus tectorum) Foxtail barley   (Critesion jubatum) Slender wheatgrass
Infection (%) 5 47 31


Seedheads may also become infected with the fungus black sclerotia of ergot (Claviceps purpurea), especially in wet years [22,97].

Application of the fungicide benomyl significantly (p<0.05) reduced Canada wildrye seedling emergence in Konza Prairie Natural Research Area of northeastern Kansas [44].

Grazing:
Canada wildrye's high reproductive: vegetative stem ratio lends to its susceptibility to grazing pressure. The presence of Canada wildrye growing points, at grazing height, during the grazing season also contributes to negative grazing effects [31]. As an individual, Canada wildrye decreases under grazing pressure, however temporary persistence of Canada wildrye within the community may occur through reproduction by seed [65].

Harvesting for hay is recommended just as seed heads emerge from the boot [49,98]. At this point harvesting has little effect on following season vigor and yield [74].

Mandan wildrye is a smaller cultivar of Canada wildrye possessing finer leaves and longer lived [7]. It also produces more forage and seed [49].


BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Elymus canadensis
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Canada wildrye is a cool season [5,6,7,13], drought intolerant [27], perennial bunchgrass [5,62,97] native to North America [6]. It is a tall, coarse [62,81], robust grass, attaining heights of 2 to 5 feet (0.6-1.5 m) [50,93]. Culms are hollow [39] with stems becoming tough and woody at maturity [50]. Leaf blades are broad, flat, and rough, usually 6 to 12 inches (15-30 cm) long [49] and 0.5 inches (1.2 cm) or more wide [49,62]. The inflorescence is a spike [47,49] generally 6 inches (15 cm) tall with sharp awns [49].

Canada wildrye is a rhizomatous species [39,64] however, rhizomes are rare and generally less than 1.6 inches (4 cm) long and 0.04 to 0.08 inches (1-2 mm) in diameter [39]. Roots are noncoarse [1] and fibrous [5,21] forming a wide fine branching network [67].

Observations of Canada wildrye root system within a true prairie lowland show a shallow, wide-spreading root system that may exceed 2 feet (0.6 m) on all sides. Roots are fine 0.02 inches (0.5 mm) or less in diameter, highly branched, tough and wiry. Roots are usually found within the 1st 2.5 feet (0.76 m) of soil [94].

Canada wildrye is a facultative mycotroph [24,43,67] with a mycorrhizal dependency of 25% in prairie soil [43].

RAUNKIAER [71] LIFE FORM:
Hemicryptophyte

REGENERATION PROCESSES:
Canada wildrye may reproduce through seed or vegetative production. However, it does not rely heavily on vegetative reproduction [86,96]. Canada wildrye produces a high ratio of reproductive to vegetative stems [31] and persistence is generally maintained through production of seed [96].

Seed:
Canada wildrye may outcross [36,76] or self-fertilize [6,36,76]. Sanders and Hamrick [76] found Canada wildrye most often self-fertilizes throughout the northern Great Plains with outcrossing rates varying between populations. Gable [36] observed a much greater outcrossing percentage than that of self-fertilization.

Throughout its distribution, Canada wildrye seed usually matures in the early fall [21]. In the southern portion of its' range, Canada wildrye seed most often mature in July with northern populations maturing in August [98]. Seed yields can average 300 to 400 lbs. (136-181 kg) per acre from native stands [49]. There is no report on seed dispersal mechanisms. However, the presence of long awns suggests the potential for long distance dispersal by animals.

Canada wildrye seeds are highly germinable, showing the best germination in soils with high water content [13]. Seedlings are vigorous [49,98] and usually establish quickly [98]. Robocker and others [74] found Canada wildrye seeds required an average of 8 days before emergence. Seeds were planted in flats at 0.125 to 0.25 inch (0.318-0.64 cm) depths containing a mixture of 1/2 sand and 1/2 Miami silt loam topsoil and germinated in greenhouse conditions at 60 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit (16-18 °C). Average emergence was 54.7%.

