Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Thalictrum dioicum


Introductory

SPECIES: Thalictrum dioicum
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Thalictrum dioicum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : THADIO SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : THDI COMMON NAMES : early meadowrue quicksilver-weed dioecious meadowrue TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for early meadowrue is Thalictrum dioicum L. It has three recognized varieties in Canada: T. d. adiantinum Greene, T. d. huronense Greene, and T. d. langfordii Greene [19]. In Canada and Minnesota, this species has been confused with Thalictrum venulosum Trel., which is a separate and valid species [12]. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Thalictrum dioicum
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Early meadowrue's range extends from south-central Canada south to Georgia and Alabama. It is distributed eastward from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Coast [9,17,20,21]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch STATES : AL CT GA IL IA KS KY MA ME MI MN MO ND NH RI SC SD TN VT WV WI LB MB ON PQ SK BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 14 Great Plains 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K081 Oak savanna K082 Mosaic of bluestem prairie and oak - hickory forest K084 Cross Timbers K089 Black Belt K095 Great Lakes pine forest K099 Maple - basswood forest K100 Oak - hickory forest K102 Beech - maple forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K106 Northern hardwoods K107 Northern hardwoods - fir forest K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K114 Pocosin SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jack pine 14 Northern pin oak 15 Red pine 16 Aspen 18 Paper birch 19 Gray birch - red maple 20 White pine - northern red oak - maple 25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch 26 Sugar maple - basswood 27 Sugar maple 28 Black cherry - maple 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 42 Bur oak 43 Bear oak 44 Chestnut oak 45 Pitch pine 46 Eastern redcedar 50 Black locust 51 White pine - chestnut oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 57 Yellow-poplar 58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 60 Beech - sugar maple 64 Sassafras - persimmon 67 Mohrs ("shin") oak 69 Sand pine 71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak 72 Southern scrub oak 73 Southern redcedar 74 Cabbage palmetto 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine - oak 78 Virginia pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 85 Slash pine - hardwood 87 Sweetgum - yellow-poplar 108 Red maple 109 Hawthorn 110 Black oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Early meadowrue is listed as a dominant in the following classification: Field guide to forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin - Kotar & others 1988

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Thalictrum dioicum
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Nongame birds and small mammals may consume the seeds of early meadowrue. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : No food value is listed for early meadowrue. However, another similar meadowrue (Thalictrum fendleri) has about 11 percent digestible protein [15]. COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : The male plants reproduce asexually by stolons, which could help stabilize shaded moist disturbed habitats [14]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : The gray-green fernlike foliage is decorative. It persists in dry summer and autumn and provides good ground cover for shaded wildflower gardens [21]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Thalictrum dioicum
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Early meadowrue is a dioecious perennial. Its hollow stems rise 8 to 28 inches (20-70 cm) from a caudex or rootstock [9]. The caudex has dried persistent bracts from the growth of previous years. The alternate, compound leaves have long stalks. Flowers have no petals and are in loose, open panicles. Both male and female flowers have four purple to greenish white sepals that drop off before fruits are formed [9]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Early meadowrue has a shallowly rooted caudex. Foliage dies back to this rootstock each winter and resprouts in spring. Brundrett and others [3] note that it grows typically in colonies. However, Melampy [14] asserts that only male plants produce stolons; therefore, colonies are unisexual. While vegetative reproduction favors the spread of male plants, Melampy [14] notes that they may be more susceptible to environmental stresses than female plants. Male plants also reproduce sexually, having long pendulous stamens that facilitate wind pollination [9]. Fruits are achenes with no special dispersal mechanisms. Most likely, the dry fruits drop near the parent plants unless they are consumed. There is no information on the effects of animal digestive tracts on seed survival. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Early meadowrue commonly occurs on alluvial soils that range from well-drained sandy loams to poorly drained clays [1,16]; however, it usually is found on well-drained soils [1]. It grows in moist open woods and is found on north-facing slopes, ledges, rocky areas, ravines, and near limestone outcrops [21]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species A shade-tolerant plant, early meadowrue occurs as a minor component (up to 25% cover, [4]) in subclimax communities of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and aspen (Populus tremuloides). SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : With its leaves about half grown, early meadowrue blooms early in spring (April or May) throughout its range [9,17,20,21]. It flowers with or before the expansion of leaves on deciduous trees. Fruit begins to mature approximately 1 month later (June) [9,17,20,21]. Leaves are maintained throughout summer. In fall, leaves become senescent, and there are no living shoots during winter [9,17,20,21].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Thalictrum dioicum
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Early meadowrue is a component of deciduous forests that abutt prairies. Prairie fire suppression has increased the range of this plant [4]. With a shallowly rooted caudex, the degree of resistance to fire depends on protection obtained from soil cover. As with other stolon-producing species, early meadowrue is most likely to survive cool fires that do not consume duff [7]. However, seedlings probably will not survive. This plant would not survive severe fires. Fire risk is greatest during the summer when severe thunderstorms commonly occur throughout its range. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Caudex, growing points in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Thalictrum dioicum
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire effects have not been studied in this plant. It is probably top-killed by fire. Any aboveground stolons also would be killed. Spring burning would have the greatest impact on this species, since it would kill the seeds that mature in June. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : The abundance of early meadowrue would be severely reduced immediately postfire. Since this species reproduces both vegetatively and sexually, long-term postfire recovery should be fairly successful. Off-site regeneration is possible but anticipated to be slow, since seed is not wind dispersed. Fire severity and rooting depth of the caudex controls its recovery. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Thalictrum dioicum
REFERENCES : 1. Alban, David H.; Perala, Donald A.; Schlaegel, Bryce E. 1978. Biomass and nutrient distribution in aspen, pine, and spruce stands on the same soil type in Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 8: 290-299. [16911] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Dawson, Todd E.; Ehleringer, James R. 1993. Gender-specific physiology, carbon isotope discrimination, and habitat distribution in boxelder, Acer negundo. Ecology. 74(3): 798-815. [17565] 4. Daubenmire, Rexford F. 1936. The "big woods" of Minnesota: its structure, and relation to climate, fire, and soils. Ecological Monographs. 6(2): 233-268. [2697] 5. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 6. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 7. Fischer, William C.; Bradley, Anne F. 1987. Fire ecology of western Montana forest habitat types. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-223. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 95 p. [633] 8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 9. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 10. Kotar, John; Kovach, Joseph A.; Locey, Craig T. 1988. Field guide to forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, Department of Forestry; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 217 p. [11510] 11. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 12. Lakela, O. 1965. A flora of northeastern Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 541 p. [18142] 13. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 14. Melampy, Michael N. 1981. Sex-linked niche differentiation in two species of Thalictrum. American Midland Naturalist. 106(2): 325-334. [18190] 15. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. [1731] 16. Potter, Loren D.; Moir, D. Ross. 1961. Phytosociological study of burned deciduous woods, Turtle Mountains North Dakota. Ecology. 42(3): 468-480. [10191] 17. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 18. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 19. Scoggan, H. J. 1978. The flora of Canada. Ottawa, Canada: National Museums of Canada. (4 volumes). [18143] 20. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604] 21. Steyermark, J. A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 1725 p. [18144] 22. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 23. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573]


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