SPECIES: Achnatherum hymenoides


SPECIES: Achnatherum hymenoides
Basin big sagebrush/Indian ricegrass community in Harney County, Oregon. Photo courtesy of the PRBO Conservation Science Shrubsteppe Monitoring Program.

Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Achnatherum hymenoides. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].




Oryzopsis hymenoides (Roemer & J.A. Schultes) Ricker ex Piper [33,38,50,76,117]




Indian ricegrass
Indian mountain-rice grass
Indian millet
silky mountain rice [83]


The fully documented scientific name of Indian ricegrass is Achnatherum hymenoides (Roemer & J.A. Schultes.) Barkworth [55]. Indian ricegrass hybridizes with various needlegrasses (Stipa spp. sensu lato) including green needlegrass (Nassella viridula) [65]. Achnatherum contractum is a fertile derivative of an Indian ricegrass × smilo grass (Piptatherum micranthum) cross [10].




No special status


No entry


SPECIES: Achnatherum hymenoides

Indian ricegrass is widely distributed throughout the western United States. [18,113]. It occurs east of the Cascade Range from British Columbia south to southern California and northeastern Mexico and east to Alberta, the Dakotas, and Texas [56].


FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie
FRES40 Desert grasslands


AR   AZ   CA   CO   ID   KS    MN   MO   MT   NE   NV
NM   ND   OK   OR   SD   TX    UT   WA   WI   WY



 3 Southern Pacific Borders
 5 Columbia Plateau
 6 Upper Basin and Range
 7 Lower Basin and Range
 8 Northern Rocky Mountains
 9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands


K011 Western ponderosa forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K016 Eastern ponderosa pine
K019 Arizona pine forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K040 Saltbush-greasewood
K039 Blackbrush
K055 Sagebrush steppe
K057 Galleta-three-awn shrubsteppe
K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
K075 Nebraska sandhills prairie


220 Rocky Mountain juniper
237 Interior Ponderosa Pine
238 Western Juniper
239 Pinyon-Juniper
240 Arizona Cypress
247 Jeffrey Pine


101 Bluebunch wheatgrass
107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
109 Ponderosa pine shrubland
110 Ponderosa pine-grassland
210 Bitterbrush
211 Creosotebush scrub
212 Blackbush
314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
320 Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass
406 Low sagebrush
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
414 Salt desert shrub
415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany
501 Saltbush-greasewood
502 Grama-galleta
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed
603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass
604 Bluestem-grama prairie
605 Sandsage prairie
606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass
611 Blue grama-buffalograss
612 Sagebrush-grass
705 Blue grama-galleta
712 Galleta-alkali sacaton


Indian ricegrass occurs throughout the sagebrush series and is present in several salt-desert shrub communities. It also grows in pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) forest communities. It is also locally abundant in mixed-grass prairie of Canada and in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and desert shrub [21,58,127,129]. Common associates are needle-and-thread grass (Hesperostipa comata), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), blue grama (B. grama), and wheatgrass (Triticeae) [58]. Indian ricegrass often grows interspersed in open stands of big sagebrush (A. tridentata) with species such as Thurber needlegrass (S. thurberiana), Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), and bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides) [127]. It occurs in black sagebrush (A. nova), winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), and shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) communities [58,60].

Indian ricegrass has been described as an indicator or dominant species in the following published classifications:

Classification of the forest vegetation of Colorado by habitat type and community type [3]
Forest vegetation on National Forests in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain Regions: habitat and community types [4]
Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico [5]
Trends in vegetation development on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site [8]
A classification of forest habitat types of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado [37]
Sagebrush-steppe habitat types in northern Colorado: a first approximation [44]
Phyto-edaphic communities of the Upper Rio Puerco Watershed, New Mexico [45]
A sagebrush community type classification for mountainous northeastern Nevada rangelands [62]
Correlation between soils and sagebrush-dominated plant communities of northeastern Nevada [63]
Soil characteristics of mountainous northeastern Nevada sagebrush community types [64]
Woodland classification: the pinyon-juniper formation [69]
Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of northern New Mexico and northern Arizona [77]
Shrub-steppe habitat types of Middle Park, Colorado [108]
Artemisia arbuscula, A. longiloba, and A. nova habitat types in northern Nevada [132]


SPECIES: Achnatherum hymenoides

Indian ricegrass has good forage value for domestic sheep, cattle, and horses. It can be important cattle forage in winter, particularly in salt desert communities [24,130]. Indian ricegrass is often used most heavily in late winter, when succulent and nutritious new green leaves are produced [59,60]. It supplies a source of green feed before most other native grasses have produced much new growth [95]. Consequently, Indian ricegrass is often heavily grazed before animals leave winter ranges [51].

Indian ricegrass also produces abundant foliage in spring and early summer when it is readily eaten. It cures well and provides excellent winter forage for cattle, domestic sheep, and horses [58,107]. Domestic sheep grazing may be heavy in spring [79,89].

Beale and Smith [11] report that Indian ricegrass is eaten by pronghorn in "moderate" amounts whenever available. In western Utah, Indian ricegrass receives moderate pronghorn use from March through May. In Nevada it is consumed by desert bighorns, and in parts of the Rocky Mountains it is a highly valued fall elk food [20,75]. Indian ricegrass is eaten by mule deer in spring in Idaho [78]. It is also heavily grazed by bison in August in the shortgrass prairie region [91].