Vegetative:
Rhizomes are very short and tend toward vertical rather than horizontal orientation. Mueller [64] found an average rhizome length of 1 inch (2.5 cm), usually occurring in the upper 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) of soil. Rhizomes are more pronounced in loose sandy soil compared to loams. Rhizomes are generally longer in sandy soils compared to loams and may occur as deep as 5 inches (12.7 cm). Observations were made in east-central Nebraska, where average radial increase of Canada wildrye was 2 inches (5.1 cm) per year in loam and approximately 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) in sand.

SITE CHARACTERISTICS:
Canada wildrye is most often associated with mesic environments [21,81,86], inhabiting prairies, streambanks, lakeshores, ditches, and various disturbed sites [39] such as road ditches and other areas of disturbed open ground [36,81,86]. In general Canada wildrye prefers mesic, lowland soils [1].

Soils:
Canada wildrye is adapted to a wide variety of soils [5,21,39,98]. It may inhabit gravelly [39], sandy, silty, or clayey soils [5] and areas of relatively low soil fertility [21] especially the soil nutrient phosphorous [67].

Regional:
Canada wildrye prefers prairie lowlands of Iowa [31], Kansas [38], and Nebraska [81,86]. In North Dakota, Canada wildrye is most often found in moist ravines and streambanks [50]. In sandhill regions of North Dakota, Canada wildrye occurs on disturbed uplands most often around animal burrows and rim areas of sand blowouts [18]. Canada wildrye is commonly found along roadsides adjacent to croplands, pastures, and woodlands in southeastern Iowa [15].

Populations are sparse in the west. In Utah Canada wildrye is found along waterways and in wet, sometimes saline meadows [97]. It is confined to moist ravines and streambanks in eastern Montana, but is widespread in moist mountain valleys of western Montana at medium and low altitudes [62]. Canada wild rye is most often found on disturbed areas in California [47].

SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
Canada wildrye is generally an early seral species [27,59,80], increasing with disturbance. In Wisconsin prairies, regular disturbance from annual floods maintains Canada wildrye as an early seral dominant [17]. Canada wildrye is a pioneer species along many roadsides in Montana [7].

In sandhills of southeastern North Dakota, Canada wildrye is considered a mid-seral species [18].

SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Canada wildrye growing points appear early in the growing season [31]. Lateral roots of seedlings form early and branch widely. Overall growth of foliage is slow compared to root growth [13]. Canada wildrye may show summer dormancy during periods of drought, resuming growth in the fall under adequate moisture [88].

In mesic tallgrass prairies of Nebraska, Canada wildrye vegetative growth usually begins in late April, flowering in mid-July with seeds maturing in August [86]. Seedlings may survive through winter resuming active growth in the spring [13].

Neiland and Curtis [65] observed Canada wildrye phenology in Madison, Wisconsin. Stem elongation began the middle of May, continuing to the end of June, after which anthesis began and continued until the middle of August. Production of crown roots was observed from February until the end of May, occurring again in August. Secondary and tertiary root growth was found to occur from February until the middle of June and again from the beginning of August until the beginning of October.


FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Elymus canadensis

FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
Although a perennial species, Canada wildrye persistence is dependent upon rapid reproduction through seed rather than length of life of the individual [96]. Postfire establishment occurs primarily through seed with vegetative production of the root crown to a lesser extent [35].

