SPECIES: Danthonia intermedia
Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Danthonia intermedia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ .
wild oat grass
The scientific name of timber oatgrass is Danthonia intermedia Vasey (Poaceae) [17,20,48,68,69]. The genus Danthonia is described as "among the most variable" of the grass family in terms of morphology, cytology, and anatomical characteristics . According to Koterba and Habeck  "the ecological versatility exhibited by Danthonia intermedia supports the idea that this species is composed of ecotypes."
No special status
Timber oatgrass is widely distributed in North America from Alaska eastward to Newfoundland and south to northern California, Arizona, and New Mexico [10,22,30]. It occurs in northern Michigan and the Black Hills of South Dakota [21,58,69].
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES26 Lodgepole pine
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES37 Mountain meadows
FRES38 Plains grasslands
AK AZ CA CO ID ME MI MT NV NH NM NY NC OR SD UT VT WA WY AB BC MB NF ON PQ SK
2 Cascade Mountains
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K015 Western spruce-fir forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
K019 Arizona pine forest
K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest
K024 Juniper steppe woodland
K052 Alpine meadows and barren
K055 Sagebrush steppe
K063 Foothills prairie
206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir
210 Interior Douglas-fir
211 White fir
216 Blue spruce
218 Lodgepole pine
237 Interior ponderosa pine
238 Western juniper
243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer
244 Pacific ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir
102 Idaho fescue
107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
110 Ponderosa pine-grassland
213 Alpine grassland
216 Montane meadows
305 Idaho fescue-Richardson needlegrass
306 Idaho fescue-slender wheatgrass
312 Rough fescue-Idaho fescue
313 Tufted hairgrass-sedge
323 Shrubby cinquefoil-rough fescue
410 Alpine rangeland
411 Aspen woodland
613 Fescue grassland
902 Alpine herb
909 Freshwater marsh
Timber oatgrass is an indicator of climax in a number of grassland and forest habitat types or plant communities, including ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), lodgepole pine (P. contorta), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-grass, silver sagebrush (A. cana), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), and some white fir (Abies concolor) types.
Timber oatgrass commonly occurs in small, isolated grasslands of northwestern Montana that are considered mixtures of palouse and Alberta fescue (Festuca spp.) grasslands with species such as bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), Idaho fescue (F. idahoensis), and rough fescue (F. altaica) [9,30]. It is rarely found in the Palouse prairie . Timber oatgrass grows in small openings surrounded by lodgepole pine and in groves of quaking aspen . Timber oatgrass occurs as a dominant in fescue-oatgrass (Danthonia spp.) associations in Alberta and Saskatchewan [6,30]. In subalpine meadow communities of the northern Rocky Mountains and Pacific Northwest, timber oatgrass commonly grows with species such as wedge-leaf cinquefoil (Potentilla diversifolia), reedgrass (Calamagrostis spp.), and sedges (Carex spp.) [13,42]. In quaking aspen and ponderosa pine communities of South Dakota, common associates include bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), and bluegrass (Poa spp.) . Timber oatgrass occurs with shrubby cinquefoil (P. fruticosa) in riparian shrub communities of Montana and Nevada [38,46,60].
