Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Echinochloa crus-galli


SPECIES: Echinochloa crus-galli
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Esser, Lora L. 1994. Echinochloa crus-galli. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : ECHCRU SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : ECCR ECCRC ECCRO COMMON NAMES : barnyard grass common barnyard grass TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of barnyard grass is Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. [16,19,45,80]. It is a member of the Poaceae family. There are two varieties of barnyard grass [1,72]: E. c. var. crus-galli E. c. var. oryzicola (Vas) Ohwi LIFE FORM : Graminoid FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Echinochloa crus-galli
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Barnyard grass is a weed of Eurasian origin that occurs throughout the continental United States. It is also found in southern Canada from British Columbia east to Novia Scotia [19,27,39,57,63]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES31 Shinnery FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie FRES41 Wet grasslands FRES42 Annual grasslands STATES : AZ AR CA CO CT FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY DC AB BC MB NB NS ON PQ SK MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 3 Southern Pacific Border 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K048 California steppe SAF COVER TYPES : 20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple 22 White pine - hemlock 23 Eastern hemlock 28 Black cherry - maple 39 Black ash - American elm - red maple 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 57 Yellow-poplar 58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 63 Cottonwood 67 Mohrs (shin) oak 110 Black oak 217 Aspen 235 Cottonwood - willow SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : In the Sacramento Valley of California, barnyard grass occurs in wetland communities with swamp grass (Crypsis schoenoides) and bearded sprangletop (Leptochloa fascicularis) [47]. Barnyard grass is found in the southern High Plains region of northern Texas and southern New Mexico. In this region, it is codominant with red sprangletop (L. filiformis) in wet meadow and prairie communities and is also found in shinnery communities [4,5]. Barnyard grass occurs in temporarily flooded palustrine wetlands of the northern prairie and plains communities [26,83]. In eastern Colorado and western Kansas, barnyard grass occurs in the plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides) riparian zone. Common associates include saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima), sandbar willow (Salix exigua), and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) [38,60]. Barnyard grass is also a member of saltcedar and willow-cottonwood communities in Arizona [55]. Barnyard grass is the dominant species in some wetlands of North Dakota. Common associates include water plantain (Alisma triviale), American slough grass (Beckmannia syzigachne), needle spikerush (Eleocharis acicularis), hedge hyssop (Gratiola neglecta), and pale smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium) [16,63]. In South Dakota, barnyard grass occurs in mixed-grass prairie dominated by blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), and needlegrass (Stipa spp.). Other associates include needleleaf sedge (Carex eleocharis), Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) [37,71]. In tallgrass prairies of northeast Kansas, barnyard grass occurs in communities dominated by big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii), little bluestem, and Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) [14]. At Gettysburg National Military Park in Pennsylvania, barnyard grass occurs in a variety of forest cover types as an understory species. Species associated with barnyard grass not previously mentioned include white ash (Fraxinus americana), mockernut hickory (Carya tomentosa), shagbark hickory (C. ovata), black walnut (Juglans nigra), eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), sassafrass (Sassafrass albidum), and red pine (Pinus resinosa) [85].