Fire regimes for plant communities and ecosystems in which Canada wildrye occurs are summarized below. For further information regarding fire regimes and fire ecology of communities and ecosystems where rough fescue is found, see the `Fire Ecology and Adaptations' section of the FEIS species summary for the plant community or ecosystem dominants listed below.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium < 10 [56,69]
Nebraska sandhills prairie A. g. var. paucipilus-S. s. < 10 
bluestem-Sacahuista prairie Andropogon littoralis-Spartina spartinae < 10 
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. < 35 
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass B. gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii < 35 
blue grama-buffalo grass B. g.-Buchloe dactyloides < 35 [69]
sugarberry-America elm-green ash Celtis laevigata-Ulmus americana-Fraxinus pennsylvanica < 35 to 200 [91]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii < 35 [69]
Great Lakes spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to > 200 
northeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35-200 [26]
Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-10 
Arizona pine P. var. arizonica 2-10 [4]
Table Mountain pine P. pungens < 35 to 200 [91]
red pine (Great Lakes region) P. resinosa 10-200 (10**) [26]
eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides < 35 to 200 [69]
mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 (10**) [3,4]
California oakwoods Quercus spp. < 35 [4]
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. < 35[91]
oak savanna Q. macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [69,91]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. < 35 [69]
elm-ash-cottonwood Ulmus-Fraxinus-Populus spp. < 35 to 200 [26,91]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species summary
**mean

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [4]:
Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
Tussock graminoid
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)


FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Elymus canadensis

IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
Canada wildrye is usually top-killed by fire. The coarse stems and leaves of Canada wildrye make it less prone to prolonged burning [99,100]. Little heat is transferred to crown and basal buds located just below the ground surface [74].

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT:
No entry

PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
Canada wildrye responds poorly to early spring fire [74]. The best postburn response comes from summer fire [51,63]. Postfire establishment occurs primarily through seed [35].

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
Howe [51] evaluated postburn response of Canada wildrye within a tallgrass prairie of south-west Wisconsin. Canada wildrye decreased in relation to warm season associates, when subjected to early spring burn (late March) or left unburned. A decrease in Canada wildrye also occurred following mid-summer fire (15 July). However, a greater persistence of Canada wildrye was observed in mid-summer burned areas versus unburned controls. Details of this study and others by Howe are described in the research project summary, Herbaceous responses to seasonal burning in experimental tallgrass prairie plots.

Canada wildrye showed "good" vegetative growth following a February fire in an Iowa prairie. The fire occurred directly after winter snowmelt. Although the fire had no effect upon yield, anthesis and overall growth began a few weeks earlier in burned versus unburned areas. The area studied was burned 9 years prior [31].

A "small" (2.0 hectare) August fire within a plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera) forest of Alberta had no significant (p<0.05) effect on Canada wildrye cover when compared to unburned sites [63]. An August fire in the Hayden Prairie of northeastern Iowa had no significant effect on Canada wildrye seedstalk number and height the following growing season, when compared to unburned areas. The relative production of Canada wildrye plant parts on burned and unburned areas is summarized below [30]:

Burned Unburned
Seed stalks #/bundle 105.0 102.0
Seed stalk average height (inches) 46.0 46.0
Seed stalk weight (grams) 113.5 111.0
Fruit purity (%) 40.1 47.9
Fruit germination (%) 8.0 44.0
Fruit weight (grams) 45.5 49.4
Leaf blades average length (inches) 18.0 18.0
Leaf blade weight (grams) 45.5 49.4
Leaf sheaths average length (inches) 6.0 6.0
Leaf sheaths weight (grams) 47.3 48.2
Total weight (grams) 258.3 256.0


The affect of fire on Canada wild rye seed germination has shown conflicting results. Rohn and Bragg [75] found no difference in germination percentage when comparing seed collected in September from spring (April) burned areas when compared to seeds collected form adjacent unburned areas. However, Ehrenreich and Aikman [30] observed greater germination on unburned areas 44%, compared to burned 8%.

FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Slinkard and others [79] were successful broadcast seeding Canada wildrye in November within a ponderosa pine forest after a late summer fire in northern Idaho. "Excellent" stands were observed in September the following year and in July at 3 postseeding years.

In burned ponderosa pine areas of the Southwest, Canada wildrye provides good erosion control [58].