A number of heteromyid rodents inhabiting desert rangelands show preference for seed of Indian ricegrass [82]. Rodents known to feed on the seeds of this species include several species of kangaroo rat (such as the Great Basin kangaroo rat), pocket mice (long-tailed pocket mouse, little pocket mouse, Great Basin pocket mouse), dark kangaroo mouse, western harvest mouse, and various species of deer mice [15,68]. Although the deer mouse caches and consumes seed, it appears to be less dependent than other rodents on seed as a food source [15]. The spotted ground squirrel consumes Indian ricegrass in southeastern New Mexico, as does Townsend's ground squirrel in the Snake River Birds of Prey Area of Idaho [15,126]. Indian ricegrass is also used by the bushy-tailed woodrat [66]. In Colorado, black-tailed prairie dogs feed on Indian ricegrass, particularly in fall and winter [54].

Indian ricegrass is an important component of jackrabbit diets in spring and summer [39,49,67]. In Nevada, Indian ricegrass may even dominate jackrabbit diets during the spring through early summer months [39]. In Utah, jackrabbits used up to 50% of the current growth during June [34]. Intensity of use varied with topography; average use intensity of 94% was reported in the foothills, but use in the valley floor was reported to be 32% [34]. Maccracken and Hansen [80] report that Indian ricegrass is an important part of the fall-winter diet of black-tailed jackrabbit in southeastern Idaho. In Utah, jackrabbits consume small amounts during mid-November [34]. In parts of south-central Idaho, Indian ricegrass forms a "significant part" of mountain cottontail diets [66], particularly in spring and summer [80].

Indian ricegrass seed provides food for many species of birds. Doves, for example, eat large amounts of shattered Indian ricegrass seed lying on the ground [53].


Indian ricegrass is described as highly palatable to all classes of livestock in both green and cured condition [18,58]. Indian ricegrass has been reported as "dependably palatable" in winter [56]. However, flowerstalks are unpalatable late in the spring and are not grazed at that time [89]. Seeds and seedstalks are relished by domestic sheep [60].


Indian ricegrass does not provide enough digestible protein to meet minimum requirements for some ungulates [116]. It is deficient in phosphorous, carotene, and digestible protein but is a relatively good energy source [29]. Indian ricegrass seed has approximately 4058.0 calories per gram (16.1 ash-free calories per seed) [71].

Seeds of Indian ricegrass are large and high in protein [58].

Dry matter digestibility of Indian ricegrass is 50.5%, with crude protein of 3.7% [112]. Specific food values are as follows [71]:

                                     Total weight (%)
dry matter = 92.6          structural carbohydrates = 32.2          ash = 4.5
free water = 7.4           lignin = 8.4                             crude protein = 13.1
cell walls = 43.1          acid insoluble ash = 2.5                 solvent extract = 2.8
soluble ash = 2.0          cell contents = 56.9                     soluble carbohydrates = 39.0
                           non-nutritive matter = 10.9

A study involving seasonal variation of carbohydrate reserves in roots and crowns of desert range species in northern Utah indicated that the crowns of Indian ricegrass accumulate higher concentrations of total available carbohydrates than the roots. Fall depletion of both roots and crowns is common and is proportional to growth activity in the fall. Spring depletion of total available carbohydrates is less when precipitation is higher [31]. Additional nutritional studies are available [32,101,121].



The degree to which Indian ricegrass provides cover for wildlife species has been rated as follows [28]:

                        UT      CO      WY      MT       ND
Elk                     poor    ----    poor    ----     ----
Mule deer           	poor    ----    poor    ----     fair
White-tailed deer       ----    ----    poor    ----     fair
Pronghorn           	poor    ----    poor    ----     poor
Upland game bird    	good    ----    poor    poor     ----
Waterfowl           	poor    ----    poor    ----     ----
Small nongame bird  	good    fair    fair    poor     ----
Small mammals       	good    fair    poor    ----     ----


Indian ricegrass is well-suited for surface erosion control and desert revegetation although it is not highly effective in controlling sand movement [25,61,81]. Certain native ecotypes exhibit desirable characteristics such as drought and salinity tolerance, low seed dormancy, and good nutritional qualities [84]. However, Indian ricegrass can be difficult to establish [70]. Indian ricegrass can be useful in the reclamation of many arid and semiarid areas in the western United States [84]. Typical sites include those in which vegetation has been removed due to surface mining, construction activity, brush control, heavy grazing, or fire [110]. Indian ricegrass can be used for revegetating degraded rangelands in areas of low precipitation and has naturally revegetated overgrazed ranges in parts of Utah [110,125].

Seed is generally planted in the fall [35]. Seeding can be accomplished through drilling or broadcasting [6,12]. Commercially available cultivars include 'Paloma' and 'Nazpar' [6,35,84,85].


As its name suggests, Indian ricegrass was traditionally eaten by some Native American peoples [72]. The Paiutes used seed as a reserve food source [24].

The large-seeded panicle is often used in dry floral arrangements [61].


Heavy early spring grazing may sharply reduce the vigor of Indian ricegrass and decrease the stand [107]. Plants that do survive exhibit poor vigor with short sparse foliage and dead centers, and may produce no litter or flower stalks [9]. In eastern Idaho, productivity of Indian ricegrass was at least 10 times greater in undisturbed plots than in heavily grazed ones [88]. In southeastern Idaho where grazing was eliminated for 25 years, Indian ricegrass increased in cover 5 fold. Both the density and basal area decreased with increasing grazing intensity in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. The seed crop may be reduced where grazing is heavy [15].

