Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Bromus pumpellianus

Introductory

SPECIES: Bromus pumpellianus
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Walsh, Roberta A. 1994. Bromus pumpellianus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. Revisions : 6 June 2013: Barkworth, Mary E.; Capels, Kathleen M.; Long, Sandy; Anderton, Laurel K.; Piep, Michael B., eds. 2007 citation added. Common name changed from Pumpelly brome to arctic brome. ABBREVIATION : BROPUM SYNONYMS : Bromus inermis Leyss. ssp. pumpellianus (Scribn.) Wagnon [2,16,22] SCS PLANT CODE : BRINP COMMON NAMES : arctic brome Pumpelly brome Pumpelly's brome Rocky Mountain brome TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of arctic brome is Bromus pumpellianus Scribn. [14,17,31,34]. It is in the family Poaceae. Recognized subspecies and varieties are as follows: B. p. subsp. dicksonii Mitchell & Wilton (a tetraploid) [3] B. p. subsp. pumpellianus (an octoploid) [3] B. p. var. arcticus (Shear) Pors. [7,17] B. p. var. villosissimus Hult. [17] Arctic brome hybridizes readily with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) where their ranges overlap [14,16,17]. LIFE FORM : Graminoid FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Bromus pumpellianus
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Arctic brome occurs from Alaska and northwestern Canada south through the Rocky Mountains to Colorado and east to the Black Hills of South Dakota [1,14,15,16]. There are disjunct populations in southern Ontario and in Michigan at the northern end of Lake Michigan [16,31]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES29 Sagebrush FRES36 Mountain grasslands FRES37 Mountain meadows FRES44 Alpine STATES : AK CO ID MI MT SD WY AB ON YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 15 Black Hills Uplift KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K012 Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K050 Fescue - wheatgrass K051 Wheatgrass - bluegrass K052 Alpine meadows and barren K055 Sagebrush steppe K106 Northern hardwoods SAF COVER TYPES : 25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch 201 White spruce 202 White spruce - paper birch 210 Interior Douglas-fir 237 Interior ponderosa pine 251 White spruce - aspen SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Arctic brome is listed as a stand type in the following published description of plant communities: Steppe vegetation on south-facing slopes of pingos, central arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska, U.S.A. [32] Species associated with arctic brome are listed for arctic alluvial fan tundra in the central Brooks Range of Alaska [8], for steppe communities on bluffs within the boreal forest of east-central Alaska [10], and for forest vegetation in young, mixed stands in uplands near Fairbanks, Alaska [33]. Associates are listed for the northwestern Northwest Territories on the coast of Amundsen Gulf [7] and on the MacKenzie River Delta [6]. Associates are also listed for relatively undisturbed mountain grasslands in Wyoming [28], for an undisturbed dry butte site in southeastern Montana [25], and for a prairie in northwestern Montana that reflects past agricultural use and the present effects of grazing disturbance [20].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Bromus pumpellianus
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : The native perennial species of brome (Bromus spp.) form a considerable portion of the forage in open woods of the mountain regions of the western United States. Arctic brome is abundant, good forage for all classes of livestock [15]. Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in Jasper National Park, Alberta, ate arctic brome during July and early August 1968-70. However, its utilization was less than its availability. Though available, it was not recorded as being utilized in Waterton Lakes or Banff national parks [26]. Arctic brome has been crossed with smooth brome to produce the cultivar "Polar" bromegrass. It is a long-lived and productive forage crop in south-central Alaska [18]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Arctic brome had a higher mean Nutritive Value Index for five tested stages of growth than did any of the other 20 native and cultivated grasses studied at Lethbridge, Alberta. Arctic brome had 12.7 percent protein in the leaf stage of growth. Protein, phosphorus, and carotene decreased with advancing maturity; calcium and crude fiber increased [5]. Arctic brome, native to the Matanuska Valley near Palmer, Alaska, was 1 of 17 indigenous and introduced grass species evaluated for forage yield and quality in that area . It was grown over a 3-year period, and harvested twice each year. Of the two arctic brome accessions, one ranked fourteenth out of 38 accessions in 3-year average yield; the other was not as successful. Arctic brome had good nutritional quality, with sufficient percentages of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium to produce moderate gain on a growing 440-pound (200-kg) steer [23]. COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Arctic brome was evaluated for revegetation potential in the Richardson Mountains of the northeastern Yukon Territory. Seeding was done June 7, 1979. Seedling emergence was 96.7 percent in that year. In 