SPECIES: Echinochloa crus-galli
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Barnyard grass is readily grazed by livestock in Arizona and West Virginia, and can be cultivated for hay [27,67]. Seeds of barnyard grass are eaten by songbirds, waterfowl, and greater prairie chickens [6,9,59,63,75]. Barnyard grass is an important source of food and cover for waterfowl in the Sacramento Valley [47]. In the playa lakes of Texas and New Mexico, meadows dominated by barnyard grass are important habitat for waterfowl and pheasant [4]. PALATABILITY : Barnyard grass produces fair pasture when grazed during early growth stages but becomes harsh and unpalatable at maturity [68]. It is palatable to sheep in Minnesota [40]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Barnyard grass has fair to poor forage value for livestock [68]. In Minnesota, toxic levels of nitrate have been reported in barnyard grass [40]. Nutritional values of sun-cured barnyard grass in the milk stage are as follows [87]: _________________________________________United States Dry matter % 84.2 100.0 Ash % 7.7 9.1 Crude fiber % 31.0 36.8 Ether extract % 1.8 2.1 N-free extract % 34.0 40.4 Protein (N x 6.25) Sheep dig. coef.* % 57.0 57.0 Cattle dig. prot.* % 5.9 7.0 Goats dig. prot. % 6.2 7.4 Horses dig. prot. % 6.2 7.4 Rabbits dig. prot. % 6.4 7.6 Sheep dig. prot. % 5.6 6.6 Energy Cattle DE* Mcal/kg 1.95 2.31 Sheep DE Mcal/kg 1.98 2.35 Cattle ME* Mcal/kg 1.60 1.90 Sheep ME Mcal/kg 1.62 1.93 _______________________________________________________ *dig. coef.=protein digestible coefficient dig. prot.=digestible protein DE=digestible energy ME=metabolizable energy COVER VALUE : Barnyard grass cover values are as follows [86]: UT WY ND upland game birds poor fair good waterfowl poor fair good small nongame birds fair fair good small mammals fair fair ---- VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Barnyard grass has colonized desert riparian and wetland community sites along the Gila river in Arizona that were supplied by year-round flows of wastewater. If wastewater areas are managed on a permanent year-round basis, habitat rehabilitation and avian colonization may occur [55]. Barnyard grass can be utilized for quick, temporary erosion control on coal mine sites in the eastern United States [75]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Generally, seed yields from barnyard grass stands are reduced in 2 to 3 years because of competition with other weeds [43]. In Missouri, natural seeding of barnyard grass was stimulated by periodic draining and flooding of a wetland site; a July 1 to September 15 drawdown produced an excellent stand of barnyard grass which was utilized by waterfowl [6]. In California, draining barnyard grass fields in the spring and discing them can benefit stands. At the Mendota Waterfowl Management Area, California, this practice has been used to perpetuate stands of barnyard grass for up to 6 years. Barnyard grass may harbor a virus-like disease of cereals [17]. Toxicity tests of effluents in water and sediment were conducted using the two varieties of barnyard grass. Effluents from a sewage treatment plant, tannery, textile mill, pulp and paper mill, and coking plant inhibited germination, chlorophyll synthesis, and growth of barnyard grass [77,78].


SPECIES: Echinochloa crus-galli
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Barnyard grass is an introduced, nonrhizomatous, warm-season annual. Stems may be solitary or in small tufts, erect or reclining at the base, up to 6.6 feet tall (2 m) [16,28,39,52,80]. Leaves are flat, 4 to 12 inches (10-30 cm) long and 0.2 to 0.6 (5-15 mm) inch wide [18,19,27,46]. The panicle is 2 to 8.4 inches (5-21 cm) long, upright or nodding [19,46,68]. Barnyard grass has a fibrous root system [39,49]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Therophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Barnyard grass reproduces by seed. It is self-pollinating [51] and a prolific seed producer [28,44,68]. A healthy plant can produce from 750,000 to one million seeds [44]. Barnyard grass seed is water dispersed [1]. Seed viability in soil is variable [10,44]. In Stoneville, Mississippi, in 1972, a 50-year study on longevity of buried seed of barnyard grass was initiated. Seed viability was 1 percent after burial for 2.5 years; less than 6 percent of seed survived 6 months or longer [10]. However, according to Dawson [8], barnyard grass seed may be viable in the soil for up to 13 years. In another study by Mitich [44], seed