However, Chambers and Norton [27] report that Indian ricegrass can survive or even benefit by heavy grazing. Cover actually increased on areas open to grazing on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory [8]. Similar increases have been observed on grazed desert ranges of Utah [27]. In New Mexico, long-term heavy grazing (>50 years) appeared to have little effect on the root and crown biomass of Indian ricegrass and did not decrease seed production potential [84,85]. In the Four Corners region, past heavy grazing appeared to have little effect on cover, production, or density of Indian ricegrass [86].

Recommended use of annual growth is no more than 75% [18,59]. Indian ricegrass is apparently more tolerant of grazing after June 1 than earlier and thus responds well to spring deferment [107]. Pearson [87] reports that although there may be some annual variation, this species "cannot tolerate" complete harvesting from approximately June 1 through August 10. To protect a stand, livestock can be removed while there is still sufficient moisture for the plants to recover, grow, and produce seed [53]. Yorks and others [128] report that cover of Indian ricegrass increased after chaining. Changes in cover following various types of mechanical disturbance have been documented [16].


SPECIES: Achnatherum hymenoides

Indian ricegrass is a hardy, cool-season, densely tufted, native perennial bunchgrass that grows from 4 to 24 inches (10-61 cm) in height [18,23,83]. Plant spread is estimated at 8 to 12 inches (20-30 cm) [61]. When mature, seedstalks are open, loosely branched, or with lacy tops [60]. Spikes are erect and range from 0.8 to 2.8 inches (2-7 cm) in length [18]. Indian ricegrass has deep, fibrous, extensive roots and is one of the most drought tolerant of the native range grasses [61,83,123]. The common name is derived from seeds that resemble grains of rice [83,111].




Plummer and others [93] report that Indian ricegrass naturally spreads aggressively from seed, but Valentine [115] describes seedling establishment as "poor" in comparison to that of other species. Plummer and Frischknecht [94] reported that numerous seedlings often develop in years with wet springs, while very few develop during dry springs. Therefore, years of good seedling establishment can be quite infrequent. A high degree of correlation between April precipitation and Indian ricegrass abundance has been reported [46].

Indian ricegrass is characterized by low seed germinability and variability in both length of dormancy and viability [15,36]. Some ecotypes require cool-moist stratification prior to germination [82]. Lack of uniformity in seed weight, size, and thickness can contribute to nonuniform germination and establishment [84]. Difficulties with seed shattering and seed dormancy often produce germination rates that are less than 85% [24]. Indian ricegrass is highly self-fertile [77].

Seed retains viability for at least 14 years when stored in a cool, dry warehouse. Approximately 38% of Indian ricegrass seed germinated after 20 years of storage [57]. Optimum germination temperatures are variable, but Toole [109] reports best success at 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20oC). Detailed information on seed storage temperatures and germination is available [26,104,109].

Seed is dispersed by rodents, wind and water [68]. Seed caching by heteromyid rodents can produce favorable microenvironments that enhance seedling recruitment [15]. Seed dehulling by rodents as well as mechanical scarification can improve germination [52,82]. In captive studies, kangaroo rats ate approximately 75% of Indian ricegrass seed while caching 25% [82].

Rapid response suggests that Indian ricegrass may tiller after fire.


Indian ricegrass grows on dry foothills, rocky valley or upper slopes, plains, and ridges [58,61,99]. It is moderately tolerant of both alkali and salt, and is adapted to soils of low fertility [29, 88]. This species is particularly well adapted to sand and attains greatest abundance on loose sandy soils where it forms almost pure stands [29,60,58]. Indian ricegrass dominates sandy soils throughout the sagebrush-grass zone [124]. Soils supporting Indian ricegrass range in texture from coarse sand to heavy clay [94]. It is also found on shallow shale soils [61].

Indian ricegrass grows in arid and semiarid climates throughout the Intermountain West [53]. It grows mostly in areas with mesic temperature regimes and arid moisture regimes [92].

Indian ricegrass is a dominant perennial grass at lower elevation sites throughout the salt desert ranges of western North America [15]. Elevational ranges of Indian ricegrass are as follows [28,77]:

4,000 to 9,500 feet (1220-2900 m) in Colorado
3,300 to 6,000 feet (1010-1830 m) in Montana
4,000 to 9,000 feet (1219-2743 m) in New Mexico
4,200 to 9,500 feet (1280-2900 m) in Utah
4,300 to 8,500 feet (1310-2590 m) in Wyoming


Koniak [73] reports that Indian ricegrass reaches greatest cover in early mid- to mid-seral stands following fire in pinyon-juniper communities of the Great Basin. Cover decreases by late succession [73]. In southeastern Idaho, Indian ricegrass increased during a 25-year disturbance-free period [22]. After approximately 20 more years, cover began to decline. In mixed-grass prairies of Colorado, Indian ricegrass plants commonly appear within the first 5 years after disturbance such as plowing [30]. Indian ricegrass is a pioneer on blowouts and loose sands of sand sage (Artemisia filifolia) communities of northeastern Colorado [97]. It is typically found on disturbed (but not undisturbed) sites in blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) communities in parts of Nevada [47]. Indian ricegrass is present in several climax communities including climax bunchgrass communities of Oregon [1]. It forms part of a distinct sub-climax grassland community in parts of northern Utah [106].


