Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Taraxacum officinale

Introductory

SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Esser, Lora L. 1993. Taraxacum officinale. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : TAROFF SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : TAOF COMMON NAMES : common dandelion dandelion TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for common dandelion is Taraxacum officinale Weber [134]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Common dandelion is of Eurasian origin but has become naturalized throughout the United States.  It occurs in all 50 states, almost all Canadian provinces, and Mexico [62,126]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES10  White - red - jack pine    FRES11  Spruce - fir    FRES12  Longleaf - slash pine    FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine    FRES14  Oak - pine    FRES15  Oak - hickory    FRES16  Oak - gum - cypress    FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood    FRES18  Maple - beech - birch    FRES19  Aspen - birch    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES22  Western white pine    FRES23  Fir - spruce    FRES24  Hemlock - Sitka spruce    FRES25  Larch    FRES26  Lodgepole pine    FRES27  Redwood    FRES28  Western hardwoods    FRES29  Sagebrush    FRES30  Desert shrub    FRES32  Texas savanna    FRES33  Southwestern shrubsteppe    FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub    FRES35  Pinyon - juniper    FRES36  Mountain grasslands    FRES37  Mountain meadows    FRES38  Plains grasslands    FRES39  Prairie    FRES40  Desert grasslands    FRES41  Wet grasslands    FRES42  Annual grasslands    FRES44  Alpine STATES :      AL  AK  AZ  AR  CA  CO  CT  DE  FL  GA      HI  ID  IL  IN  IA  KS  KY  LA  ME  MD      MA  MI  MN  MS  MO  MT  NE  NV  NH  NJ      NM  NY  NC  ND  OH  OK  OR  PA  RI  SC      SD  TN  TX  UT  VT  VA  WA  WV  WI  WY      AB  BC  MB  NB  NF  NT  NS  ON  PQ  SK      YT  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     1  Northern Pacific Border     2  Cascade Mountains     3  Southern Pacific Border     4  Sierra Mountains     5  Columbia Plateau     6  Upper Basin and Range     7  Lower Basin and Range     8  Northern Rocky Mountains     9  Middle Rocky Mountains    10  Wyoming Basin    11  Southern Rocky Mountains    12  Colorado Plateau    13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont    14  Great Plains    15  Black Hills Uplift    16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    Dandelion is found in nearly all Kuchler Plant Associations. SAF COVER TYPES :    Common dandelion is found in nearly all SAF cover types. SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Common dandelion is an indicator species in ruderal vegetation types in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Washington [51,137].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Common dandelion is a preferred food of domestic sheep grazing on mountain meadows [83] and is readily eaten by cattle on rough fescue (Festuca scabrella) prairies in Alberta [38].  Common dandelion is commonly eaten in the spring by sharp-tailed grouse [89].  It is a minor component of bighorn sheep diets in the Upper Yellowstone Valley [63] and is an important food for pocket gophers on mountain grasslands of Colorado [132]. Common dandelion is an important source of nectar and pollen for bees in Alaska [96].  Common dandelion is consumed by deer and elk in the spring, summer, and fall in meadows of the Rocky Mountains [73]. In Yellowstone National Park, common dandelion is an important food for grizzly bears in summer.  Peak use in in June [82].  Leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers were found in grizzly and black bear scats in Glacier National Park [65]. In Alberta, black bears browse on earlier phenological stages of common dandelion (spring and early summer) because of the higher nutrient quality.  Common dandelion is one of the dominant species found in spring bear scats [52]. During prenesting through incubation of greater prairie chicken broods (April-May) on the Sheyenne National Grasslands in North Dakota, common dandelion flowers were one of the primary diet items.  Individual fecal samples contained up to 96 percent common dandelion flowers during April and May [106]. Common dandelion is one of the favored foods of sage grouse in the spring, summer, and fall in Nevada.  Of all meadow forbs consumed, common dandelion contributed 82 percent to spring forb diets [40,67].  In British Columbia, deer consumed common dandelion at significantly higher (P<0.05) rates on harvested lodgepole pine sites than on unharvested sites [28].     PALATABILITY : Common dandelion is more palatable to wildlife and livestock in prebloom stages than in postbloom stages [81].  It is poor to fair in palatability on ponderosa pine sites throughout the West [85]. Palatability ratings for common dandelion from selected western states are as follows [37]:                               UT     CO     WY     MT     ND Cattle                       good   good   fair   fair   good Sheep                        good   good   good   good   good Horses                       good   good   fair   good   good Elk                          good   ----   good   good   ---- Mule deer                    good   ----   good   fair   fair White-tailed deer            ----   ----   good   fair   fair Pronghorn                    good   ----   good   good   fair Upland game birds            good   ----   good   good   good Waterfowl                    fair   ----   poor   ----   good Small nongame birds          fair   ----   fair   fair   fair Small mammals                good   ----   fair   fair   fair NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Protein content of dandelion exceeds the minimum requirement needed for body maintenance for deer in ponderosa pine communities [94].  