Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Deschampsia elongata


Introductory

SPECIES: Deschampsia elongata
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Esser, Lora L. 1994. Deschampsia elongata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : DESELO SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : DEEL COMMON NAMES : slender hairgrass TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of slender hairgrass is Deschampsia elongata (Hook.) Munro (Poaceae) [11,14,19,25]. There are no recognized infrataxa. LIFE FORM : Graminoid FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Deschampsia elongata
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Slender hairgrass occurs from Alaska south throughout most of the western United States and Mexico [14,15,16,20,35].  It also occurs in Argentina and Chile [16,35]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES22  Western white pine    FRES23  Fir - spruce    FRES24  Hemlock - Sitka spruce    FRES25  Larch    FRES26  Lodgepole pine    FRES28  Western hardwoods    FRES36  Mountain grasslands    FRES37  Mountain meadows    FRES41  Wet grasslands    FRES42  Annual grasslands    FRES44  Alpine STATES :      AK  AZ  CA  CO  ID  MT  NV  NM  OR  UT      WA  WY  AB  BC  YT  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     1  Northern Pacific Border     2  Cascade Mountains     3  Southern Pacific Border     4  Sierra Mountains     5  Columbia Plateau     6  Upper Basin and Range     7  Lower Basin and Range     8  Northern Rocky Mountains     9  Middle Rocky Mountains    10  Wyoming Basin    11  Southern Rocky Mountains    12  Colorado Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K001  Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest    K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest    K003  Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest    K004  Fir - hemlock forest    K005  Mixed conifer forest    K007  Red fir forest    K008  Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest    K011  Western ponderosa forest    K012  Douglas-fir forest    K013  Cedar - hemlock - pine forest    K014  Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest    K015  Western spruce - fir forest    K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest    K020  Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest    K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest    K022  Great Basin pine forest    K025  Alder - ash forest    K030  California oakwoods    K038  Great Basin sagebrush    K047  Fescue - oatgrass    K048  California steppe    K052  Alpine meadows and barren SAF COVER TYPES :    205  Mountain hemlock    206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir    207  Red fir    208  Whitebark pine    209  Bristlecone pine    210  Interior Douglas-fir    211  White fir    212  Western larch    213  Grand fir    215  Western white pine    216  Blue spruce    217  Aspen    218  Lodgepole pine    219  Limber pine    221  Red alder    222  Black cottonwood - willow    224  Western hemlock    226  Coastal true fir - hemlock    227  Western redcedar - western hemlock    228  Western redcedar    229  Pacific Douglas-fir    230  Douglas-fir - western hemlock    235  Cottonwood - willow    237  Interior ponderosa pine    243  Sierra Nevada mixed conifer    244  Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir    245  Pacific ponderosa pine    247  Jeffrey pine    255  California coast live oak    256  California mixed subalpine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Slender hairgrass occurs in a wide variety of habitats including maple (Acer spp.), aspen (Populus spp.), fir-spruce (Abies-Picea spp.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and lodgepole pine (P. contorta).  It also occurs in alpine, subalpine forest, riparian forest, meadow, and coastal prairie communities [13,17,24,30,35]. Slender hairgrass is an indicator species in lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of western Oregon [12].  Slender hairgrass occurs in many wetland and riparian habitats.  In Nevada, slender hairgrass is a component of the willow (Salix spp.)-forb community type of the subalpine zone.  In northeastern California, slender hairgrass occurs in the quaking aspen/skunkcabbage (Populus tremuloides/Veratrum californicum) habitat type [30].  Slender hairgrass occurs in the montane black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa) riparian forest of California.  This is a dense, mixed riparian forest dominated by black cottonwood with emergent Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) towering up to 150 feet (45 m) [17]. Slender hairgrass occurs in moist forests.  It is a member of the lodgepole pine/California oatgrass (Danthonia californica) community on moist sites in Washington and Oregon [5].  In the Cascade Ranges of southern Oregon, slender hairgrass occurs in the western hemlock/Pacific rhododendron-twinflower (Tsuga heterophylla/Rhododendron macrophyllum-Linnaea borealis var. longiflora) association [1].  