A variety of forbs and grasses occur with timber oatgrass in grasslands and shrublands of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, including slender cinquefoil (P. gracilis), oneflower fleabane (Erigeron simplex), alpine oreoxis (Oreoxis alpina ssp. puberulenta), sibbaldia (Sibbaldia procumbens), low goldenrod (Solidago multiradiata), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa), prairiesmoke avens (Geum triflorum), bearded wheatgrass (Elymus caninus), blue wildrye (E. glaucus ssp. glaucus), prairie Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha), needlegrass (Stipa spp.), and Parry oatgrass (D. parryi) [2,5,28,43,61]
listing timber oatgrass as an indicator are listed below:
A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado 
Summary flora of riparian shrub communities of the Intermountain region with emphasis on willows 
Grassland, shrubland, and forestland habitat types of the White River-Arapaho National Forest 
Plant associations of the Wallowa-Snake Province: Wallowa-Whitman National Forest 
Habitat types on selected parts of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests 
Preliminary riparian community type classification for Nevada 
The vegetation of Alberta 
Grassland and shrubland habitat types of western Montana 
Classification of deer habitat in the ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, South Dakota 
Riparian classification for the Upper Salmon/Middle Fork Salmon River drainages, Idaho 
Timber oatgrass provides some forage for all classes of livestock and wildlife. It is especially valued as spring forage because it greens up before many other plants begin growth . During the summer months in Montana, mountain goats feed on timber oatgrass . In western Alberta, it is used to at least some degree by feral horses during all months of the year . In the Black Hills of South Dakota, timber oatgrass forms an important part of cattle diets during June through September .
Timber oatgrass is palatable for all classes of livestock and wildlife. Utilization of timber oatgrass occurs mostly in the spring when palatability is considered good [57,65]. After spring, it is only moderately palatable and not highly productive . In the northern Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, Uresk and Paintner  reported that timber oatgrass was utilized by cattle throughout the grazing season (June through September). In the central Black Hills of South Dakota, the heaviest use of timber oatgrass by cattle occurred in June .
MT SD UT WY Cattle Fair-Good Good Good Fair Domestic sheep Fair-Good ---- Fair Fair Horses Good ---- Good Fair Pronghorn ---- ---- Poor Poor Elk Good ---- Good Good Mule deer Fair ---- Good Poor White-tailed deer Fair ---- ---- Poor Small mammals ---- ---- Fair Fair Small nongame birds ---- ---- Poor Fair Upland game birds ---- ---- Fair Poor Waterfowl ---- ---- Poor Poor
Dittberner and Olson  rated timber oatgrass as fair in energy value and poor in protein value. In Utah, it is described as low in protein and phosphorus and high in crude fiber at all growth stages . Nutritional composition (based on dry matter) of timber oatgrass is as follows :
Leaf Heading Seed Cured Weathered Stage Ripe Dry matter % 93.45 92.40 93.88 92.85 94.03 Protein (Nx6.25) 9.35 7.85 6.98 5.20 3.63 Crude fat % 3.15 3.40 3.45 3.85 3.10 Crude fiber % 28.50 28.25 28.32 31.05 33.97 Ash % 9.40 6.70 7.98 9.90 8.77 Calcium % 0.36 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.32 Phosphorus % 0.13 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.08 Carotene mg/kg 26.45 55.70 35.18 8.60 0.87Nutritional values from an Alberta study during various phenological stages are as follows :
Leaf stage Heading Seed ripe Cured Weathered Digestible protein(%) 3.9 2.8 2.4 1.8 1.3 Cellulose(%) 33.8 30.1 32.6 36.7 39.0Nutritional value of timber oatgrass can vary according to habitat as well as by phenology. Severson and Uresk  report the following values in the Black Hills of South Dakota:
pole stand sapling (%) (%) crude protein 5.3-8.4 5.6-7.2 acid detergent fiber 41.8-43.5 40.8-42.7 acid detergent lignin 5.4-7.2 5.1-6.9 ash 4.75-6.22 5.06-5.77 calcium 0.25-0.29 0.25-0.29 phosphorus 0.19-0.23 0.18-0.20
The degree to which timber oatgrass provides cover has been rated as follows :
UT WY Small mammals Good Fair Small nongame birds Fair Fair Upland game birds Fair Fair Waterfowl Poor Poor
Timber oatgrass is rated as having low to moderate potential for erosion control and short-term revegetation, and moderate potential for long-term revegetation projects .
Timber oatgrass has basal meristems and is much more tolerant of grazing than many of its associates . In California, it is able to withstand heavy grazing . In fescue (Festuca spp.) grasslands of Alberta, timber oatgrass is a codominant only in grazed or mowed areas . It often becomes common after grazing in these grasslands . In a north-central Idaho study, timber oatgrass increased with cattle grazing .