Indian ricegrass generally flowers early prior to summer drought [42]. In Nevada flower buds may form as early as February or March [2]. However, flowering is indeterminate and can continue through the spring and summer if growing conditions remain favorable [120]. Ackerman and others [2] reported that in the Nevada desert, Indian ricegrass flowered after spring rains, but not following summer rains. This suggests that lower temperatures may be required for flowering. Time of flowering varies as follows [28]:

      	earliest flowering      latest flowering
CO            May                      July
MT            May                      June
ND            June                     June
WY            May                      July

Average dates at which Indian ricegrass reached various developmental stages in Upper Snake Plains of southern Idaho are as follows [17]:

                      	Date  	Range (days)  Standard deviation

growth starts        	Apr 08       
flowerstalks appear 	May 22	27            7.9
heads fully out      	Jun 17	26            8.6
flowers in bloom     	Jun 20	20            6.5
seed ripe            	Jul 03	21            7.3
dissemination starts 	Jul 06
dissemination over   	Jul 29
plant drying         	Jul 03	48            7.8
plant dried          	Aug 06

The following phenological development has been reported in Nevada [42]:
Mean dates breaking dormancy     Mean days of active development
March 31                         72
April 2                          74
April 7                          74

Indian ricegrass can produce green shoots in fall and generally stays dry until late winter or early spring when new growth begins. Lower portions of the stem may remain somewhat green during most of the winter [29]. Panicles of different maturities may be present on a particular plant at any given time during the growing season [120].


SPECIES: Achnatherum hymenoides

Indian ricegrass reestablishes on burned sites through seed dispersed from adjacent unburned areas. Fire intervals in sagebrush-grass communities have been estimated at 7 to 70 years [131]. The range of fire intervals reported for some species that dominate communities in which Indian ricegrass occurs are listed below. To learn more about the fire regimes in those communities refer to the FEIS summary for that species, under "Fire Ecology or Adaptations."

ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum): 2-42 years
Mexican pinyon: (P. cembroides) 20-70 years


Tussock graminoid
Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Achnatherum hymenoides

Indian ricegrass has not been the subject of intensive research. Pechanec and others [90] report that it is slightly damaged by fire. However, in Utah, Ralphs and others [96] note that is "moderately damaged" by fire. According to West [118], plants are generally killed by fire.


No entry


Indian ricegrass regenerates from seed following fire [118]. In western and central Utah, Indian ricegrass may represent important cover on burned areas and often exhibits good growth characteristics. Low culm density reduces charring of crowns below soil, thereby protecting growing points. Spring burning in Utah did little damage to Indian ricegrass, and growth began within 3 weeks after burning [124]. In Nevada, summer wildfires reduced the basal area of Indian ricegrass, but little mortality was observed [122]. Rapid postfire responses such as these suggest that Indian ricegrass may also sprout from tillers.

Postburn cover of Indian ricegrass may be more a function of preburn conditions rather than length of time since disturbance [41]


In singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla)-Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) communities of the Great Basin, Everett [41] reported that Indian ricegrass could increase in density soon after fire. Postfire recovery time of Indian ricegrass is listed as 2 to 4 years [124]. However, West and Hassan [119] report that only a small portion of preburn cover had been gained one year after a July burn in Utah. Specific values are as follows [119]:

                    1981(prefire)    1982      1983 
mean kg/ha   50.03                14.59     48.96 

After an annual early spring burn of grassland-shrublands in Canada, canopy cover and frequency of Indian ricegrass increased significantly (p<0.005) [7]:

frequency (%)              canopy cover (%)  
unburned   burned         unburned     burned
3               16                0.1               0.6

On burned pinyon-juniper (Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis)-Utah juniper) sites in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, Indian ricegrass and other perennial grasses dominated the site by the fourth year after fire [40].



Annual burning may produce a more arid environment than usually found in fescue (Festuca spp.) prairie, favoring mixed-prairie grasses such as Indian ricegrass.

Some changes in postfire nutritional characteristics have been reported. Specific values are as follows [19]:

                 Aboveground Root     Total N SiO2     Total K        Total Si02     K
                 biomass (g)                 biomass (g)       (mg), (%)     (mg), (%)    (mg)

unburned   1.60                             0.35                  47 (2.0)        34 (1.7)       27
burned       1.27                             0.26                  39 (4.0)       49  (1.7)       22

Achnatherum hymenoides: References

1. Acker, Steven A. 1992. Wildfire and soil organic carbon in sagebrush-bunchgrass vegetation. The Great Basin Naturalist. 52(3): 284-287. [20093]

2. Ackerman, T. L.; Romney, E. M.; Wallace, A.; Kinnear, J. E. 1980. Phenology of desert shrubs in southern Nye County, Nevada. In: The Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 4. Nevada desert ecology. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 4-23. [3197]

3. Alexander, Robert R. 1987. Classification of the forest vegetation of Colorado by habitat type and community type. Res. Note RM-478. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 14 p. [9092]

4. Alexander, Robert R. 1988. Forest vegetation on National Forests in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain Regions: habitat and community types. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-162. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p. [5903]

5. Alexander, Robert R.; Ronco, Frank, Jr. 1987. Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Note RM-469. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10 p. [3515]

6. Allison, Chris. 1988. Seeding New Mexico rangeland. Circular 525. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Cooperative Extension Service. 15 p. [11830]

7. Anderson, Howard G.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1980. Effects of annual burning on grassland in the aspen parkland of east-central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 58: 985-996. [3499]

8. Anderson, Jay E.; Jeppson, R. J.; Wildosz, R. J.; [and others]. 1978. Trends in vegetation development on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site. In: Markham, O. D., ed. Ecological studies on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site: 1978 Progress Report. IDO-112087. Idaho Falls, ID: U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Sciences Branch, Radiological and Environmental Sciences Lab: 144-166. [320]

9. Baker, William L.; Kennedy, Susan C. 1985. Presettlement vegetation of part of northwestern Moffat County, Colorado, described from remnants. The Great Basin Naturalist. 45(4): 747-783. [384]