1980 survival was 63.3 percent, in 1981 it was 40.0 percent, and by 1985 there were no surviving plants. There was no seed production by arctic brome in any year. The arctic brome selection was a northern type, but it was apparently not adapted for survival at this severe northern Yukon site [30]. Arctic brome did not establish on scarified arctic tundra sites of a construction-disturbed alluvial fan in the central Brooks Range. Some sites were planted with grasses (other than arctic brome) and others were not; 4 and 11 years after treatments arctic brome occurred only on undisturbed control plots [8]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In Wyoming arctic brome decreases with grazing pressure [28]. Arctic brome seed should be planted at shallow depth. It grows best on moderately moist soil [12]. At the Matanuska Research Farm in south-central Alaska, arctic brome planted May 24, 1984, and harvested in 1984, 1985, and 1986, produced a 3-year total of 7.69 tons of forage per acre. Seeding rate was 22 pounds per acre; commercial fertilizer was applied. Arctic brome compared favorably with 29 other strains of grasses tested for forage production. It also showed excellent winter survival and spring vigor [19].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Bromus pumpellianus
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Arctic brome is a native, perennial graminoid [15]. Culms are 20 to 47 inches (50 to 120 cm) tall [1,15]. Leaves are 0.16 to 0.39 inches (4-10 mm) wide [1,17] and 4 to 8 inches (10-20 cm) long [1]. There are generally two to four culm leaves [16]. The inflorescence is a narrow panicle 2 to 8 inches (5-20 cm) long [14,15,16]. Spikelets are seven to eleven flowered [1,15]. The lemma is 0.39 to 0.47 inches (10-12 mm) long [14] and is generally short-awned [1,17]. The fruit is a caryopsis [12]. Arctic brome has well-developed creeping rhizomes [15,16] and forms colonies [16]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Arctic brome sprouts from perennating buds at the base of the culms [16] and from rhizomes [15]. It also reproduces by seed [17]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Arctic brome occurs on moist to dry sites. It is found in woods [9], meadows, and on grassy slopes [14,15]. In interior Alaska it occurs on warm, dry sites on steep, south-facing slopes in young mixed hardwood and white spruce (Picea glauca) stands [33]. In Michigan it grows on sandy shores and dunes at the northern edge of Lake Michigan [31]. In western Montana it occurs in moist montane or subalpine meadows [20,22]. In Colorado it is found on dry rocky slopes [14]. Arctic brome grows on a variety of soil types. It occurs on gravelly sandy clay loam on arctic alluvial fan tundra in the central Brooks Range [8]. It is found on rocky, shallow, poorly developed soil on bluffs in the upper Yukon valley in east-central Alaska [10]. It occurs on deep, well-drained mineral loess soils that are rich in organics and are underlain by permafrost on pingos near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Pingo permafrost thaws more deeply in summer than that of surrounding land [32]. Arctic brome grows on marine deltas and eroding sandy seashores of Amundsen Gulf [7]. It occurs on shallow, well-drained sandy loam soil on a wind-disturbed butte top in southeastern Montana [25] and on sandy loam on the Palliser winter range in Banff National Park, Alberta [26]. Arctic brome occurs on soils with pH 7.0 to 8.0 in north-central Alaska. These soils are wind-deposited from calcareous sediments [32]. It was grown successfully on silty loam soil with pH 6.2 near Palmer, Alaska [23]. In the Rocky Mountains arctic brome is abundant up to about 11,000 feet (3,353 m) elevation, depending on latitude and other conditions [15]. In Banff National Park it occurs from 6,204 to 7,205 feet (1,891-2,196 m). It was found at 3,700 feet (1,128 m) in northwestern Montana [20]. In east-central Alaska it was recorded at 2,297 feet (700 m) elevation [10], and in the Northwest Territories it was found at sea level [7]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Arctic brome occurs on some recently disturbed sites, and is also present in seral and undisturbed stands. Arctic brome is occasionally found in disturbed sites and on sandy banks in the Caribou Hills, near Eskimo Lakes, and on the Arctic coast in the McKenzie River Delta region of the northwestern Northwest Territories [6]. In the central Brooks Range, arctic brome did not appear 4 or 11 years after disturbance on tundra alluvial fans. It was present on undisturbed sites [8]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : In Colorado arctic brome seeds mature from August 10 to September 10 at higher elevations and somewhat earlier at lower elevations [12].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Bromus pumpellianus
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Since arctic brome can reproduce vegetatively [15,17], it probably sprouts from rhizomes after aerial portions are burned. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Bromus pumpellianus
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Aboveground portions of arctic brome are probably killed by fire during the growing season. However, since the rhizomes are protected by soil, most fires probably do not harm the rhizomes. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Arctic brome likely sprouts from rhizomes after top-kill by fire. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Bromus pumpellianus