In the mountain and southern Great Plains physiographic regions of New Mexico, and in the mountains of Wyoming, timber oatgrass decreased in response to grazing pressure . Costello and Schwan  report that timber oatgrass is a common component of ponderosa pine ranges in excellent condition, but is scarcer on ranges in good condition.
Timber oatgrass is one of the more productive grasses on subalpine domestic sheep ranges of Wyoming. Herbage yields of oatgrass may reach 164 lbs/acre (green weight) on these sites . Mueggler  reports that in western Montana, timber oatgrass produces 4 to 9 times more biomass during "best" years than during "poorest" years. In ponderosa pine stands of South Dakota, greatest understory production of timber oatgrass was observed in pole-sized stands within clearcuts .
Timber oatgrass is a native, strongly caespitose, perennial bunchgrass [23,67]. The erect culms are densely tufted and generally reach 4 to 20 inches (10-50 cm) in height . Leaves are mainly basal, flat or involute . The old sheaths and blades are often persistent and wither at the base of the plant . The inflorescence is a narrow panicle, often 1-sided, with short mostly erect branches generally bearing 4 to 9 spikelets [10,23]. One- to 2-flowered spikelets occasionally occur in the axils of the lower leaves . With age, the culms often separate at the nodes where these seed-bearing spikelets are borne. Timber oatgrass has a shallow and fibrous root system .
Timber oatgrass reproduces by seed and tillering . This grass also produces self-fertilized spikelets in the axils of the lower leaves . These cleistogamous spikelets enable the plant to reproduce even if development of the flower stalks is retarded . In the Intermountain region, timber oatgrass is apparently largely apomictic (setting seed without fertilization), as the anthers are mostly abortive .Mean germination of seed collected in southeastern British Columbia was 22.2% under laboratory conditions .
Timber oatgrass grows in a wide range of habitats including rock outcrops, sphagnum bogs, dry meadows, grassy balds, and on alluvial flats of river floodplains [3,29,30,53]. It occurs on dry to moist sites from the prairies and grasslands to rocky alpine ridges . In parts of the northern Rocky Mountains timber oatgrass is locally common in subalpine meadows in the fir-spruce zone [40,47]. In British Columbia, it grows in alpine tundra zones  and in the Sierra Nevada of California, it occurs in mountain meadows . In fescue grasslands, timber oatgrass occurs in small patches or as a "fairly constant scattering" across the stand .
At high elevations timber oatgrass is most abundant in subalpine and alpine parks and meadows but also occurs in openings in upper elevation coniferous types, including fir-spruce and lodgepole pine communities [58,65,69]. It is common in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills of South Dakota .
7,500 to 12,800 feet (2286-3901 m) in CO 3,200 to 8,900 feet ( 975-2713 m) in MT 4,950 to 6,780 feet (1509-2067 m) in SD 8,000 to 12,000 feet (2440-3660 m) in UT 5,000 to 11,000 feet (1981-3353 m) in WYSites at high elevations are often rocky with permeable, well-drained, shallow to deep soils [22,27,34]. Often, soils are characterized by relatively high soil moisture derived from snowmelt above . Soils are commonly derived from shale, limestone, and other sedimentary materials, or from granite or redeposited volcanics [25,27]. Timber oatgrass commonly grows on loam and silt-loam soils . Growth is described as good on organic and andic soils .
Timber oatgrass is an indicator of climax in a number of subalpine and alpine grasslands, fescue grasslands, and forest communities. According to Beetle  timber oatgrass is "indicative of long-standing stability in the vegetation." In Nevada, it is often associated with "stable" riparian communities .