Common dandelion meets the nutritional requirements of beef cattle in Alberta [16]. Protein and manganese content increase from early June to early July, when it is harvested on ranges in Alberta.  By late September, protein content decreases significantly [16]. Chemical composition (in percent) of common dandelion from an irrigated pasture during 1986 was as follows [16]:                        June 3       July 7       September 24       Average Acid detergent fiber   28.1         22.4         25.8               25.4 Crude protein          13.8         22.8         14.7               17.1 Ca                     1.21         1.55         1.61               1.46 P                      0.30         0.48         0.29               0.36 Mg                     0.31         0.47         0.50               0.43 K                      2.58         2.24         2.46               2.43 COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Common dandelion has low short-term and long-term revegetation potential on disturbed sites.  Erosion-control potential is low [37]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : The Gwich'in Athabaskan Indians of Fort Yukon, Alaska frequently eat the leaves of common dandelion in salads or boil and eat them [54].  Roots of common dandelion can be ground and used as a mild laxative or to treat heartburn.  Tea and wine can be made from flowers [140]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Common dandelion is an invader species that commonly inhabits overgrazed rangelands [85].  Common dandelion availability for deer decreases on cattle-grazed sites [7]. Common dandelion meets the nutritional requirements of beef cattle and is readily grazed by them [16].  Producers may want to control common dandelion in irrigated pastures to restrict seed movement to adjacent land where common dandelion may be undesirable [16]. Common dandelion is a threat in upper forest and alpine zones of western Montana because of its ability to invade little disturbed or undisturbed native vegetation through seed dispersal [133].  In Montana, common dandelion seedlings compete with conifer seedlings on forest sites.  Grass seeding on these sites will eventually decrease the common dandelion population in 4 to 5 years [14]. Clearcuts and thinning of forests stimulates common dandelion production.  Sage grouse and deer populations benefit from increased production of common dandelion [10].  Sage grouse habitat loss due to development and postdevelopment land use can be minimized by regulation of livestock on important adjacent nondeveloped lands [10]. Common dandelion can be readily controlled with 2,4-D.  It is most effective to spray in early spring before first bloom.  Sites should not be mown for 3 to 5 days before spraying or 1 to 2 days after [92]. Strip spraying in Idaho in relatively high annual precipitation (13 inches [33 cm]) areas benefits sage grouse brood-rearing habitat due to quick recovery of common dandelion and other forbs.  Average cover of common dandelion in sprayed areas was 17.2 percent, whereas average cover in nonsprayed areas was 11.2 percent [23]. A decrease in the population of common dandelion occurs where pocket gophers are present.  When gophers were removed, common dandelion population increased by 50 percent in 2 years on mountain grasslands and meadows of Colorado, Utah, and Oregon [42].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Common dandelion is an introduced, cool-season, perennial forb [140].  It has a thick taproot up to 6 inches (15.2 cm) long [135].  Stems are very short and wholly underground, producing a rosette of leaves at the ground surface.  Leaves are 2 to 16 inches (5-40 cm) long [134].  The flower heads are solitary at the end of naked, hollow stalks.  Stalks can reach heights up to 2 feet (60 cm) [126,135].  One head contains from 100 to 300 flowers [126].  Seeds of common dandelion are topped by a parachute of bristles that aid in dissemination [55]. Common dandelion forms vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal associations [15,37].     RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Common dandelion reproduces apomictically through parthenogenesis [62].  Plants develop from unfertilized gametes.  Common dandelion is an aggressive seed producer and reproduces mainly from seed [42].  Seeds travel a considerable distance because of the parachuting effect produced by the spreading pappus.  In a tallgrass prairie in Iowa, achenes of common dandelion were blown by the wind several hundred meters from the nearest source population [98]. Common dandelion creates a long-lived seedbank [11,99].  In a seedbank of a ponderosa pine community in Washington, viable common dandelion seedlings emerged from litter and soil samples in greenhouse germination trials. Seed density of spring samples was 160 seeds per square yard (133 seeds/m sq) and of autumn samples was 60 seeds per square yard (50 seeds/m sq) [99].  Seeds of common dandelion were viable up to 5 years in soil samples from Montana [11].  Seed germination on a control plot in Wisconsin was inhibited by thick mulch.  Light mulch that remained on a mowed plot also reduced germination [36].  Germination was highest on a burned plot [36]. Vegetative:  Common dandelion sprouts from the caudex after disturbance [114,126]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Common dandelion tolerates a wide range of site and soil conditions, but it most commonly occurs in disturbed areas such as cut-over or burned forests, avalanche areas, overgrazed ranges, and marshy floodplains [54,133].  