10. Barkworth, Mary. 1993. North American Stipeae (Gramineae): taxonomic changes and other comments. Phytologia. 74(1): 1-25. [29158]

11. Beale, Donald M.; Smith, Arthur D. 1970. Forage use, water consumption, and productivity of pronghorn antelope in western Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management. 34(3): 570-582. [6911]

12. Belnap, Jayne; Sharpe, Saxon. 1995. Reestablishing cold-desert grasslands: a seeding experiment in Canyonlands National Park, Utah. In: Roundy, Bruce A.; McArthur, E. Durant; Halley, Jennifer S.; Mann, David K., compilers. Proceedings: wildland shrub and arid land restoration symposium; 1993 October 19-21; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-315. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 46-51. [24823]

13. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

14. Best, Troy L.; Skupski, Marian P.; Smartt, Richard A. 1993. Food habits of sympatric rodents in the shinnery oak - mesquite grasslands of southeastern New Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist. 38(3): 224-235. [22136]

15. Bich, Brian S.; Butler, Jack L.; Schmidt, Cheryl A. 1995. Effects of differential livestock use of key plant species and rodent populations within selected Oryzopsis hymenoides/Hilaria jamesii communities in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. The Southwestern Naturalist. 40(3): 281-287. [26494]

16. Biondini, Mario E.; Bonham, Charles D.; Redente, Edward F. 1985. Secondary successional patterns in a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) community as they relate to disturbance and soil biological activity. Vegetatio. 60: 25-36. [448]

17. Blaisdell, James P. 1958. Seasonal development and yield of native plants on the upper Snake River Plains and their relation to certain climatic factors. Tech. Bull. 1190. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 68 p. [463]

18. Blaisdell, James P.; Holmgren, Ralph C. 1984. Managing Intermountain rangelands--salt-desert shrub ranges. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-163. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 52 p. [464]

19. Blank, Robert R.; Allen, Fay; Young, James A. 1994. Growth and elemental content of several sagebrush-steppe species in unburned and post-wildfire soil and plant effects on soil attributes. Plant and Soil. 164: 35-41. [26887]

20. Bradley, W. G. 1965. A study of the blackbrush plant community of the Desert Game Range. Transactions, Desert Bighorn Council. 11: 56-61. [4380]

21. Breitung, August J. 1954. A botanical survey of the Cypress Hills. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 68: 55-92. [6262]

22. Bunting, Stephen C.; Peters, Erin F.; Sapsis, David B. 1994. Impact of fire management on rangelands of the Intermountain West. Scientific Contract Report: Science Integration Team, Terrestrial Staff, Range Task Group. Walla Walla, WA: Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. 32 p. [26452]

23. Canfield, R. H. 1934. Stem structure of grasses on the Jornada Experimental Range. Botanical Gazette. 95: 636-648. [7175]

24. Carpenter, Jillyn. 1990. Researchers improving Indian ricegrass. Utah Science. 51(2): 71. [9958]

25. Casterline & Sons Seeds Inc. [n.d.]. Range plants for the High Plains and Rocky Mountain region. Dodge City, KS: Casterline Seeds. 23 p. [18386]

26. Chabot, Brian F.; Billings, W. D. 1972. Origins and ecology of the Sierran alpine flora and vegetation. Ecological Monographs. 42(2): 163-199. [11228]

27. Chambers, Jeanne C.; Norton, Brien E. 1993. Effects of grazing and drought on population dynamics of salt desert species on the Desert Experimental Range, Utah. Journal of Arid Environments. 24: 261-275. [22099]

28. Cook, C. Wayne; Child, R. Dennis. 1971. Recovery of desert plants in various states of vigor. Journal of Range Management. 24: 339-343. [677]

29. Cook, C. Wayne; Stoddart, L. A.; Harris, Lorin E. 1954. The nutritive value of winter range plants in the Great Basin as determined with digestion trials with sheep. Bulletin 372. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 56 p. [682]

30. Costello, David F. 1944. Natural revegetation of abandoned plowed land in the mixed prairie association of northeastern Colorado. Ecology. 25(3): 312-326. [25703]

31. Coyne, Patrick I.; Cook, C. Wayne. 1970. Seasonal carbohydrate reserve cycles in eight desert range species. Journal of Range Management. 23: 438-444. [707]

32. Crist, Thomas O.; MacMahon, James A. 1992. Harvester ant foraging and shrub-steppe seeds: interactions of seed resources and seed use. Ecology. 73(5): 1768-1779. [23498]

33. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; [and others]. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6. The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. [719]

34. Currie, Pat O.; Goodwin, D. L. 1966. Consumption of forages by black-tailed jackrabbits on salt-desert ranges of Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management. 30(2): 304-311. [25015]

35. Davenport Seed Corporation. 1997. Rainier Seed., Inc. [Catalog]. Davenport, WA: Davenport Seed Corporation. 20 p. [27624]

36. Dawson, M. D.; Heinrichs, D. H. 1952. The effects of various germination techniques to overcome dormancy in green stipagrass seed. Scientific Agriculture. 32: 266-271. [765]

37. DeVelice, Robert L.; Ludwig, John A.; Moir, William H.; Ronco, Frank, Jr. 1986. A classification of forest habitat types of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-131. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 59 p. [781]

38. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129]

39. Dunn, John P.; Chapman, Joseph A.; Marsh, Rex E. 1982. Jackrabbits: Lepus californicus and allies. In: Chapman, J. A.; Feldhamer, G. A., eds. Wild mammals of North America: biology, management and economics. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press: 124-145. [25016]