Elymus canadensis: References


1. Albertson, F. W. 1937. Ecology of mixed prairie in west central Kansas. Ecological Monographs. 7: 483-547. [5057]

2. Allen, Eugene O. 1968. Range use, foods, condition, and productivity of white-tailed deer in Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 32(1): 130-141. [16331]

3. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. [11990]

4. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]

5. Atkins, M. D.; Smith, James E., Jr. 1967. Grass seed production and harvest in the Great Plains. Farmers' Bulletin 2226. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 30 p. [5535]

6. Aung, Taing; Walton, P. D. 1990. Morphology and cytology of the reciprocal hybrids between Elymus trachycaulus and Elymus canadensis. Genome. 33: 123-130. [11634]

7. Barker, R. E.; Holzworth, L. K.; Asay, K. H. 1985. Genetic resources of wheatgrass and wildrye species native to the rangelands of western North America. In: Carlson, Jack R.; McArthur, E. Durant, chairmen. Range plant improvement in western North America: Proceedings of a symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Range Management; 1985 February 14; Salt Lake City, UT. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 9-13. [4381]

8. Barkworth, Mary E.; Dewey, Douglas R. 1985. Genomically based genera in the perennial Triticeae of North America: identification and membership. American Journal of Botany. 72(5): 767-776. [393]

9. Barnes, W. J. 1985. Population dynamics of woody plants on a river island. Canadian Journal of Botany. 63: 647-655. [2855]

10. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

11. Betz, Robert F.; Lamp, Herbert F. 1989. Species composition of old settler silt-loam prairies. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 33-39. [14016]

12. Betz, Robert F; Lootens, Robert J.; Becker, Michael K. 1996. Two decades of prairie restoration at Fermilab: Batavia, Illinois. In: Warwick, Charles, ed. 15th North American prairie confererence: Proceedings; 1996 October 23-26; St. Charles, IL. Bend, OR: The Natural Areas Association: 20-30. [30249]

13. Blake, Abigail Kincaid. 1935. Viability and germination of seeds and early life history of prairie plants. Ecological Monographs. 5(4): 405-460. [22086]

14. Boggs, Keith Webster. 1984. Succession in riparian communities of the lower Yellowstone River, Montana. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 107 p. Thesis. [7245]

15. Bouta, Robin P. 1992. Relationship of adjacent land use to roadside prairie grass occurrence in Lee County, Iowa. In: Smith, Daryl D.; Jacobs, Carol A., eds. Recapturing a vanishing heritage: Proceedings, 12th North American prairie conference; 1990 August 5-9; Cedar Falls, IA. Cedar Falls, IA: University of Northern Iowa: 165-168. [24736]

16. Bowles, Marlin; Flakne, Robyn; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel. 1993. Recovery planning and reintroduction of the federally threatened pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) in Illinois. Natural Areas Journal. 13(3): 164-176. [22355]

17. Bradley, Nina Leopold. 1987. Wild rye: response to disturbance and behavior on restoration sites (Wisconsin). Restoration & Management. 5(2): 84-85. [2859]

18. Burgess, Robert L. 1965. A study of plant succession in the sandhills of southeastern North Dakota. In: Annual proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science; 1965 May 7-8; Fargo, ND. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Science: 62-80. [4471]

19. Chambers, Jeanne C.; Sidle, Roy C. 1991. Fate of heavy metals in an abandoned lead-zinc tailings pond: I. Vegetation. Journal of Environmental Quality. 20(4): 745-751. [34948]

20. Conover, Denis G.; Geiger, Donald R. 1989. Establishment of a prairie on a borrow-pit at the Bergamo-Mt. St. John Nature Preserve in Greene County, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science. 89(3): 42-44. [9744]

21. Cooper, H. W.; Smith, James E., Jr.; Atkins, M. D. 1957. Producing and harvesting grass seed in the Great Plains. Farmers' Bulletin 2112. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 30 p. [27329]

22. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; [and others]. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6. The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. [719]

23. Davenport Seed Corporation. 1997. Rainier Seed, Inc. [Catalog]. Davenport, WA: Davenport Seed Corporation. 20 p. [27624]

