Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Carex livida


Introductory

SPECIES: Carex livida
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Williams, Tara Y. 1990. Carex livida. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : CARLIV SYNONYMS : Carex grayana Dewey Carex limosa var. livida Wahlenb. SCS PLANT CODE : CALI CALIG COMMON NAMES : pale sedge livid sedge TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientifc name of pale sedge is Carex livida (Wahl.) Willd. According to Hermann [4], C. livida (Wahl.) Willd. var. grayana (Dew.) Fern. is the North American representative of the species. The var. livida occurs in northern Europe. Seymour [13] identifies the variety of C. livida occurring in Massachusetts, Maine, and Vermont as var. grayana. Voss [17] recognizes the variety of C. livida occurring in Michigan as C. livida (Wahl.) Willd. var. radicaulis Paine, which was previously considered a distinct species, Carex grayana Dewey. Hulten [6] recognizes the variety occurring in Alaska as C. livida (Wahl.) Willd. var. livida but indicates that plants growing in the southern part of the American range are var. grayana (Dew.) Fern (=C. grayana Dew.). LIFE FORM : Graminoid FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : USFS Region 1: n ID - Watch; MT - Sensitive [15]. Pale sedge is demonstrably secure globally but critically imperiled in Montana [14]. Pale sedge is at its periphery in Glacier National Park, Montana [9].


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Carex livida
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Pale sedge is interruptedly circumboreal. It extends from Alaska south to western Washington, northwestern Montana, Michigan, New Jersey, Manitoba, and Newfoundland. It is disjunct in northwestern California [5,7,10]. Var. grayana is distributed from Newfoundland, northern Quebec, and Manitoba to the Aleutian Islands southward to New Jersey, Michigan, Montana, and northwestern California. The only known Rocky Mountain occurrence is in Glacier National Park, Montana [4]. Occurrence in Glacier National Park: McGee's Meadow, at about 3,000 feet (915 m), in an area near Inside Road [8]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES23 Spruce - fir FRES37 Mountain meadows STATES : AK CA ID MI MT NJ VT WA AB BC MB NB NF NS NT ON PQ SK YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 2 Cascade Mountains 4 Sierra Mountains 8 Northern Rocky Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : NO-ENTRY SAF COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Pale sedge grows in boreal, cool temperate or cool mesothermic climates [5,7,10]. It is an indicator of wet and very wet soil, a surface groundwater table, and of soil medium rich in nitrogen [7].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Carex livida
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Meadows containing pale sedge should be protected from trampling [8].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Carex livida
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Pale sedge is a native perennial that grows 4 to 20 inches (10-50 cm) tall. It spreads by long, slender rhizomes, forming small clumps. The leaves are thin, pale bluish-gray, and have a waxy coating. The staminate and pistillate spikes are separate [5,6,10]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Undisturbed State: Cryptophyte (geophyte) Burned or Clipped State: Cryptophyte (geophyte) REGENERATION PROCESSES : Pale sedge regenerates primarily by rhizome spread [5,10] but can also reproduce by sexual means [2]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Pale sedge grows in cold, calcareous bogs, poorly drained lowlands, and wet peaty ground at low elevations in foothill and submontane zones. The species is shade intolerant. Plant associates may include sphagnum moss (Sphagnum spp.), other sedges (Carex spp.), alpine clubmoss (Lycopodium alpinum), and simple kobresia (Kobresia simpliciuscula) [5,7,8,10,18]. Pale sedge occurs at elevations of 2,800 to 6,000 feet (850-1,850 m) in Montana and in mountains up to 2,200 feet (710 m) in Alaska [2,4,15,18]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : NO-ENTRY SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : In northwestern Montana, pale sedge flowers from May to July, and fruit matures from late June to early August [8].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Carex livida
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : NO-ENTRY POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : NO-ENTRY

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Carex livida
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : NO-ENTRY DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : NO-ENTRY DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Carex livida
REFERENCES : 1. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 2. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 3. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 4. Hermann, Frederick J. 1970. Manual of the Carices of the Rocky Mountains and Colorado Basin. Agric. Handb. 374. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 397 p. [1139] 5. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptograms, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. [1169] 6. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 7. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703] 8. Lesica, Peter. 1984. Rare vascular plants of Glacier National Park, Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, Department of Botany. 27 p. [12049] 9. Lesica, P.; Moore, G.; Peterson, K. M.; Rumely, J. H. (Montana Rare Plant Project). 1984. Vascular plants of limited distribution in Montana. Monograph No. 2. Montana Academy of Sciences, Supplement to the Proceedings, Volume 43. Bozman, MT: Montana State University, Montana Academy of Sciences. 61 p. [11656] 10. Moss, E. H. 1955. The vegetation of Alberta. Botanical Review. 21(9): 493-567. [6878] 11. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 12. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158] 13. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471] 14. Shelly, J. Stephen, compiler. 1990. Plant species of special concern. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program. 20 p. [12960] 15. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Region. 1988. Sensitive plant field guide [Montana]. Missoula, MT. [12279] 16. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 17. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471] 18. Young, Steven B. 1969. Additions to the flora of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska. Rhodora. 71: 502-509. [13201] 19. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 20. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 21. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090]


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