40. Erdman, James A. 1970. Pinyon-juniper succession after natural fires on residual soils of Mesa Verde, Colorado. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin. Biological Series. 11(2): 1-26. [11987]

41. Everett, Richard L. 1987. Plant response to fire in the pinyon-juniper zone. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 152-157. [4755]

42. Everett, Richard L.; Tueller, Paul T.; Davis, J. Barry; Brunner, Allen D. 1980. Plant phenology in galleta-shadscale and galleta-sagebrush associations. Journal of Range Management. 33(6): 446-450. [900]

43. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

44. Francis, Richard E. 1983. Sagebrush-steppe habitat types in northern Colorado: a first approximation. In: Moir, W. H.; Hendzel, Leonard, tech. coords. Proceedings of the workshop on Southwestern habitat types; 1983 April 6-8; Albuquerque, NM. Abluquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region: 67-71. [955]

45. Francis, Richard E. 1986. Phyto-edaphic communities of the Upper Rio Puerco Watershed, New Mexico. Res. Pap. RM-272. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 73 p. [954]

46. French, N. R. 1978. Reexamination of permanent vegetation plots on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site. In: Markham, O. D., ed. Ecological studies on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site: 1978 Progress Report. IDO-12087. Idaho Falls, ID: U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Sciences Branch, Radiological and Environmental Sciences Lab: 167-170. [969]

47. Gabbert, W. D.; Schultz, B. W.; Angerer, J. P.; Ostler, W. K. 1995. Plant succession on disturbed sites in four plant associations in the northern Mojave Desert. In: Roundy, Bruce A.; McArthur, E. Durant; Haley, Jennifer S.; Mann, David K., compilers. Proceedings: wildland shrub and arid land restoration symposium; 1993 October 19-21; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-315. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 183-188. [24846]

48. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

49. Gates, Robert J.; Eng, Robert L. 1984. Sage grouse, pronghorn, and lagomorph use of a sagebrush-grassland burn site on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In: Markham, O. Doyle, ed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory radio ecology and ecology programs: 1983 progress reports. Idaho Falls, ID: U.S. Department of Energy, Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory: 220-235. [1005]

50. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]

51. Green, Lisle R.; Sharp, Lee A.; Cook, C. Wayne; Harris, Lorin E. 1951. Utilization of winter range forage by sheep. Journal of Range Management. 4: 233-241. [7891]

52. Griffith, Larry W.; Booth, D. Terrance. 1988. Indian ricegrass seed damage and germination responses to mechanical treatments. Journal of Range Management. 41(4): 335-337. [4543]

53. Hafenrichter, A. L.; Schwendiman, John L.; Harris, Harold L.; [and others]. 1968. Grasses and legumes for soil conservation in the Pacific Northwest and Great Basin states. Agric. Handb. 339. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 69 p. [18604]

54. Hansen, Richard M.; Gold, Ilyse K. 1977. Blacktail prairie dogs, desert cottontails and cattle trophic relations on shortgrass range. Journal of Range Management. 30(3): 210-214. [4644]

55. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]

56. Holmgren, Ralph C. 1975. The Desert Experimental Range: description, history, and program. In: Hyder, D. N., ed. Arid shrublands--proceedings, 3rd workshop of the United States/Austrailia rangelands panel; 1973 March 26-April 5; Tuscon, Arizona. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 18-22. [1186]

57. Hull, A. C., Jr. 1973. Germination of range plant seeds after long periods of uncontrolled storage. Journal of Range Management. 26(3): 198-200. [18728]

58. Humphrey, Robert R. 1953. Forage production on Arizona ranges. III. Mohave County: A study in range condition. Bulletin 244. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 79 p. [4440]

59. Hutchings, Selar S. 1954. Managing winter sheep range for greater profit. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 46 p. [23306]

60. Hutchings, Selar S.; Stewart, George. 1953. Increasing forage yields and sheep production on Intermountain winter ranges. Circular No. 925. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 63 p. [1227]

61. Institute for Land Rehabilitation. 1979. Selection, propagation, and field establishment of native plant species on disturbed arid lands. Bulletin 500. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 49 p. [1237]

62. Jensen, M. E.; Peck, L. S.; Wilson, M. V. 1988. A sagebrush community type classification for mountainous northeastern Nevada rangelands. The Great Basin Naturalist. 48: 422-433. [27717]

63. Jensen, M. E.; Simonson, G. H.; Dosskey, M. 1990. Correlation between soils and sagebrush-dominated plant communities of northeastern Nevada. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 54: 902-910. [15502]

64. Jensen, Mark E. 1989. Soil characteristics of mountainous northeastern Nevada sagebrush community types. The Great Basin Naturalist. 49(4): 469-481. [9903]

65. Johnson, B. Lennart; Rogler, George A. 1943. A cyto-taxonomic study of an intergeneric hybrid between Oryzopsis hymenoides and Stipa viridula. American Journal of Botany. 30: 49-56. [1274]

66. Johnson, Mark K.; Hansen, Richard M. 1979. Foods of cottontails and woodrats in south-central Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy. 60(1): 213-215. [23859]

67. Johnson, Randal D.; Anderson, Jay E. 1984. Diets of black-tailed jack rabbits in relation to population density and vegetation. Journal of Range Management. 37(1): 79-83. [21837]

68. Johnson, Terrell K.; Jorgensen, Clive D. 1981. Ability of desert rodents to find buried seeds. Journal of Range Management. 34(4): 312-314. [5059]