viability of barnyard grass was 100 percent after 6 to 8 years of dry storage in irrigated sandy loam soil, and all seed was nonviable after 15 years. Watanabe [79] found that barnyard grass seed germination rate was 27 percent after burial for 6 months and 3 percent after burial for 6.5 years. Barnyard grass seed germinates over a wide temperature range, 55 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit (13-40 deg C), with optimum germination occurring from 68 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (20-30 deg C) [53,62]. The buoyancy and hence dispersal by water of barnyard grass seeds is probably influenced by their weight. A survey of seed weight [1] demonstrated that seeds of E. crus-galli var. oryzicola were on the average 2 to 3 times heavier than those of E. crus-galli var. crus-galli. The lighter seeds of E. crus-galli var. crus-galli exhibited greater buoyancy, with approximately 50 percent of seeds remaining afloat after 4 to 5 days in water. In contrast, 95 percent of E. crus-galli var. oryzicola seeds had sunk after 5 days. Decay of dormancy in E. crus-galli var. oryzicola is more rapid than in E. crus-galli var. crus-galli following dry storage and burial in soil. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Barnyard grass is widespread in fields, waste places, ditches, marshes, wet meadows, floodplains and along lakeshores and streambanks [18,20,33,38,39]. It is locally common in floodplains, riverbottoms, and seasonally wet habitats [1,63,80], but also occurs in drier habitats [24]. Barnyard grass is most often found on disturbed, generally nonsaline soils [25,53,63], but grows on a variety of soil types [38,53]. Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli is generally absent from sites that have greater than 12 inches (30 cm) of standing water for more than 4 weeks at a time [42,63]. It occurs in shallow water or after drawdown [63]. Barnyard grass tolerates poor drainage and flooding, but not severe drought [7,31,44,60]. In California, the two varieties of barnyard grass differ in habitat preference and colonizing ability. Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli is a cosmopolitan weed of wet, disturbed ground and occurs in shallow water around the periphery of rice fields. Echinochloa crus-galli var. oryzicola is a crop mimic that is found primarily in permanently flooded cultivated rice fields [1]. Elevations of barnyard grass are as follows: feet meters Arizona 150-7,000 45-2,100 [27] California <4,950 <1,500 [20] Colorado 4,500-7,500 1,350-2,250 [19] Kansas 3,370-4,675 1,021-1,417 [38] Montana 2,800-3,300 840-1,000 [86] South Dakota 1,940-2,025 587- 614 [71] Texas 7,400 2,320 [21] Utah 2,705-7,045 820-2,135 [80] Wyoming 3,700-5,100 1,110-1,530 [86] SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Barnyard grass is a pioneer species that readily invades disturbed sites [63,68]. It is found most often in open, unshaded areas [25,44], and is intolerant of dense shade [44]. Barnyard grass invades South Dakota rangelands and rapidly colonizes overflow and subirrigated range sites that have been denuded or disturbed in Nebraska [37,68]. In Idaho, barnyard grass is an increaser species on periodically flooded sites along streams [58]. At a restoration prairie site in Ohio, barnyard grass established at the edge of an ephemeral pond that is subject to periodic flooding and drying [7]. In an old-field succession deciduous forest in southwestern Ohio, barnyard grass was found growing in a 2-year-old stand, but was not present in stands 10, 50, 90, or 200 years old [56,74]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Barnyard grass flowering dates for several states are as follows: Arizona July-Sept [27] California July-Oct [46] Colorado Aug-Sept [86] Florida all year [84] Illinois Aug-Oct [45] Montana June-Oct [86] Nebraska Aug-Sept [61] North Carolina July-Oct [52] North Dakota July 15 [65] South Carolina July-Oct [52] West Virginia Aug-Oct [67] Wyoming Aug-Oct [86] Great Plains June-Sept [16]


SPECIES: Echinochloa crus-galli
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Barnyard grass may colonize burned areas from soil-stored seed after fire. Fires that thin or remove canopy vegetation produce conditions that may be conducive to colonization by barnyard grass. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Echinochloa crus-galli

References for species: Echinochloa crus

1. Barrett, Spencer C. H.; Wilson, Blake F. 1983. Colonizing ability in the Echinochloa crus-galli complex (barnyard grass). II. Seed biology. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61: 556-562. [24031]