Depending on the type and severity of disturbance, timber oatgrass is also a constituent in some early seral communities. In lodgepole pine forests of Wyoming, timber oatgrass is most common in immature stands as compared with mature stands . Similarly in ponderosa pine stands of South Dakota, it is more abundant and more productive in clearcut and heavily thinned sapling and pole stands (measured 8 to 15 years after treatment) than in unthinned stands .
At lower elevations in California, flowerstalks may appear in April, with the seed cast by June . At higher elevations, these dates are correspondingly later. In Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming, flowering begins in July and ends in August .
In western Montana, seasonal development varies according to
aspect as follows :
Southwest Northeast range mean duration range mean duration date (days) date (days) growth starts 4/28-5/24 5/12 10.2 4/28-5/29 5/16 11.9 1st bloom 6/10-7/14 6/25 7.8 6/8-7/8 6/27 10.0 blooming over 6/29-7/20 7/9 6.2 7/1-7/21 7/13 6.2 dissemination starts 7/22-8/10 7/30 6.3 7/26-8/21 8/3 6.1 plant dried 8/18-10/15 9/25 17.4 9/10-11/2 10/6 13.6
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
For further information on fire regimes in forest and woodland
communities, see the FEIS Species Summaries on these dominant tree
Species Fire-return interval interior ponderosa pine 2-45 years western juniper 7-100 years lodgepole pine 25-300 yearsFor further information on fire regimes in grassland and shrub communities, see the FEIS Species Summaries on:
basin big sagebrush
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Timber oatgrass is often top-killed by fire. However, some individuals may survive .
Timber oatgrass is "moderate" in postfire regeneration response in the Pacific Northwest, (having a 35 to 64% chance that at least 50% of the population will survive or reestablish after fire). In the Pacific Northwest, it takes 5 to 10 years to approximate preburn frequency or coverage . In Washington, levels of timber oatgrass and other grasses were not affected immediately after fire in a timbered area. However, several grasses, including timber oatgrass, began to increase 2 years after the burn. By the 5th year after fire, timber oatgrass was the dominant grass on burned plots .
The Research Project Summary Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including timber oatgrass, that was not available when this species review was written.
1. Alldritt-McDowell, Judith. 1998. The ecology of the alpine tundra zone. QP #004216. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 5 p. 
2. Baker, William L. 1984. A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado. The Great Basin Naturalist. 44(4): 647-676. 
3. Beetle, Alan A. 1961. Range survey in Teton County, Wyoming. Part 1. Ecology of range resources. Bull. 376. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 42 p. 
4. Bezeau, L. M.; Johnston, A. 1962. In vitro digestibility of range forage plants of the Festuca scabrella association. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 42: 692-697. 
5. Bramble-Brodahl, Mary K. 1978. Classification of Artemisia vegetation in the Gros Ventre area, Wyoming. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho; 1978. 126 p. Thesis. 
6. Breitung, August J. 1954. A botanical survey of the Cypress Hills. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 68: 55-92. 
7. Bushey, Charles L. 1985. Comparison of observed and predicted fire behavior in the sagebrush/ bunchgrass vegetation type. In: Long, James N., ed. Fire management: The challenge of protection and use: Proceedings of a symposium; 1985 April 17-19; Logan, UT. [Place of publication unknown]. [Publisher unknown]. 187-201. 
8. Costello, David F.; Schwan, H. E. 1946. Conditions and trends on ponderosa pine ranges in Colorado. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. 
9. Coupland, Robert T. 1961. A reconsideration of grassland classification in the northern Great Plains of North America. Journal of Ecology. 49: 135-167. 
10. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; [and others]. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6. The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. 
11. de Wet, J. M. 1954. The genus Danthonia in grass phylogeny. American Journal of Botany. 41: 204-211. 
12. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. 
13. Douglas, George W.; Bliss, L. C. 1977. Alpine and high subalpine plant communities of the North Cascades Range, Washington and British Columbia. Ecological Monographs. 47: 113-150. 
14. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
15. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
16. Goodrich, Sherel. 1992. Summary flora of riparian shrub communities of the Intermountain region with emphasis on willows. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 62-67. 