It also occurs sites on highway and railroad rights-of-way, waste places, old fields, pastures, and lawns [114,126]. Common dandelion occurs on soils that vary from thin layers above permafrost in the subarctic to deep loams in the western United States [37,114].  Soil texture ranges from clays and clayey loams to sandy loams.  Common dandelion does poorly on dense clay soils, saline soils, and acidic soils [37]. Common dandelion occurs on flat to rolling topography or moderate to steep slopes [27,37].  It is found from sea level to high alpine elevations [126].  Regional elevational distributions are as follows [27,37,99]:                                  feet                 meters Utah                         4,100-11,300           1,250-3,445 Colorado                     4,500-13,500           1,372-4,115 Wyoming                      4,100- 9,600           1,250-2,926 Montana                      2,900- 9,200             884-2,804 Washington                   2,574- 2,722             780-825 Oregon                       7,095- 7,920           2,150-2,400 Alberta                      4,323- 6,336           1,310-1,920 Common shrubs, grasses, and forbs associated with common dandelion include common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii), russet buffalo berry (Shepherdia canadensis), blueberry (Vaccinium spp.), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), black sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula nova), Wyoming big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), Oregon-grape (Mahonia repens), rough fescue (Festuca scabrella), Idaho fescue (F. idahoensis), slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus), prairie Junegrass (Koeleria cristata), timber danthonia (Danthonia intermedia), Richardson's needlegrass (Stipa richardsonii), timothy (Phleum pratense), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), aster (Aster spp.), willowweed (Epilobium spp.), prairiesmoke avens (Geum triflorum), small-leaf angelica (Angelica pinnata), Colorado columbine (Aquilegia caerula), rhexia-leaved paintbrush (Castilleja leonardii), Oregon fleabane (Erigeron speciousus), wallflower (Erysimum elatum), one-flower helianthella (Helianthella uniflora), Utah peavine (Lathyrus utahensis), and Richardson geranium (Geranium richardsonii) [32,83,117,124,129].   SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Common dandelion is an important colonizer following vegetation disturbances in temperate climates throughout North America [85,99].  Although the role of common dandelion as an early seral species does not change, the length of time common dandelion populations are present varies among ecosystems. Common dandelion enters a disturbed community and rapidly becomes abundant.  It may achieve a peak in dominance within 2 to 3 years [7,14].  Holland found common dandelion to be a transitory colonist of marsh habitats in Massachusetts; it was found for 10 years after the disturbance and then disappeared [53]. Common dandelion was one of the earliest colonizers after tree harvesting in a maple-beech-birch ecosystem in Michigan [32].  On an abandoned farmland in Arizona, common dandelion was one of the predominant species following winter precipitation [30].  Common dandelion was a pioneer species on a brine-killed forest site after elimination of brine discharge on the site in the spring of 1982 [7].  On a Douglas-fir clearcut in Colorado, common dandelion was a dominant species in the understory the second year after cutting but was not present in the initial community [7].  Common dandelion is not a member of the climax plant community on rangelands since it cannot withstand competition for moisture, nutrients, and light with the climax vegetation.  It invades these areas after the preferred species have been removed by overgrazing [85]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Common dandelion is one of the earliest spring bloomers on western rangelands [134].  It flowers from March to late fall in most states and will flower throughout the year in warmer areas [126].  General first flowering dates are from April 28 to May 19, and sometimes earlier in some locations [116].  By mid-June, common dandelion has reached its maximum bloom stage, and the seeds from earlier flowering dates are mostly disseminated.  By mid-July, all seeds are disseminated [40]. Reported dates for anthesis in some states are as follows [16,37,100]: Utah                             April-July Colorado                         April-August Wyoming                          May-August Montana                          April-September North Dakota                     April-June Virginia                         February-June Georgia                          February-June Mississippi                      February-June Tennessee                        February-June Kentucky                         February-June Iowa                             April-June Alberta                          June-July