2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
3. Blackshaw, Robert E.; Rode, Lyle M. 1991. Effect of ensiling and rumen digestion by cattle on weed seed viability. Weed Science. 39(1): 104-108. [21835]
4. Bolen, Eric G.; Smith, Loren M.; Schramm, Harold L., Jr. 1989. Playa Lakes: prairie wetlands of the southern High Plains. BioScience. 39(9): 615-623. [11483]
5. Bryant, Fred C.; Smith, Loren M. 1988. The role of wildlife as an economic input into a farming or ranching operation. In: Mitchell, John E., ed. Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the Great Plains: Proceedings; 1987 September 16-18; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-158. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-98. [5147]
6. Burgess, Harold H. 1969. Habitat management on a mid-continent waterfowl refuge. Journal of Wildlife Management. 33(4): 843-847. [14506]
7. Conover, Denis G.; Geiger, Donald R. 1989. Establishment of a prairie on a borrow-pit at the Bergamo-Mt. St. John Nature Preserve in Greene County, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science. 89(3): 42-44. [9744]
8. Dawson, J. H.; Bruns, V. F. 1975. Longevity of barnyardgrass, green foxtail, and yellow foxtail seeds in soil. Weed Science. 23(5): 437-440. [24041]
9. Dugger, Katie M.; Fredrickson, Leigh H. 1992. Life history and habitat needs of the wood duck. Fish and Wildlife Leaflet 13.1.6. Waterfowl Management Handbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 8 p. [20789]
10. Egley, G. H.; Chandler, J. M. 1978. Germination and viability of weed seeds after 2.5 years in a 50-year buried seed study. Weed Science. 26(3): 230-239. [19609]
11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
12. Fassett, Norman C. 1951. Grasses of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 173 p. [21728]
13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
14. Gibson, David J. 1989. Effects of animal disturbance on tallgrass prairie vegetation. The American Midland Naturalist. 121: 144-154. [6641]
15. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
16. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
17. Haber, S.; Harder, D. E. 1992. Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) & barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli), new hosts of the virus-like agent causing flame chlorosis in cerals. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 14: 278-280. [24042]
18. Hallsten, Gregory P.; Skinner, Quentin D.; Beetle, Alan A. 1987. Grasses of Wyoming. 3rd ed. Research Journal 202. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 432 p. [2906]
19. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
20. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
21. Hinckley, L. C. 1944. The vegetation of the Mount Livermore area in Texas. The American Midland Naturalist. 32: 236-250. [4451]
22. Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Misc. Publ. No. 200. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration. 1051 p. [2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase in two volumes. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.]. [1165]
23. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
24. Holmgren, Arthur H. 1958. Weeds of Utah. Special Report 12. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 85 p. [2935]
25. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18483]
26. Kantrud, Harold A.; Millar, John B.; van der Valk, A. G. 1989. Vegetation of wetlands of the prairie pothole region. In: van der Valk, Arnold, ed. Northern prairie wetlands. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press: 132-187. [15217]
27. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
28. Keeley, Paul E.; Thullen, Robert J. 1991. Growth and interaction of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Science. 39: 369-375. [24036]
29. Kempen, Harold M. 1984. Cotton production losses form weed competition in Kern County: a three year evaluation. In: Proceedings, Western Society of Weed Science. 37: 47-51. [25180]
30. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
31. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19377]
32. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
33. Larson, Gary E. 1993. Aquatic and wetland vascular plants of the Northern Great Plains. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-238. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 681 p. [22534]