In eastern Washington and northern Idaho, slender hairgrass occurs in western redcedar (Thuja plicata) forests [3].  In larch-fir (Larix-Abies spp.) forests of Montana, slender hairgrass occurs in two phases:  the subalpine fir/queencup beadlily-rusty menziesia (A. lasiocarpa/Clintonia uniflora-Menziesia ferruginea) phase and the subalpine fir/queencup beadlily-beargrass (A. lasiocarpa/C. uniflora-Xerophyllum tenax) phase [32]. Slender hairgrass also occurs in moderate to dry habitats.  In eastern Washington and northern Idaho, slender hairgrass is a common understory species in subalpine fir, grand fir (A. grandis), Douglas-fir, and ponderosa pine forests [3].  In the Santa Lucia and Diablo ranges of southern California, slender hairgrass can be found in the understory of sugar pine (P. lambertiana), bristlecone fir (Abies bracteata), and mixed oak-Coulter pine (Quercus spp.-Pinus coulteri) communities [10]. In the Sierra Nevada, slender hairgrass occurs in Jeffrey pine forests [31].  Slender hairgrass has been a member of the fescue-oatgrass (Festuca-Danthonia spp.) coastal prairie community along the coast of California [13].  Slender hairgrass is a component of the subalpine forb community in the Bridger-Teton National Forest of Wyoming [9]. Species not previously mentioned but commonly associated with slender hairgrass include incense-cedar (Libocedrus decurrens), Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), erect willow (Salix rigida), western chokecherry (Prunus virginiana var. demissa), Oregon boxwood (Pachistima myrsinites), devil's club (Oplopanax horridus), ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus), oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor), Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii), starry Solomon-seal (Smilacina stellata), longstalk clover (Trifolium longpipes), salal (Gaultheria shallon), Oregon-grape (Berberis nervosa), larkspur (Delphinium nutallianum), western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), sweetscented bedstraw (Galium triflorum), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa), red fescue (Festuca rubra), western needlegrass (Stipa occidentalis), blue wildrye (Elymus glaucus), prairie Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha), Columbia brome (Bromus vulgaris), Merten's rush (Juncus mertensianus), and sedge (Carex spp.) [3,5,17,24,30].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Deschampsia elongata
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Slender hairgrass provides excellent forage in mountain meadows of Arizona [20].  PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Deschampsia elongata
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Slender hairgrass is a native, perennial bunchgrass.  Culms are slender, erect, densely tufted, and usually 12 to 48 inches (30-120 cm) tall [11,15,25,35].  The leaves have flat or folded blades from 0.04 to 0.06 inch (1-1.5 mm) wide [11,25,35].  The panicle is narrow and from 4 to 12 inches (10-30 cm) tall [11,35]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Slender hairgrass reproduces from seed and tillers.    SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Slender hairgrass occurs in a wide variety of habitats including forest openings, woodlands, grasslands, meadows, marshes, valley floodplains, and stream and lake margins [11,16,23,24,35].  It is most commonly found in moist soil in open to shaded habitats [12,14,16,23].  In Oregon, slender hairgrass occurs from sea level to alpine zones [16]. Elevational ranges of slender hairgrass in several states are as follows [1,20,24,25,33,35]:                            feet                    meters Arizona                 4,000-9,000              1,200-2,700      California                  0-10,500                 0-3,150        Montana                 4,900-4,950              1,470-1,485 Nevada                  8,050-8,800              2,455-2,685 Utah                    6,040-10,360             1,830-3,140 Slender hairgrass grows best on fine-textured sandy or gravelly soils derived from glacial, volcanic, and sedimentary parent materials [12,16,30].    SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Slender hairgrass is a facultative wetland species [27,28,29]. According to Hickman [14], it survives best in full or partial shade. However, in Montana, slender hairgrass is more prominent in areas that have been opened and disturbed by logging than in areas with undisturbed vegetation [6].  In southwestern Oregon, slender hairgrass is an indicator species in Douglas-fir forests that have been recently harvested [8].  In the foothills of the western Cascades, Oregon, slender hairgrass establishes in the early stages of secondary plant succession after clearcutting [18]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Slender hairgrass flowers from May to August in California [25]. 

