Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Zigadenus paniculatus


Introductory

SPECIES: Zigadenus paniculatus
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1993. Zigadenus paniculatus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : ZIGPAN SYNONYMS : Zygadenus paniculatus (Nutt.) Wats. SCS PLANT CODE : ZIPA2 COMMON NAMES : foothill deathcamas sandcorn panicled deathcamas deathcamas TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of foothill deathcamas is Zigadenus paniculatus (Nutt.) Wats. (Liliaceae). There are no subspecies, varieties, or forms [5,6,7,8,21]. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Zigadenus paniculatus
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Foothill deathcamas is distributed from Washington east to Montana and south to California, northern Arizona, and northwestern New Mexico [7,8]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES29 Sagebrush FRES35 Pinyon - juniper STATES : AZ CA CO ID NV MT NM OR UT WA WY BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K005 Mixed conifer forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K010 Ponderosa shrub forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K024 Juniper steppe woodland K028 Mosaic of K002 and K026 K029 California mixed evergreen forest K038 Great Basin sagebrush K055 Sagebrush steppe K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe SAF COVER TYPES : 210 Interior Douglas-fir 218 Lodgepole pine 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone 237 Interior ponderosa pine 238 Western juniper 239 Pinyon - juniper 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir 245 Pacific ponderosa pine 247 Jeffrey pine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Zigadenus paniculatus
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : All parts of foothill deathcamas are poisonous to livestock and wildlife at all times of the year [13,18,19]. PALATABILITY : Foothill deathcamas is unpalatable to all classes of livestock [13,19]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Rangeland: Foothill deathcamas is one of the first plants to produce growth in spring. Livestock poisonings usually occur when animals are put on the range in early spring before more palatable plant species are available [13,19]. Sheep are most commonly poisoned: 336 grams of foothill deathcamas (dry weight) was lethal to experimentally fed ewes (weight of the ewes averaged 51 kilograms) [12]. Foothill deathcamas is an increaser under heavy grazing; an abundance of foothill deathcamas indicates a need for rangeland improvement practices [13]. Control: Foothill deathcamas can be controlled by 2 successive years of spraying with 2,4-D before flowering, when plants are in the three-leaf stage [13,24,25]. Other: Humans are occasionally poisoned after consuming foothill deathcamas bulbs. The bulbs are sometimes mistaken for edible bulbs of wild onion (Allium spp.), hyacinth (Brodiaea spp.), or camas (Camassia spp.) [13,19].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Zigadenus paniculatus
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Foothill deathcamas is a native, cool-season, perennial forb. Its peduncle is from 8 to 21 inches (20-60 cm) long; acaulescent leaves are from 12 to 20 inches (30-50 cm) long [6,11,13]. The roots are fibrous, growing from the base of a "deep-set" underground bulb [13,19]. The inflorescense is a raceme of polygamous flowers. The fruit is a capsule [7,11,13]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Foothill deathcamas reproduces from seed, with pollination effected by syrphid flies and solitary bees [16]. It reproduces vegetatively by bulb offsets [9]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Foothill deathcamas grows in dry, loamy to gravelly soils. It is found at 4,000 to 7,500 feet (1,300-2,600 m) in elevation throughout its range [11,13]. Species named as foothill deathcamas associates in the big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plant community include cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), and low larkspur (Delphinium bicolor) [13]. Associates in the true pinyon-Utah juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community include Utah serviceberry (Amelanchier utahensis), banana yucca (Yucca baccata), rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), Fendler bluegrass (Poa fendleriana), bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides), and hairy telegraphplant (Heterotheca villosa) [2]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : NO-ENTRY SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Foothill deathcamas begins growth in early spring and flowers from May to June [11,13].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Zigadenus paniculatus
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Information on the fire adaptations of foothill deathcamas is lacking in the literature. It probably survives most fires because its bulb and growing points are located below ground. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Geophyte, growing points deep in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Zigadenus paniculatus
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Late spring, summer, or fall fire probably top-kills foothill deathcamas. Early spring fire that completely consumes aboveground portions of the plant may kill foothill deathcamas [17]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Foothill deathcamas recovery following fire has not been documented in the literature. Late spring, summer, or fall fire probably does no lasting damage to deathcamas. It has been listed as one the of the plant species that is undamaged by fire in the big sagebrush plant community [23]. Early spring fire, however, is probably harmful to this cool-season plant. It has been experimentally demonstrated that foothill deathcamas cannot produce a new set of leaves following defoliation, which could occur during early spring fire. Springtime fire may kill some plants. Tepedino [17] stated that following defoliation in early spring, foothill deathcamas may perish because photosynthate reserves are insufficient to support growth the following spring. Flowering is also affected by defoliation. In Cache County, Utah, 60 percent of plants defoliated prior to the flowering period produced no flowers, as opposed to only 17 percent of control plants. Defoliated plants that did bloom produced fewer flowers per raceme than did intact plants. Tepedino has hypothesized that flowering may be delayed for 1 to several years after defoliation. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Zigadenus paniculatus
REFERENCES : 1. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 2. Erdman, James A. 1970. Pinyon-juniper succession after natural fires on residual soils of Mesa Verde, Colorado. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin. Biological Series. 11(2): 1-26. [11987] 3. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 4. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 5. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 6. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 7. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptograms, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. [1169] 8. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 9. Kruckeberg, A. R. 1982. Gardening with native plants of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 252 p. [9980] 10. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 11. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 12. Panter, K. E.; Ralphs, M. H.; Smart, R. A.; Duelke, B. 1987. Death camas poisoning in sheep: a case report. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 29(1): 45-48. [4906] 13. Parker, Karl G. 1975. Some important Utah range plants. Extension Service Bulletin EC-383. Logan, UT: Utah State University. 174 p. [9878] 14. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 15. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 16. Tepedino, V. J. 1981. Notes on the reproductive biology of Zigadenus paniculatus, a toxic range plant. Great Basin Naturalist. 41(4): 427-430. [2311] 17. Tepedino, V.J. 1982. Effects of defoliation on reproduction of a toxic range plant, Zigadenus paniculatus. Great Basin Naturalist. 42(4): 524-528. [2312] 18. Benedict, W. V.; Harris, T. H. 1931. Experimental Ribes eradication Stanislaus National Forest. Journal of Forestry. 29(5): 709-720. [427] 19. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387] 20. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 21. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 22. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620] 23. Pechanec, Joseph F.; Stewart, George; Blaisdell, James P. 1954. Sagebrush burning good and bad. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1948. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [1859] 24. Blaisdell, James P.; Mueggler, Walter F. 1956. Effect of 2,4-D on forbs and shrubs associated with big sagebrush. Journal of Range Management. 9: 38-40. [465] 25. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office. 1985. Final Northwest Area noxious weed control program environmental impact statement. Portland, OR. 295 p. [12796]


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