34. Laubhan, Murray K.; Fredrickson, Leigh H. 1992. Estimating seed production of common plants in seasonally flooded wetlands. Journal of Wildland Management. 56(2): 329-337. [18094]
35. Leather, Gerald R. 1987. The seed germination process. In: Frasier, Gary W.; Evans, Raymond A., eds. "Seed and seedbed ecology of rangeland plants": Proceedings of symposium; 1987 April 21-23; Tucson, AZ. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: 1-4. [15300]
36. Leather, Gerald R.; Sung, Shi-Jean; Hale, Maynard G. 1992. The wounding response of dormant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) seeds. Weed Science. 40(2): 200-203. [19445]
37. Lewis, James K.; Van Dyne, George M.; Albee, Leslie R.; Whetzal, Frank W. 1956. Intensity of grazing: Its effect on livestock and forage production. Bulletin 459. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 44 p. [11737]
38. Lindauer, Ivo E. 1983. A comparison of the plant communities of the South Platte and Arkansas River drainages in eastern Colorado. The Southwestern Naturalist. 28(3): 249-259. [5886]
39. Magee, Dennis W. 1981. Freshwater wetlands: A guide to common indicator plants of the Northeast. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. 245 p. [14824]
40. Marten, G. C.; Andersen, R. N. 1975. Forage nutritive value and palatability of 12 common annual weeds. Crop Science. 15: 821-827. [25]
41. Maun, M. A. 1977. Suppressing effect of soybeans on barnyard grass. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 57: 485-490. [24035]
42. McAtee, W. L. 1917. Propagation of wild-duck foods. Bulletin No. 465. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agricutlure. 40 p. [20530]
43. Miller, A. Wendell. 1962. Waterfowl habitat improvement in California. In: Proceedings, annual conference of Western Association of State Fish & Game Commissioners. [Volume unknown]: 112-118. [15439]
44. Mitich, Larry W. 1990. Intriguing world of weeds: barnyardgrass. Weed Technology. 4(4): 918-920. [14946]
45. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
46. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
47. Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H., Jr.; Harris, Stanley W. 1992. Effects of irrigation on seed production and vegetative characteristics of four moist-soil plants on impounded wetlands in California. Wetlands. 12(3): 204-207. [24038]
48. Nelson, Noland F.; Dietz, Reuben H. 1966. Cattail control methods in Utah. Publication No. 66-2. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah State Department of Fish and Game. 66 p. [17809]
49. Nester, Ruel P. 1969. Barnyardgrass competition and control in rice. Rice Journal. 72(2): 12-14. [24034]
50. Peterson, D. E.; Regehr, D. L.; Ohlenbusch, P. D.; [and others]. 1991. Chemical weed control for field crops, pastures, rangeland, and noncropland, 1992. Report of Progress 643. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, Aricultural Experiment Station. 51 p. [18385]
51. Potvin, Catherine. 1991. Temperature-induced variation in reproductive success: field and control experiments with the C4 grass Echinochloa crus-galli. Canadian Journal of Botany. 69: 1577-1582. [24039]
52. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
53. Rahman, Marlis; Ungar, Irwin A. 1990. The effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. Ohio Journal of Science. 90(1): 13-15. [11635]
54. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
55. Rea, Amadeo M. 1988. Habitat restoration and avian recolonization from wastewater on the Middle Gila River, Arizona. In: Whitehead, E. E. [and others], eds. Proceedings, Arid lands conference; 1985; Tucson, AZ. [Place of publication unknown]: Bellhaven/Westview Press: 1395-1405. [9823]
56. Roberts, Teresa L.; Vankat, John L. 1991. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to old field-deciduous forest succession in southwestern Ohio. II. Seed banks. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118(4): 377-384. [17752]
57. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
58. Rosentreter, Roger. 1992. High-water indicator plants along Idaho waterways. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 18-24. [19090]
59. Schmidt, F. J. W. 1936. Winter food of the sharp-tailed grouse and pinnated grouse in Wisconsin. Wilson Bulletin. September: 186-203. [16729]
60. Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L. 1991. Prescribed grazing as a secondary impact in a western riparian floodplain. Journal of Range Management. 44(4): 369-373. [15091]
61. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