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Common dandelion is a component of diverse ecosystems in boreal and temperate regions with variable fire regimes.  Common dandelion is primarily adapted to fire through its prolific production of wind-dispersed seed [123].  Site colonization after fires occurs in many forested areas because of common dandelion's persistent, viable seed bank [1].   POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)    Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)    Caudex, growing points in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire likely top-kills common dandelion. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Common dandelion generally establishes during the first or second postfire year.  It usually increases in frequency after fire [22,36,41].  One year after a spring burn (May 24, 1983) in Galena Gulch, Montana, common dandelion showed a 50 percent increase in frequency, but by the second year showed only a 47.5 percent increase over the prefire level [22]. Common dandelion increased in frequency following a fire in 1974 in a Scotch pine forest in Scotland, but by postfire year 4, frequency started to decrease.  Maximum frequency occurred at 3 years after fire [119]. Common dandelion frequency was greater in burned than in unburned oak communities in Utah [74].  Following a prescribed fire in a Douglas-fir stand in south-central Idaho, common dandelion frequency increased significantly by postfire year 2.  Prefire frequency was 8 percent; at postfire year 1 frequency was 4 percent; and at postfire year 2 frequency was 24 percent [78]. In the Hedges Mountain area of the Helena National Forest, Montana, a sagebrush/rough fescue habitat type was burned in spring (May) and fall (September).  Prefire and postfire community types, as named by the dominant species, were compared.  Following the spring burn, bluegrass and common dandelion were the dominant species during both postfire years 1 and 2.  Following the fall burn, the dominant species during postfire year 1 were bluegrass, mountain brome (Bromus marginatus), and common dandelion.  By postfire year 2, common dandelion was no longer a dominant; the site was dominated by bluegrass, Wood's rose, and common snowberry [109]. A fire on June 28, 1977 in Montana in a rough fescue community minimally disrupted reproduction and carbohydrate production of common dandelion.  Its frequency increased slightly on burned sites by the summer of 1978 [6]. In the timbered breaks along the Missouri River in central Montana, common dandelion was favored by big game animals every postfire year except year 28.  At postfire year 17 common dandelion was found at high frequencies. First peak in frequency occurred at postfire year 4 [41]. On ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir communities in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon, common dandelion cover and frequency were higher on unburned control sites than on prescribed burned, thinned, or thinned-and-burned sites.  Common dandelion was determined to be an indicator species for unburned sites (P0.05).  For further information on the effects of thinning and burning treatments on common dandelion and 48 other species, see the Research Project Summary of Youngblood and others' [141] study. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Lyon's Research Paper, Hamilton's Research Papers (Hamilton 2006a, Hamilton 2006b), and the following Research Project Summaries also provide information on prescribed fire use and postfire response of many plant species including common dandelion: FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Late spring burning in the tallgrass prairies of Kansas reduced common dandelion cover compared with burning at earlier dates.  In shortgrass prairies of western Kansas, common dandelion was less affected by dormant season (fall and winter) burns than by spring burns [20].  Burning to decrease cover of common dandelion on rangelands should be done in the spring after growth initiation.  Annual burning in March or November in Nebraska resulted in the highest total cover of common dandelion.  Burning in April decreased cover [46]. Following logging, bulldozing, and slash burning, common dandelion will establish in the open spots [14]. Common dandelion competes with tree seedlings on burned sites.  Grasses aerially seeded on burns may compete with and displace common dandelion.  After 4 to 5 years of grass seeding on sites in Montana common dandelion populations eventually decreased [14].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale
REFERENCES : 1.  Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1979. Buried seed in the forest floor of the        Boundary Waters Canoe Area. Minnesota Forestry Research Note No. 271.        St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, College of Forestry. 4 p.  [3459]

2.  Alaback, Paul B.; Herman, F. R. 1988. Long-term response of understory        vegetation to stand density in Picea-Tsuga forests. Canadian Journal of        Forest Research. 18: 1522-1530.  [6227] 3.  Allen, Eugene O. 1968. Range use, foods, condition, and productivity of        white-tailed deer in Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 32(1):        130-141.  [16331] 4.  Almack, Jon. 1986. Grizzly bear habitat use, food habits, and movements        in the Selkirk Mountains, northern Idaho. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans,        Keith E., compilers. Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985        April 30 - May 2; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research        Station: 150-157.  [10815] 5.  Anderson, Murray L.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1979. Effect of fire on a        Symphoricarpos occidentalis shrub community in central Alberta. Canadian        Journal of Botany. 57: 2820-2823.  [2867] 6.  Antos, Joseph A.; McCune, Bruce; Bara, Cliff. 1983. The effect of fire        on an ungrazed western Montana grassland. American Midland Naturalist.        110(2): 354-364.  [337] 7.  Auchmoody, L. R.; Walters, R. S. 1988. Revegetation of a brine-killed        forest site. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 52: 277-280.        [11374] 8.  Austin, D. D.; Urness, Philip J. 1982. Vegetal responses and big game        values after thinning regenerating lodgepole pine. Great Basin        Naturalist. 42(4): 512-516.  [8354] 9.  Austin, Dennis D.; Urness, Philip J. 1986. Effects of cattle grazing on        mule deer diet and area selection. Journal of Range Management. 