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Deschampsia elongata
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : NO-ENTRY POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Tussock graminoid

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Deschampsia elongata
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Perennial grasses are generally top-killed by fire so slender hairgrass is probably top-killed by fire.  Its densely tufted growth form may protect regenerative tissues from fires that are not severe.  Specific fire effects, however, are not described in the literature. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Studies of larch-Douglas-fir forest succession were conducted at Miller Creek on the Flathead National Forest in Montana.  Eight study areas were clearcut and then slashed to provide a uniform fuel bed.  Most units were broadcast burned within 1 year after timber harvest.  Slender hairgrass was a component of two units:  N-7 and S-1.  The N-7 unit was logged in January of 1967, slashed in February of 1967, and broadcast-burned June 18, 1968.  Postfire duff depth was 1.8 inches (4.5 cm), 51 percent of prefire depth.  The S-1 unit was logged in June 1967, slashed in June 1967, and broadcast burned May 18, 1968.  Postfire duff depth was 1.7 inches (4.3 cm), 84 percent of prefire depth.  Slender hairgrass was not in the prefire community and was reported in only 2 of the 9 postfire years.  Cover and volume development of slender hairgrass were as follows [32]:            Cover development of slender hairgrass (sq m/0.01 ha or %)                                  succession year                 pre    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9  N-7              0     0    0    0    0    0    0    3    2    0 S-1              0     0    0    0    0    0    0    1    0    0             Volume development of slender hairgrass (cubic m/0.01 ha)                                  succession year                 pre    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9 N-7              0     0    0    0    0    0    0   0.5  0.2   0 S-1              0     0    0    0    0    0    0   0.2   0    0    DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including slender hairgrass, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Deschampsia elongata
1.  Atzet, Thomas; McCrimmon, Lisa A. 1990. Preliminary plant associations        of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province. Grants Pass, OR: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siskiyou National Forest. 330        p.  [12977]   2.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]   3.  Daubenmire, Rexford F.; Daubenmire, Jean B. 1968. Forest vegetation of        eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Technical Bulletin 60. Pullman,        WA: Washington State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 104 p.        [749]   4.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. 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Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]  21.  Knight, Walter; Knight, Irja; Howell, John Thomas. 1970. A vegetation        survey of the Butterfly Botanical Area, California. Wasmann Journal of        Biology. 28: 1-246.  [12306]  22.  Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation        of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:        American Geographical Society. 77 p.  [1384]  23.  Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central        Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research        Station. 648 p.  [13798]  24.  Manning, Mary E.; Padgett, Wayne G. 1989. Preliminary riparian community        type classification for Nevada. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 135 p. Preliminary        draft.  [11531]  25.  Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1905 p.  [6155]  26.  Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant        geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  [2843]  27.  Reed, Porter B., Jr. 1986. 1986 wetland plant list, Montana. St.        Petersburg, FL: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife        Service, National Wetlands Inventory. 26 p.  [8381]  28.  Reed, Porter B., Jr. 1988. National list of plant species that occur in        wetlands: California (Region O). Biological Report 88(26.10).        Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife        Service. In cooperation with: National and Regional Interagency Review        Panels. 135 p.  [9312]  29.  Reed, Porter B., Jr. 1988. National list of plant species that occur in        wetlands: Alaska (Region A). Biological Report 88(26.11). Washington,        DC: U.S Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. In        cooperation with: National and Regional Interagency Review Panels. 86 p.        [9328]  30.  Riegel, Gregg M.; Thornburgh, Dale A.; Sawyer, John O. 1990. Forest        habitat types of the South Warner Mountains, Modoc County, California.        Madrono. 37(2): 88-112.  [11466]  31.  Rundel, Philip W.; Parsons, David J.; Gordon, Donald T. 1977. Montane        and subalpine vegetation of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges. In:        Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of        California. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 559-599.  [4235]  32.  Stickney, Peter F. 1980. Data base for post-fire succession, first 6 to        9 years, in Montana larch-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-62. Ogden,        UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station. 133 p.  [6583]  33.  Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern        Rocky Mountain forests. 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