62. Shipley, B.; Parent, M. 1991. Germination responses of 64 wetland species in relation to seed size, minimum time to reproduction and seedling relative growth rate. Functional Ecology. 5(1): 111-118. [14554]
63. Smeins, Fred E. 1971. Effect of depth of submergence on germination of Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Proceedings, North Dakota Academy of Science. 24(2): 14-18. [24037]
64. Stennis, John H.; Smith, Lawrence P.; Cofer, Henry P. 1959. Studies on cattail management in the Northeast. Transactions, Northeast Wildlife Conference. [Volume unknown]: 149-155. [19975]
65. Stevens, O. A. 1956. Flowering dates of weeds in North Dakota. North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station Bimonthly Bulletin. 18(6): 209-213. [5168]
66. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 10 p. [20090]
67. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
68. Stubbendieck, J.; Nichols, James T.; Roberts, Kelly K. 1985. Nebraska range and pasture grasses (including grass-like plants). E.C. 85-170. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 75 p. [2269]
69. Sung, Shi-Jean S.; Leather, Gerald R.; Hale, Maynard G. 1987. Development and germination of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) seeds. Weed Science. 35: 211-215. [24040]
70. Thomas, A. G.; Donaghy, D. I. 1991. A survey of the occurrence of seedling weeds in spring annual crops in Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 71(3): 811-820. [21781]
71. Tieszen, Larry L.; Ode, David J.; Barnes, Paul W.; Bultsma, Paul M. 1983. Seasonal variation in C3 and C4 biomass at the Ordway Prairie and selectivity by bison and cattle. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 165-174. [3218]
72. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104]
73. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. NP Flora [Data base]. Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [23119]
74. Vankat, John L.; Carson, Walter P. 1991. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to old field-deciduous forest succession in sw Ohio. III. Post-disturbance vegetation. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118(4): 385-391. [17754]
75. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15575]
76. Walsh, Gerald E.; Weber, David E.; Nguyen, Mau T.; Esry, Linda K. 1991. Responses of wetland plants to effluents in water and sediment. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 31(3): 351-358. [24033]
77. Walsh, Gerald E.; Weber, David E.; Simon, Tasha L.; Brashers, Linda K. 1991. Toxicity tests of effluents with marsh plants in water and sediment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 10(4): 517-525. [24032]
78. Walsh, Gerald E.; Weber, David E.; Simon, Tasha L.; [and others]. 1991. Use of marsh plants for toxicity testing of water and sediment. In: Gorusch, J. W.; Lower, W. R.; Wang, W.; Lewis, M. A., eds. Plants for toxicity assessment: Volume 2. ASTM STP 1115. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials: 341-354. [25181]
79. Watanabe, Yasushi. 1982. Mechanisms regulating seed germination and emergence of some summer annual weeds in Hokkaido. Japanese Agricultural Research Quarterly. [Ibaraki: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tropical Agricultural Research Center]. 15(3): 161-166. [33876]
80. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
81. White, David A. 1989. Accreting mudflats at the Mississippi River Delta: sedimentation rates and vascular plant succession. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Biological Report. 89(22): 49-57. [17336]
82. Whitson, Tom D., ed. 1987. Weeds and poisonous plants of Wyoming and Utah. Res. Rep. 116-USU. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 281 p. [2939]
83. Wienhold, C. E.; van der Valk, A. G. 1989. The impact of duration of drainage on the seed banks of northern prairie wetlands. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67(6): 1878-1884. [13799]
84. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Tampa, FL: University Presses of Florida, University of South Florida. 472 p. [13125]
85. Yahner, R. H.; Storm, G. L.; Melton, R. E.; [and others]. 1991. Floral inventory and vegetative cover type mapping of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site. Tech. Rep. NPS/MAR/NRTR - 91/050. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Region. 149 p. [17987]
86. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
87. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. [1731]