17. Hallsten, Gregory P.; Skinner, Quentin D.; Beetle, Alan A. 1987. Grasses of Wyoming. 3rd ed. Research Journal 202. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 432 p. 
18. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. 
19. Hess, Karl; Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Grassland, shrubland, and forestland habitat types of the White River-Arapaho National Forest. Final Report. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 335 p. 
20. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. 
21. Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Misc. Publ. No. 200. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration. 1051 p. [2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase in two volumes. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.]. 
22. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. 
23. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptograms, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. 
24. Johnson, Charles G., Jr.; Simon, Steven A. 1987. Plant associations of the Wallowa-Snake Province: Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP-255A-86. Baker, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. 399 p. 
25. Johnson, W. M. 1962. Vegetation of high-altitude ranges in Wyoming as related to use by game and domestic sheep. Bulletin 387. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 31 p. 
26. Johnston, A.; Bezeau, L. M. 1962. Chemical composition of range forage plants of the Festuca scabrella association. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 42: 105-115. 
27. Johnston, Barry C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. 4th ed. R2-ECOL-87-2. Lakewood, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 429 p. 
28. Komarkova, Vera. 1986. Habitat types on selected parts of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests. Final Report Contract No. 28-K2-234. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 270 p. 
29. Koterba, Wayne D. 1967. An analysis of the North Fork valley grasslands in Glacier National Park, Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 81 p. Thesis. 
30. Koterba, Wayne D.; Habeck, James R. 1971. Grasslands of the North Fork Valley, Glacier National Park, Montana. Canadian Journal of Botany. 49: 1627-1636. 
31. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. 
32. Leege, Thomas A.; Herman, Daryl J.; Zamora, Benjamin. 1981. Effects of cattle grazing on mountain meadows in Idaho. Journal of Range Management. 34(4): 324-328. 
33. Lent, Steve. 1984. Developing prescriptions for burning western juniper slash. In: Proceedings--western juniper management short course; 1984 October 15-16; Bend, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Extension Service and Department of Rangeland Resources: 77-90. 
34. Lewis, Mont E. 1970. Alpine rangelands of the Uinta Mountains: Ashley and Wasatch National Forests. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 4. 75 p. 
35. Looman, J. 1969. The fescue grasslands of western Canada. Vegetatio. 19: 128-145. 
36. Looman, J. 1980. The vegetation of the Canadian prairie provinces. II. The grasslands, Part 1. Phytocoenologia. 8(2): 153-190. 
37. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. 
38. Manning, Mary E.; Padgett, Wayne G. 1989. Preliminary riparian community type classification for Nevada. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 135 p. Preliminary draft. 
39. Minore, Don; Smart, Alan W.; Dubrasich, Michael E. 1979. Huckleberry ecology and management research in the Pacific Northwest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-93. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 50 p. 
40. Moseley, Robert K.; Bernatas, Susan. 1992. Vascular flora of Kane Lake Cirque, Pioneer Mountains, Idaho. The Great Basin Naturalist. 52(4): 335-343. 
41. Moss, E. H. 1955. The vegetation of Alberta. Botanical Review. 21(9): 493-567. 
42. Moss, E. H.; Campbell, J. A. 1947. The fescue grassland of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Research. 25: 209-227. 
43. Mueggler, W. F.; Stewart, W. L. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-66. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 154 p. 
44. Mueggler, Walter F. 1983. Variation in production and seasonal development of mountain grasslands in western Montana. Research Paper INT-316. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 16 p. 
45. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
46. Redfern, Samuel P. 1984. The effects of burning on the mortality and vigor of shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa) in central Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 28 p. M.S. thesis. 
47. Root, Robert A.; Habeck, James R. 1972. A study of high elevational grassland communities in western Montana. The American Midland Naturalist. 87(1): 109-121. 