69. Johnston, Barry C. 1989. Woodland classification: the pinyon-juniper formation. In: Ferguson, Dennis E.; Morgan, Penelope; Johnson, Frederic D., compilers. Proceedings--land classifications based on vegetation: applications for resource management; 1987 November 17-19; Moscow, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-257. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 160-166. [6958]

70. Jordan, Gilbert L.; Haferkamp, Marshal R. 1989. Temperature responses and calculated heat units for germination of several range grasses and shrubs. Journal of Range Management. 42(1): 41-45. [6083]

71. Kelrick, Michael Ira; MacMahon, James A. 1985. Nutritional and physical attribributes of seeds of some common sagebrush-steppe plants: some implications for ecological theory and management. Journal of Range Management. 38(1): 65-69. [16086]

72. Kindscher, Kelly. 1988. The ethnobotanical use of native prairie plants as food. In: Davis, Arnold; Stanford, Geoffrey, eds. The prairie: roots of our culture; foundation of our economy: Proceedings, 10th North American prairie conference; 1986 June 22-26; Denton, TX. Dallas, TX: Native Prairie Association of Texas: 02.04: 1-3. [25585]

73. Koniak, Susan. 1985. Succession in pinyon-juniper woodlands following wildfire in the Great Basin. The Great Basin Naturalist. 45(3): 556-566. [1371]

74. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]

75. Kufeld, Roland C. 1973. Foods eaten by the Rocky Mountain elk. Journal of Range Management. 26(2): 106-113. [1385]

76. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]

77. Larson, Milo; Moir, W. H. 1987. Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of northern New Mexico and northern Arizona. 2d ed. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region. 90 p. [8947]

78. Lauer, Jerry L.; Peek, James M. 1976. Big game-livestock relationships on the bighorn sheep winter range, East Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Bulletin No. 12. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. 44 p. [1417]

79. Laycock, William A. 1967. How heavy grazing and protection affect sagebrush-grass ranges. Journal of Range Management. 20: 206-213. [1421]

80. MacCracken, James G.; Hansen, Richard M. 1984. Seasonal foods of blacktail jackrabbits and Nuttall cottontails in southeastern Idaho. Journal of Range Management. 37(3): 256-259. [25010]

81. Malakouti, M. J.; Lewis, D. T.; Stubbendieck, J. 1978. Effect of grasses and soil properties on wind erosion in sand blowouts. Journal of Range Management. 31(6): 417-420. [1512]

82. McAdoo, J. Kent; Evans, Carol C.; Roundy, James A.; [and others]. 1983. Influence of heteromyid rodents on Oryzopsis hymenoides germination. Journal of Range Management. 36(1): 61-64. [26877]

83. Morris, H. E.; Booth, W. E.; Payne, G. F.; Stitt, R. E. 1950. Important grasses on Montana ranges. Bull. No. 470. Bozeman, MT: Montana Agricultural Experiment Station. 52 p. [5520]

84. Orodho, Apollo B.; Cuany, R. L.; Trlica, M. J. 1998. Previous grazing or clipping affects seed of Indian ricegrass. Journal of Range Management. 51(1): 37-41. [28573]

85. Orodho, Apollo B.; Trlica, M. J. 1990. Clipping and long-term grazing effects on biomass and carbohydrate reserves of Indain ricegrass. Journal of Range Management. 43(1): 52-57. [11175]

86. Orodho, Apollo B.; Trlica, M. J.; Bonham, C. D. 1990. Long-term heavy-grazing effects on soil and vegetation in the Four Corners region. The Southwestern Naturalist. 35(1): 9-14. [11190]

87. Pearson, L. C. 1964. Effect of harvest date on recovery of range grasses and shrubs. Agronomy Journal. 56: 80-82. [1852]

88. Pearson, L. C. 1976. Primary production in grazed and ungrazed desert communities of eastern Idaho. Ecology. 46(3): 278-285. [1854]

89. Pechanec, Joseph F.; Stewart, George. 1949. Grazing spring-fall sheep ranges of southern Idaho. Circular No. 808. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [1855]

90. Pechanec, Joseph F.; Stewart, George; Blaisdell, James P. 1954. Sagebrush burning good and bad. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1948. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [1859]

91. Peden, Donald G. 1976. Botanical composition of bison diets on shortgrass plains. The American Midland Naturalist. 96(1): 225-229. [24596]

92. Platou, K. A.; Tueller, P. T.; Leonard, S. G.; Miles, R. L. 1986. Soil properties associated with six common grasses of the Great Basin. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 41(6): 417-421. [1894]

93. Plummer, A. Perry; Christensen, Donald R.; Monsen, Stephen B. 1968. Restoring big-game range in Utah. Publ. No. 68-3. Ephraim, UT: Utah Division of Fish and Game. 183 p. [4554]

94. Plummer, A. Perry; Frischknecht, Neil C. 1952. Increasing field stands of Indian ricegrass. Agronomy Journal. 44(6): 285-289. [1902]

95. Quinones, Ferdinand A. 1981. Indian ricegrass evaluation and breeding. Bulletin 681. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 19 p. [1493]

96. Ralphs, Michael H.; Schen, David C.; Busby, Fee. 1975. Prescribed burning--effective control of sagebrush and open juniper. Utah Science. 36(3): 94-98. [1931]

97. Ramaley, Francis. 1939. Sand-hill vegetation of northeastern Colorado. Ecological Monographs. 9(1): 1-51. [5546]

98. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

99. Robertson, Joseph H. 1947. Responses of range grasses to different intensities of competition with sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). Ecology. 28(1): 1-16. [2008]

100. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

101. Simms, Steven R. 1985. Acquisition cost and nutritional data on Great Basin resources. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology. 7(1): 117-126. [267]

102. Slauson, William L.; Ward, Richard T. 1982. Ecotypic variation in winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) in relation to reclamation in oil shale lands. Reclamation and Revegetation Research. 1: 349-357; 1982. [2155]

103. Stebbins, G.L.; Love, R.M. 1941. A cytological study of California forage grasses. American Journal of Botany. 28: 371-382. [83]

104. Stevens, Richard; Jorgensen, Kent R. 1994. Rangeland species germination through 25 and up to 40 years of warehouse storage. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., compilers. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 257-265. [24293]

105. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 10 p. [20090]

106. Stoddart, L. A. 1941. The palouse grassland association in northern Utah. Ecology. 22(2): 158-163. [2258]

107. Stubbendieck, J.; Nichols, James T.; Roberts, Kelly K. 1985. Nebraska range and pasture grasses (including grass-like plants). E.C. 85-170. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 75 p. [2269]

108. Tiedeman, James A.; Francis, Richard E.; Terwilliger, Charles, Jr.; Carpenter, Len H. 1987. Shrub-steppe habitat types of Middle Park, Colorado. Res. Pap. RM-273. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. [2329]

109. Towle, Jane. 1986. Alternations in winter migration patterns of deer and antelope in southern Idaho from 1980-1986. In: Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science. 22(1): 19. [Abstract]. [2356]

110. Trlica, M. J.; Orodho, Apollo B. 1989. Effects of protection from grazing on morphological and chemical characteristics of Indian rice grass, Oryzopsis hymenoides. Oikos. 56: 299-308. [11176]

111. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1957. Grasses and legumes for forage and conservation. ARS 22-42. Washington, DC. 32 p. [19487]

112. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 1992. "Hobble Creek" mountain big sagebrush. Habitat Express. 92(1): 1-6. [23384]

113. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resource Conservation Service. (1999) The PLANTS database [Online]. (2000, January). National Plant Data Center (Producer). Available: http://plants.usda.gov/plants [2000, March 14]. [29113]

114. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104]

115. Vallentine, John F. 1971. Range development and improvements. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press. 516 p. [2414]

116. Welch, Bruce L. 1981. Nutritive value of big sagebrush and other shrubs. In: Proceedings--shrub establishment on disturbed arid and semi-arid lands symposium; 1980 December 2-3; Laramie, WY. Laramie, WY: Wyoming Game and Fish Department: 9-22. [2479]

117. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

118. West, Neil E. 1994. Effects of fire on salt-desert shrub rangelands. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., compilers. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 71-74. [24256]

119. West, Neil E.; Hassan, M. A. 1985. Recovery of sagebrush-grass vegetation following wildfire. Journal of Range Management. 38(2): 131-134. [2513]

120. Whalley, R. D. B.; Jones, T. A.; Nielson, D. C.; Mueller, R. J. 1990. Seed abscission and retention in Indian ricegrass. Journal of Range Management. 43(3): 291-294. [11843]

121. Woodward, R. A.; Harper, K. T.; Tiedemann, A. R. 1984. An ecological consideration of the significance of cation-exchange capacity of roots of some Utah range plants. Plant and Soil. 79: 169-183. [108]

122. Wright, Henry A. 1985. Effects of fire on grasses and forbs in sagebrush-grass communities. In: Sanders, Ken; Durham, Jack. eds. Rangeland fire effects: Proceedings of the symposium; 1984 November 27-29; Boise, ID. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office: 12-21. [2617]

123. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]

124. Wright, Henry A.; Neuenschwander, Leon F.; Britton, Carlton M. 1979. The role and use of fire in sagebrush-grass and pinyon-juniper plant communities: A state-of-the-art review. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-58. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. [2625]

125. Wullstein, L. H. 1989. Evaluation and significance of associative dinitrogen fixation for arid soil rehabilitation. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation. 3: 259-265. [9207]

126. Yensen, Eric; Quinney, Dana L. 1992. Can Townsend's ground squirrels survive on a diet of exotic annuals? The Great Basin Naturalist. 52(3): 269-277. [20990]

127. Yensen, Eric; Quinney, Dana L.; Johnson, Kathrine; [and others]. 1992. Fire, vegetation changes, and population fluctuations of Townsend's ground squirrels. The American Midland Naturalist. 128(2): 299-312. [19682]

128. Yorks, Terence P.; West, Neil E.; Capels, Kathleen M. 1992. Vegetation differences in desert shrublands of western Utah's Pine Valley between 1933 and 1989. Journal of Range Management. 45(6): 569-578. [19780]

129. Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Tueller, P. T. 1976. Great Basin plant communities--pristine and grazed. In: Elston, Robert, ed. Holocene environmental change in the Great Basin. Res. Pap. No. 6. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Nevada Archeological Society: 187-216. [2676]

130. Young, James A. 1989. Intermountain shrubsteppe plant communities--pristine and grazed. In: Western raptor management symposium and workshop: Proceedings; 1987; Boise, ID. Scientific Technical Series No. 12. Washington, DC: National Wildlife Federation: 3-14. [25377]

131. Young, Richard P. 1983. Fire as a vegetation management tool in rangelands of the Intermountain Region. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 18-31. [2681]

132. Zamora, B.; Tueller, Paul T. 1973. Artemisia arbuscula, A. longiloba, and A. nova habitat types in northern Nevada. The Great Basin Naturalist. 33(4): 225-242. [2688]

FEIS Home Page