REFERENCES : 1. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928] 2. Armstrong, K. C. 1981. The evolution of Bromus inermis and related species of Bromus sect. Pnigma. Botanische Jahrbucher Syst. 102(1-4): 427-443. [2933] 3. Armstrong, K. C. 1982. Hybrids between the tetraploids of Bromus inermis and B. pumpellianus. Canadian Journal of Botany. 60(4): 476-482. [22833] 4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 5. Bezeau, L. M.; Johnston, A. 1962. In vitro digestibility of range forage plants of the Festuca scabrella association. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 42: 692-697. [441] 6. Cody, W. J. 1965. Plants of the Mackenzie River Delta and Reindeer Grazing Preserve. Ottawa, ON: Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch, Plant Research Institute. 56 p. [13122] 7. Cody, William J.; Scotter, George W.; Zoltai, Steve C. 1992. Vascular plant flora of the Melville Hills region, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 106(2): 87-99. [21180] 8. Densmore, Roseann V. 1992. Succession on an Alaskan tundra disturbance with and without assisted revegetation with grass. Arctic and Alpine Research. 24(3): 238-243. [20199] 9. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819] 10. Edwards, M. E.; Armbruster, W. S. 1989. A tundra-steppe transition on Kathul Mountain, Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 21(3): 296-304. [9673] 11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 12. Fulbright, Timothy E.; Redente, Edward F.; Hargis, Norman E. 1982. Growing Colorado plants from seed: a state of the art: Volume II: Grasses and grasslike plants. FWS/OBS-82/29. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 113 p. [3709] 13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 14. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 15. Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Misc. Publ. No. 200. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration. 1051 p. [2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase in two volumes. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.]. [1165] 16. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 17. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 18. Klebesadel, Leslie J. 1991. Performance of indigenous and introduced slender wheatgrass in Alaska, and presumed evidence of ecotypic evolution. Bulletin 85. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. 20 p. [18384] 19. Klebesadel, Leslie J.; Dofing, Stephen M. 1992. Reed canarygrass in Alaska: influence of latitude-of-adaptation on winter survival and forage productivity, and obser. on seed productivity. Bulletin 84. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. 24 p. [19473] 20. Koterba, Wayne D.; Habeck, James R. 1971. Grasslands of the North Fork Valley, Glacier National Park, Montana. Canadian Journal of Botany. 49: 1627-1636. [6401] 21. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 22. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798] 23. Mitchell, W. W. 1982. Forage yield and quality of indigenous and introduced grasses at Palmer, Alaska. Agronomy Journal. 74: 899-905. [16172] 24. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 25. Ross, Robert L.; Murray, Earl P.; Haigh, June G. 1973. Soil and vegetation inventory of near-pristine sites in Montana. Bozeman, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 55 p. [2029] 26. Stelfox, John G. 1976. Range ecology of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in Canadian national parks. Report Series Number 39. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Wildlife Service. 50 p. [13851] 27. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 28. Turner, George T.; Paulsen, Harold A., Jr. 1976. Management of mountain grasslands in the Central Rockies: the status of our knowledge. Res. Pap. RM-161. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p. [2372] 29. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 30. Vaartnou, Manivalde. 1988. The potential of native populations of grasses in northern revegetation. In: Kershaw, Peter, ed. Northern environmental disturbances. Occas. Publ. No. 24. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta, Boreal Institute for Northern Studies: 31-41. [14418] 31. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471] 32. Walker, Marilyn D.; Walker, Donald A.; Everett, Kaye R.; Short, Susan K. 1991. Steppe vegetation on south-facing slopes of pingos, central arctic coastal plain, Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 23(2): 170-188. [14954] 33. Youngblood, Andrew. 1993. Community type classification of forest vegetation in young, mixed stands, interior Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-458. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 42 p. [22029] 34. Barkworth, Mary E.; Capels, Kathleen M.; Long, Sandy; Anderton, Laurel K.; Piep, Michael B., eds. 2007. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 24: Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. New York: Oxford University Press. 911 p. [68092]


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