48. Ruth, Robert H. 1968. First-season growth of red alder seedlings under gradients in solar radiation. In: Trappe, J. M.; Franklin, J. F.; Tarrant, R. F.; Hansen, G. M, eds. Biology of Alder; 1968 April 14-15; Pullman, WA. Northwest Scientific Association 40th Annual Meeting. Portland, OR: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 99-106. 
49. Salter, R. E.; Hudson, R. J. 1979. Feeding ecology of feral horses in western Alberta. Journal of Range Management. 32(3): 221-225. 
50. Sampson, Arthur W.; Chase, Agnes; Hedrick, Donald W. 1951. California grasslands and range forage grasses. Bull. 724. Berkeley, CA: University of California College of Agriculture, California Agricultural Experiment Station. 125 p. 
51. Saunders, Jack K., Jr. 1955. Food habits and range use of the Rocky Mountain goat in the Crazy Mountains, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 19(4): 429-437. 
52. Severson, Kieth E.; Uresk, Daniel W. 1988. Influence of ponderosa pine overstory on forage quality in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Great Basin Naturalist. 48(1): 78-82. 
53. Singer, Francis James. 1975. Wildfire and ungulates in the Glacier National Park area, northwestern Montana. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 53 p. Thesis. 
54. Smyth, C. R. 1997. Early succession patterns with a native species seed mix on amended and unamended coal mine spoil in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia, Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research. 29(2): 184-195. 
55. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 10 p. 
56. Stohlgren, Thomas J.; DeBenedetti, Steven H.; Parsons, David J. 1989. Effects of herbage removal on productivity of selected high-Sierra meadow community types. Environmental Management. 13(4): 485-491. 
57. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 465 p. 
58. Stutz, Howard C.; Carlson, J.R. 1985. Genetic improvement of saltbush (Atriplex) and other chenopods. In: Carlson, Jack R.; McArthur, E. Durant, chairmen. Range plant improvement in western North America: Proceedings of a symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Range Management; 1985 February 14; Salt Lake City, UT. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 89-92. 
59. Thilenius, John F. 1972. Classification of deer habitat in the ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Res. Pap. RM-91. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 28 p. 
60. Tuhy, Joel S.; Jensen, Sherman. 1982. Riparian classification for the Upper Salmon/Middle Fork Salmon River drainages, Idaho. Smithfield, UT: White Horse Associates. Final Report, Contract with U.S.S. Forest Service, Region 4. 153 p. 
61. Tweit, Susan J.; Houston, Kent E. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of the Shoshone National Forest. Cody, WY: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Shoshone National Forest. 143 p. 
62. Uresk, Daniel W.; Lowrey, Dennis G. 1984. Cattle diets in the central Black Hills of South Dakota. In: Noble, Daniel L.; Winokur, Robert P., eds. Wooded draws: characteristics and values for the Northern Great Plains: Symposium proceedings; 1984 June 12-13; Rapid City, SD. Great Plains Agricultural Council Pub. No. 111. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota School of Mines and Technology: 50-52. 
63. Uresk, Daniel W.; Paintner, Wayne W. 1985. Cattle diets in a ponderosa pine forest in the northern Black Hills. Journal of Range Management. 38(5): 440-442. 
64. Uresk, Daniel W.; Severson, Kieth E. 1998. Response of understory species to changes in ponderosa pine stocking levels in the Black Hills. The Great Basin Naturalist. 58(4): 312-327. 
65. Vallentine, John F. 1961. Important Utah range grasses. Extension Circular 281. Logan, UT: Utah State University. 48 p. 
66. Van Dyne, George M.; Payne, Gene F., compilers. 1964. Grazing responses of western range plants. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College, Department of Animal and Range Sciences. 69 p. 
67. Volland, Leonard A.; Dell, John D. 1981. Fire effects on Pacific Northwest forest and range vegetation. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Range Management and Aviation and Fire Management. 23 p. 
68. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Nowot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. 
69. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.