24. Dhillion, Shivcharn S.; Friese, Carl F. 1994. The occurrence of mycorrhizas in prairies: application to ecological restoration. In: Wickett, Robert G.; Lewis, Patricia Dolan; Woodliffe, Allen; Pratt, Paul, eds. Spirit of the land, our prairie legacy: Proceedings, 13th North American prairie conference; 1992 August 6-9; Windsor, ON. Windsor, ON: Department of Parks and Recreation: 103-114. [24682]

25. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

26. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]

27. Eddleman, Lee E.; Doescher, Paul S. 1978. Selection of native plants for spoils revegetation based on regeneration characteristics and successional status. In: Land Reclamation Program, Annual Report July 1976-October 1977. ANL/LRP-2. Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory, Energy & Environmental Systems Division: 132-138. [5729]

28. Eddleman, Lee E.; Meinhardt, Patricia L. 1981. Seed viability and seedling vigor in selected prairie plants. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The Prairie Peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 213-217. [3410]

29. Ehley, Alan M. 1990. Program encourages use of prairie species on roadsides. Restoration & Management Notes. 8(2): 101-102. [14156]

30. Ehrenreich, John H.; Aikman, J. M. 1957. Effect of burning on seedstalk production of native prairie grasses. Iowa Academy of Science Proc. 64: 205-211. [854]

31. Ehrenreich, John H.; Aikman, John M. 1963. An ecological study of the effect on certain management practices on native prairie in Iowa. Ecological Monographs. 33(2): 113-130. [9]

32. Eom, Ahn-heum; Hartnett, David C.; Wilson, Gail W. T.; Figge, Deborah A. H. 1999. The effect of fire, mowing and fertilizer amendment on arbuscular mycorrhizas in tallgrass prairie. The American Midland Naturalist. 142(1): 55-70. [30353]

33. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

34. Fassett, Norman C. 1951. Grasses of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 173 p. [21728]

35. Frischknecht, Neil C.; Plummer, A. Perry. 1955. A comparison of seeded grasses under grazing and protection on a mountain brush burn. Journal of Range Management. 8: 170-175. [979]

36. Gabel, Mark L. 1984. A biosystematic study of the genus Elymus (Gramineae: Triticeae) in Iowa. Proceedings, Iowa Academy of Sciences. 91(4): 140-146. [20426]

37. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

38. Gibson, David J. 1988. Regeneration and fluctuation of tallgrass prairie vegetation in response to burning frequency. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 115(1): 1-12. [4426]

39. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]

40. Greene, H. C.; Curtis, J. T. 1950. Germination studies of Wisconsin prairie plants. The American Midland Naturalist. 43(1): 186-194. [4086]

41. Hansen, Paul L.; Boggs, Keith; Pfister, Robert D.; [and others]. 1994. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in Montana. In: Hamre, R. H., ed. Workshop on western wetlands and riparian areas: public/private efforts in recovery, management, and education: Proceedings; 1993 September 9-11; Snowbird, UT. Boulder, CO: Thorne Ecological Institute: 1-17. [27800]

42. Hardell, Julie; Morrison, Darrell G. 1983. Response of prairie species planted on iron ore tailings under different fertilization levels. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 287-292. [3230]

43. Hartnett, D. C.; Hetrick, A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Gibson, D. J. 1993. Mycorrhizal influence on intra- and interspecific neighbour interactions among co-occurring prairie grasses. Journal of Ecology. 81(4): 787-795. [35454]

44. Hartnett, D. C.; Samenus, R. J.; Fischer, L. E.; Hetrick, B. A. D. 1994. Plant demographic responses to mycorrhizal symbiosis in tallgrass prairie. Oecologia. 99(1-2): 21-26. [30423]

45. Hazlett, Donald L. 1998. Vascular plant species of the Pawnee National Grassland. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-17. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 26 p. [29136]

46. Heikens, Alice Long; West, K. Andrew; Robertson, Philip A. 1994. Short-term response of chert and shale barrens vegetation to fire in southwestern Illinois. Castanea. 59(3): 274-285. [27228]

47. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]

48. Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Misc. Publ. No. 200. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration. 1051 p. [2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase in two volumes. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.]. [1165]

49. Hoover, Max M.; Hein, M. A.; Dayton, William A.; Erlanson, C. O. 1948. The main grasses for farm and home. In: Grass: The yearbook of agriculture 1948. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture: 639-700. [1190]

50. Hopper, T. H.; Nesbitt, L. L. 1930. The chemical composition of some North Dakota pasture and hay grasses. Bull. 236. Fargo, ND: North Dakota Agricultural College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 39 p. [3265]

51. Howe, Henry F. 1994. Response of early- and late-flowering plants to fire season in experimental prairies. Ecological Applications. 4(1): 121-133. [27810]

52. Huston, J. E.; Rector, B. S.; Merrill, L. B.; Engdahl, B. S. 1981. Nutritional value of range plants in the Edwards Plateau region of Texas. Report B-1375. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University System, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. 16 p. [4565]

53. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume I--checklist. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 622 p. [23877]

54. Kindscher, Kelly. 1988. The ethnobotanical use of native prairie plants as food. In: Davis, Arnold; Stanford, Geoffrey, eds. The prairie: roots of our culture; foundation of our economy: Proceedings, 10th North American prairie conference; 1986 June 22-26; Denton, TX. Dallas, TX: Native Prairie Association of Texas: 02.04: 1-3. [25585]

55. Korschgen, Leroy J. 1980. Food and nutrition of cottontail rabbits in Missouri. Terrestrial Series #6. Jefferson City, MO: Missouri Department of Conservation. 16 p. [25171]

56. Kucera, Clair L. 1981. Grasslands and fire. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others], technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 90-111. [4389]

57. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]

58. Lavin, Fred. 1953. Guide for reseeding burned and logged-over ponderosa pine lands in the Southwest. Res. Rep. No. 10. Tucson, AZ: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station. 11 p. [15549]

59. Liegel, Konrad; Lyon, Jonathon. 1986. Prairie restoration program at the International Crane Foundation. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 190-194. [3567]

60. Lippert, Robert D.; Hopkins, Harold H. 1950. Study of viable seeds in various habitats in mixed prairie. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 53(3): 355-364. [1461]

61. McMillan, C. 1959. The role of ecotypic variation in the distribution of the central grassland of North America. Ecological Monographs. 29: 285-308. [5523]

62. Morris, H. E.; Booth, W. E.; Payne, G. F.; Stitt, R. E. 1950. Important grasses on Montana ranges. Bull. No. 470. Bozeman, MT: Montana Agricultural Experiment Station. 52 p. [5520]

63. Mowat, Catherine. 1990. Fire effects study for Quail Flats Fire, Dinosaur Provincial Park. Calgary, AB: Alberta Recreation, Parks and Wildlife Foundation, Dinosaur National Park. 37 p. [+]. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [17454]

64. Mueller, Irene M. 1941. An experimental study of rhizomes of certain prairie plants. Ecological Monographs. 11: 165-188. [25837]

65. Neiland, Bonita Miller; Curtis, John T. 1956. Differential responses to clipping of six prairie grasses in Wisconsin. Ecology. 37(2): 355-365. [37219]

66. Noyd, Robert K.; Pfleger, F. L.; Norland, Michael R.; Sadowsky, Michael J. 1995. Native prairie grasses and microbial community responses to reclamation of taconite iron ore tailing. Canadian Journal of Botany. 73: 1645-1654. [26647]

67. Noyd, Robert K.; Pfleger, F. L.; Russelle, M. P. 1995. Interactions between native prairie grasses and indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: implications for reclamation of taconite iron ore tailing. New Phytologist. 129(4): 651-660. [35460]

68. Orzell, Steve L.; Kurz, Donald R. 1986. Floristic analysis of prairie fens in the southeastern Missouri Ozarks. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings of the ninth North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 50-57. [3514]

69. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]

70. Ramaley, Francis. 1939. Sand-hill vegetation of northeastern Colorado. Ecological Monographs. 9(1): 1-51. [5546]

71. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

72. Robinette, W. Leslie; Gashwiler, Jay S.; Morris, Owen W. 1959. Food habits of the cougar in Utah and Nevada. Journal of Wildlife Management. 23(3): 261-273. [25007]

73. Robocker, W. C.; Curtis, J. T.; Ahlgren, H. L. 1953. Some factors affecting emergence and establishment of native grass seedlings in Wisconsin. Ecology. 34: 194-199. [5600]

74. Robocker, W. C.; Miller, Bonita J. 1955. Effects of clipping, burning and competition on establishment and survival of some native grasses in Wisconsin. Journal of Range Management. 8: 117-120. [3886]

75. Rohn, Sherry R.; Bragg, Thomas B. 1989. Effect of burning on germination of tallgrass prairie plant species. In: Bragg, Thomas A.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 169-171. [14038]

76. Sanders, Thomas B.; Hamrick, J. L. 1980. Variation in the breeding system of Elymus canadensis. Evolution. 34(1): 117-122. [35452]

77. Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L. 1991. Prescribed grazing as a secondary impact in a western riparian floodplain. Journal of Range Management. 44(4): 369-373. [15091]

78. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

79. Slinkard, A. E.; Nurmi, E. O.; Schwendiman, J. L. 1970. Seeding burned-over lands in northern Idaho. Current Information Series No. 139. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, Agricultural Experiment Station. 4 p. [19669]

80. Smith, Michael A.; Dodd, Jerrold L.; Skinner, Quentin D.; Rodgers, J. Daniel. 1993. Dynamics of vegetation along and adjacent to an ephemeral channel. Journal of Range Management. 46(1): 56-64. [20350]

81. Steiger, T. L. 1930. Structure of prairie vegetation. Ecology. 11(1): 170-217. [3777]

82. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 10 p. [20090]

83. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 465 p. [2270]

84. Stubbendieck, James. 1988. Historical development of native vegetation on the Great Plains. In: Mitchell, John E, ed. Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the Great Plains; 1987 September 16-18; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-158. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 21-28. [5142]

85. Tester, John R. 1989. Effects of fire frequency on oak savanna in east-central Minnesota. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116(2): 134-144. [9281]

86. Tolstead, W. L. 1942. Vegetation of the northern part of Cherry County, Nebraska. Ecological Monographs. 12: 255-292. [4470]

87. Turnbull, G. D.; Gossen, B. D. 1996. Head smut of grasses on the Canadian prairies. II. Host range and variability. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 18(3): 255-260. [36441]

88. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1957. Grasses and legumes for forage and conservation. ARS 22-42. Washington, DC. 32 p. [19487]

89. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104]

90. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471]

91. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]

92. Wanek, W. J.; Burgess, R. L. 1965. Floristic composition of the sand prairies of southeastern North Dakota. Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Sciences. 9: 26-40. [5529]

93. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Western Energy and Land Use Team. 347 p. Available from NTIS, Springfield, VA 22161; PB-83-167023. [2458]

94. Weaver, J. E. 1958. Summary and interpretation of underground development in natural grassland communities. Ecological Monographs. 28(1): 55-78. [297]

95. Weaver, J. E.; Kramer, Joseph. 1932. Root system of Quercus macrocarpa in relation to the invasion of prairie. Botanical Gazette. 94: 51-85. [274]

96. Weaver, J. E.; Zink, Ellen. 1946. Length of life of roots of ten species of perennial range and pasture grasses. Plant Physiology. 21: 201-217. [2465]

97. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

98. Wheeler, W. A.; Hill, D. D. 1957. Grassland seeds. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. 628 p. [18902]

99. Wright, Henry A. 1971. Why squirreltail is more tolerant to burning than needle-and-thread. Journal of Range Management. 24: 277-284. [2610]

100. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]

101. Yun, Kyeong W.; Maun, M. A. 1997. Allelopathic potential of Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata on Lake Huron sand dunes. Canadian Journal of Botany. 75: 1903-1912. [28273]




FEIS Home Page