39(1):        18-21; 1986.  [364]  10.  Autenrieth, Robert; Molini, William; Braun, Clait, eds. 1982. Sage        grouse management practices. Tech. Bull No. 1. Twin Falls, ID: Western        States Sage Grouse Committee. 42 p.  [7531]  11.  Bard, Gily E. 1952. Secondary succession on the Piedmont of New Jersey.        Ecological Monographs. 22(3): 195-215.  [4777]  12.  Barmore, William J., Jr.; Taylor, Dale; Hayden, Peter. 1976. Ecological        effects and biotic succession following the 1974 Waterfalls Canyon Fire        in Grand Teton National Park. Research Progress Report 1974-1975.        Unpublished report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 99 p.        [16109]  13.  Basile, Joseph V.; Jensen, Chester E. 1971. Grazing potential on        lodgepole pine clearcuts in Montana. Res. Pap. INT-98. Ogden, UT: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and        Range Experiment Station. 11 p.  [8280]  14.  Bedunah, Don; Pfingsten, William; Kennett, Gregory; Willard, E. Earl.        1988. Relationship of stand canopy density to forage production. In:        Schmidt, Wyman C., compiler. Proceedings--future forests of the Mountain        West: a stand culture symposium; 1986 September 29 - October 3;        Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-243. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 99-107.        [5070]  15.  Berch, Shannon M.; Gamiet, Sharmin; Deom, Elisabeth. 1988. Mycorrhizal        status of some plants of southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal        of Botany. 66: 1924-1928.  [8841]  16.  Bergen, Peter; Moyer, James R.; Kozub, Gerald C. 1990. Dandelion        (Taraxacum officinale) use by cattle grazing on irrigated pasture. Weed        Technology. 4(2): 258-263.  [14775]  17.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]  18.  Bowes, G. G. 1991. Long-term control of aspen poplar and western        snowberry with dicamba and 2,4-D. Canadian Journal of Plant Science.        71(4): 1121-1131.  [19502]  19.  Bowns, James E.; Bagley, Calvin F. 1986. Vegetation responses to        long-term sheep grazing on mountain ranges. Journal of Range Management.        39(5): 431-434.  [15584]  20.  Bragg, Thomas B. 1991. Implications for long-term prairie management        from seasonal burning of loess hill and tallgrass prairie. In: Nodvin,        Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment:        ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international        symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69.        Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 34-44.  [16631]  21.  Brown, David E. 1982. Great Basin montane scrubland. In: Brown, David        E., ed.  Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and        Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 83-84.  [8890]  22.  Bushey, Charles L. 1985. Summary of results from the Galena Gulch 1982        spring burns (Units 1b). Missoula, MT: Systems for Environmental        Management. 9 p.  [567]  23.  Call, Mayo W. 1979. Habitat requirements and management recommendations        for sage grouse. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of        Land Management, Denver Service Center. 37 p.  [591]  24.  Canon, S. K.; Urness, P. J.; DeByle, N. V. 1987. Habitat selection,        foraging behavior, and dietary nutrition of elk in burned aspen forest.        Journal of Range Management. 40(5): 443-438.  [3453]  25.  Carleton, T. J.; Maycock, P. F. 1981. Understorey - canopy affinities in        boreal forest vegetation. Canadian Journal of Botany. 59: 1709-1716.        [14576]  26.  Cole, C. Andrew. 1991. The seedbank of a young surface mine wetland.        Wetlands Ecology and Management. 1(3): 173-184.  [19468]  27.  Cole, David N.; Hall, Troy E. 1992. Trends in campsite condition: Eagle        Cap Wilderness, Bob Marshall Wilderness, and Grand Canyon National Park.        Res. Pap. INT-453. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Intermountain Research Station. 40 p.  [17764]  28.  Collins, William B.; Urness, Philip J. 1983. Feeding behavior and        habitat selection of mule deer and elk on northern Utah summer range.        Journal of Wildlife Management. 47(3): 646-663.  [6915]  29.  Cooper, David J. 1990. Ecology of wetlands in Big Meadows, Rocky        Mountain National Park, Colorado. Biological Report 90(15). Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 45 p.        [16106]  30.  Cox, J. R.; Madrigal, R. M. 1988. Establishing perennial grasses on        abandoned farmland in southeastern Arizona. Applied Agricultural        Research. 3(1): 36-43.  [11177]  31.  Crouch, Glenn L. 1985. Effects of clearcutting a subalpine forest in        central Colorado on wildlife habitat. Res. Pap. RM-258. Fort Collins,        CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain        Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p.  [8225]  32.  Crow, T. R.; Mroz, G. D.; Gale, M. R. 1991. Regrowth and nutrient        accumulations following whole-tree harvesting of a maple-oak forest.        Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1305-1315.  [16600]  33.  Currie, P. O.; Reichert, D. W.; Malechek, J. C.; Wallmo, O. C. 1977.        Forage selection comparisons for mule deer and cattle under managed        ponderosa pine. Journal of Range Management. 30(5): 352-356.  [4697]  34.  Davis, James N.; Harper, Kimball T. 1990. Weedy annuals and        establishment of seeded species on a chained juniper-pinyon woodland in        central Utah. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Romney, Evan M.; Smith, Stanley        D.; Tueller, Paul T., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on cheatgrass        invasion, shrub die-off, and other aspects of shrub biology and        management; 1989 April 5-7; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-276.        Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain        Research Station: 72-79.  [12872]  35.  Deschamp, Joseph A.; Urness, Philip J.; Austin, Dennis D. 1979. Summer        diets of mule deer from lodgepole pine habitats. Journal of Wildlife        Management. 43(1): 154-161.  [4524]  36.  Diboll, Neil. 1986. Mowing as an alternative to spring burning for        control of cool season exotic grasses in prairie grass plantings. In:        Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present        and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984        July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University        Center for Environmental Studies: 204-209.  [3574]  37.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806]  38.  Dormaar, Johan F.; Willms, Walter D. 1990. Sustainable production from        the rough fescue prairie. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 45(1):        137-140.  [11389]  39.  Dunn, Peter O.; Braun, Clait E. 1986. Summer habitat use by adult female        and juvenile sage grouse. Journal of Wildlife Management. 50(2):        228-235.  [4490]  40.  Eckert, R. E. 1975. Improvement of mountain meadows in Nevada. Research        Report. Reno, NV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Land        Managment. 45 p.  [8124]  41.  Eichhorn, Larry C.; Watts, C. Robert. 1984. Plant succession on burns in        the river breaks of central Montana. Proceedings, Montana Academy of        Science. 43: 21-34.  [15478]  42.  Ellison, L.; Aldous, C. M. 1952. Influence of pocket gophers on        vegetation of subalpine grassland in central Utah. Ecology. 33(2):        177-186.  [3427]  43.  Evans, Keith E.; Probasco, George E. 1977. Wildlife of the prairies and        plains. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-29. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 18        p.  [14118]  44.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905]  45.  Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].        1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range        ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  [998]  46.  Gibson, David J. 1989. Hulbert's study of factors effecting botanical        composition of tallgrass prairie. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck,        James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings,        11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE.        Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 115-133.  [14029]  47.  Girard, Michele M.; Goetz, Harold; Bjugstad, Ardell J. 1987. Factors        influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist.        19(3): 189-198.  [2763]  48.  Girard, Michele M.; Goetz, Harold; Bjugstad, Ardell J. 1989. Native        woodland habitat types of southwestern North Dakota. Res. Pap. RM-281.        Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 36 p.  [6319]  49.  Gliessman, S. R. 1976. Allelopathy in a broad spectrum of environments        as illustrated by bracken. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 73:        95-104.  [9135]  50.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]  51.  Hodorff, Robert A.; Sieg, Carolyn Hull; Linder, Raymond L. 1988.        Wildlife response to stand structure of deciduous woodlands. Journal of        Wildlife Management. 52(4): 667-673.  [6668]  52.  Holcroft, Anne C.; Herrero, Stephen. 1991. Black bear, Ursus americanus,        food habits in southwestern Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(3):        335-345.  [18673]  53.  Holland, Marjorie M.; Burk, C. John. 1990. The marsh vegetation of three        Connecticut River oxbows: a ten-year comparison. Rhodora. 92(871):        166-204.  [14521]  54.  Holloway, Patricia S.; Alexander, Ginny. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Fort        Yukon region, Alaska. Economic Botany. 44(2): 214-225.  [13625]  55.  Holmgren, Arthur H. 1958. Weeds of Utah. Special Report 12. Logan, UT:        Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 85 p.  [2935]  56.  Hungerford, C. R. 1970. Response of Kaibab mule deer to management of        summer range. Journal of Wildlife Management. 34(40): 852-862.  [1219]  57.  Hungerford, Kenneth E. 1957. Evaluating ruffed grouse foods for habitat        improvement. Transactions, 22nd North American Wildlife Conference.        [Volume unknown]: 380-395.  [15905]  58.  Johnson, A. H.; Strang, R. M. 1983. Burning in a bunchgrass/sagebrush        community: the southern interior of B.C. and northwestern U.S. compared.        Journal of Range Management. 36(5): 616-618.  [1273]  59.  Johnson, Kendall L. 1987. Description and discussion of field tour        sites. In: Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Proceedings of the fourth Utah shrub        ecology workshop: The genus Chrysothamnus; 1986 September 17-18; Cedar        City, UT. Logan, UT: Utah State University, College of Natural        Resources: 55-59.  [2724]  60.  Johnston, A.; Dormaar, J. F.; Smoliak, S. 1971. Long-term grazing        effects on fescue grassland soils. Journal of Range Management. 24:        185-188.  [13793]  61.  Johnston, A.; Smoliak, S.; Stringer, P. W. 1969. Viable seed populations        in Alberta prairie topsoils. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 49:        75-82.  [1294]  62.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]  63.  Keating, Kimberly A.; Irby, Lynn R.; Kasworm, Wayne F. 1985. Mountain        sheep winter food habits in the upper Yellowstone Valley. Journal of        Wildlife Management. 49(1): 156-161.  [15521]  64.  Keck, Wendell M. 1972. Great Basin Station--Sixty years of progress in        range and watershed research. Res. Pap. INT-118. Ogden, UT: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and        Range Experiment Station. 48 p.  [16085]  65.  Kendall, Katherine C. 1986. Grizzly and black bear feeding ecology in        Glacier National Park, Montana. Progress Report. West Glacier, Montana:        U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Glacier National        Park Biosphere Preserve, Science Center. 42 p.  [19361]  66.  Klebenow, Donald A. 1973. The habitat requirements of sage grouse and        the role of fire in management. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers        fire ecology conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. No. 12.        Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 305-315.  [1345]  67.  Klebenow, Donald A. 1984. Habitat management for sage grouse in Nevada.        World Pheasant Association Journal. 10: 34-46.  [1346]  68.  Klott, James H.; Lindzey, Frederick G. 1989. Comparison of sage and        sharp-tailed grouse leks in south central Wyoming. Great Basin        Naturalist. 49(2): 275-278.  [10562]  69.  Knapp, Paul A. 1991. The response of semi-arid vegetation assemblages        following the abandonment of mining towns in south-western Montana.        Journal of Arid Environments. 20: 205-222.  [14894]  70.  Kramer, Neal B.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1987. Mature forest seed banks of        three habitat types in central Idaho. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65:        1961-1966.  [3961]  71.  Kucera, Clair L. 1952. An ecological study of a hardwood forest area in        central Iowa. Ecological Monographs. 22(4): 283-299.  [254]  72.  Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation        of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:        American Geographical Society. 77 p.  [1384]  73.  Kufeld, Roland C. 1973. Foods eaten by the Rocky Mountain elk. Journal        of Range Management. 26(2): 106-113.  [1385]  74.  Kunzler, L. M.; Harper, K. T.; Kunzler, D. B. 1981. Compositional        similarity within the oakbrush type in central and northern Utah. Great        Basin Naturalist. 41(1): 147-153.  [1390]  75.  Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central        Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research        Station. 648 p.  [13798]  76.  Lewis, James K.; Van Dyne, George M.; Albee, Leslie R.; Whetzal, Frank        W. 1956. Intensity of grazing: Its effect on livestock and forage        production. Bulletin 459. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State College,        Agricultural Experiment Station. 44 p.  [11737]  77.  Lowe, Philip Orval. 1975. Potential wildlife benefits of fire in        ponderosa pine forests. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona. 131 p. M.S.        thesis.  [5115]  78.  Lyon, L. Jack. 1966. Initial vegetal development following prescribed        burning of Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-29. Ogden,        UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station. 17 p.  [1494]  79.  MacCracken, James G.; Uresk, Daniel W.; Hansen, Richard M. 1985. Habitat        used by shrews in southeastern Montana. Northwest Science. 59(1): 24-27.        [15523]  80.  Malanson, George P.; Butler, David R. 1991. Floristic variation among        gravel bars in a subalpine river, Montana, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine        Research. 23(3): 273-278.  [16470]  81.  Anderson, Howard G.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1980. Effects of annual burning        on grassland in the aspen parkland of east-central Alberta. Canadian        Journal of Botany. 58: 985-996.  [3499]  82.  Mattson, David J.; Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R. 1991. Food        habits of Yellowstone grizzly bears, 1977-1987. Canadian Journal of        Zoology. 69(6): 1619-1629.  [19515]  83.  McInnis, Michael L.; Vavra, Martin. 1986. Summer diets of domestic sheep        grazing mountain meadows in northeastern Oregon. Northwest Science.        60(4): 265-2170.  [1604]  84.  McKell, Cyrus M. 1950. A study of plant succession in the oak brush        (Quercus gambelii) zone after fire. Salt Lake City, UT: University of        Utah. 79 p. Thesis.  [1608]  85.  McLean, Alastair; Marchand, Leonard. 1968. Grassland ranges in the        southern interior of British Columbia. Publication 1319. Ottawa, Canada:        Canada Department of Agriculture, Division. 18 p.  [1622]  86.  Mealey, Stephen P.; Jonkel, Charles J.; Demarchi, Ray. 1977. Habitat        criteria for grizzly bear management. In: Peterie, T., ed. Proceedings,        13th international congress of game biologists; 1977 March 11-15;        Atlanta, GA. No. 13. [Place of publication unknown]. [Publisher        unknown]. 276-289.  [17030]  87.  Medve, Richard J. 1984. The mycorrhizae of pioneer species in disturbed        ecosystems of western Pennsylvania. American Journal of Botany. 71(6):        787-794.  [8544]  88.  Mueggler, Walter F. 1987. Status of aspen woodlands in the West. In:        Pendleton, Beth Giron,, ed. Proceedings of the western raptor management        symposium and workshop; 1987 October 26-28; Boise, ID. Scientific and        Technical Series No. 12. [Place of publication unknown]. National        Wildlife Federation: 32-37.  [19146]  89.  Nemick, Joseph J. 1987. Sharp-tailed grouse management and ecology in        Wyoming. In: Fisser, Herbert G., ed. Wyoming shrublands: Proceedings,        16th Wyoming shrub ecology workshop; 1987 May 26-27; Sundance, WY.        Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Department of Range Management,        Wyoming Shrub Ecology Workshop: 45-47.  [13920]  90.  Nimir, Mutasim Bashir; Payne, Gene F. 1978. Effects of spring burning on        a mountain range. Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 259-263.  [1756]  91.  Nixon, Charles M.; McClain, Milford W.; Russell, Kenneth R. 1970. Deer        food habits and range characteristics in Ohio. Journal of Wildlife        Management. 34(4): 870-886.  [16398]  92.  Pacific Northwest Extension Service. 1983. Common and false dandelion.        PNW 117. Corvallis, OR: Pullman, WA; Moscow, ID. 2 p.  [6612]  93.  Padgett, Wayne George. 1981. Ecology of riparian plant communities in        southern Malheur National Forest. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State        University. 143 p. Thesis.  [14933]  94.  Patton, David R. 1988. Selection of silvicultural systems for wildlife.        In: Baumgartner, David M.; Lotan, James E., compilers. Ponderosa pine:        The species and its management: Symposium proceedings; 1987 September 29        - October 1; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University,        Cooperative Extension: 179-184.  [9416]  95.  Paulsen, Harold A., Jr. 1970. The ecological response of species in a        Thurber fescue community to manipulative treatments. Fort Collins, CO:        Colorado State University. 145 p. Dissertation.  [1843]  96.  Petersen, Stephen F. 1989. Beekeeping under northern lights. American        Bee Journal. 129(1): 33-35.  [12332]  97.  Pfister, James A.; Ralphs, Michael H.; Manners, Gary D. 1988. Cattle        grazing tall larkspur on Utah mountain rangeland. Journal of Range        Management. 41(2): 118-121.  [3003]  98.  Platt, William J. 1975. The colonization and formation of equilibrium        plant species associations on badger disturbances in a tall-grass        prairie. Ecological Monographs. 45: 285-305.  [6903]  99.  Pratt, David W.; Black, R. Alan; Zamora, B. A. 1984. Buried viable seed        in a ponderosa pine community. Canadian Journal of Botany. 62: 44-52.        [16219] 100.  Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of        the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of        North Carolina Press. 1183 p.  [7606] 101.  Ratliff, Raymond D.; Denton, Renee G. 1991. Site preparation + 1 year:        Effect on plant cover and soil properties. Res. Note PSW-RN-412.        Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific        Southwest Research Station. 5 p.  [18638] 102.  Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant        geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  [2843] 103.  Reader, R. J. 1991. Control of seedling emergence by ground cover: a        potential mechanism involving seed predation. Canadian Journal of        Botany. 69: 2084-2087.  [17118] 104.  Reed, Porter B., Jr. 1988. National list of plant species that occur in        wetlands: Alaska (Region A). Biological Report 88(26.11). Washington,        DC: U.S Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. In        cooperation with: National and Regional Interagency Review Panels. 86 p.        [9328] 105.  Rosie, Rhonda. 1991. Continuation of #18,205 - Keywords. Canadian        Field-Naturalist. 105(3): 315-324.  [18206] 106.  Rumble, Mark A.; Newell, Jay A.; Toepfer, John E. 1988. Diets of greater        prairie chickens on the Sheyenne National Grasslands. In: Bjugstad,        Ardell J., technical coordinator. Prairie chickens on the Sheyenne        National Grasslands [symposium proceedings]; 18 September 18; Crookston,        MN. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-159. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 49-54.  [5202] 107.  Sabinske, Darold W.; Knight, Dennis H. 1978. Variation within the        sagebrush vegetation of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Northwest        Science. 52(3): 195-204.  [2046] 108.  Schiffman, Paula M.; Johnson, W. Carter. 1992. Sparse buried seed bank        in a southern Appalachian oak forest: implications for succession.        American Midland Naturalist. 127(2): 258-267.  [18191] 109.  Schwecke, Deitrich A.; Hann, Wendell. 1989. Fire behavior and vegetation        response to spring and fall burning on the Helena National Forest. In:        Baumgartner, David M.; Breuer, David W.; Zamora, Benjamin A.; [and        others], compilers. Prescribed fire in the Intermountain region:        Symposium proceedings; 1986 March 3-5; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA:        Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 135-142.  [11260] 110.  Sieg, Carolyn Hull; Uresk, Daniel W.; Hansen, Richard M. 1983.        Plant-soil relationships on bentonite mine spoils and sagebrush-        grassland in the northern High Plains. Journal of Range Management.        36(3): 289-294.  [4642] 111.  Sosebee, R. E.; Wan, C. 1989. Plant ecophysiology: a case study of honey        mesquite. In: Wallace, Arthur; McArthur, E. Durant; Haferkamp, Marshall        R., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on shrub ecophysiology and        biotechnology; 1987 June 30 - July 2; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep.        INT-256. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Intermountain Research Station: 103-118.  [5931] 112.  Spence, John R.; Shaw, Richard J. 1981. A checklist of the alpine        vascular flora of the Teton Range, Wyoming, with notes on biology and        habitat preferences. Great Basin Naturalist. 41(2): 232-242.  [9839] 113.  Spence, John R.; Shaw, Richard J. 1983. Observations on alpine        vegetation near Schoolroom Glacier, Teton Range, Wyoming. Great Basin        Naturalist. 43(3): 483-491.  [8265] 114.  Staniforth, Richard J.; Scott, Peter A. 1991. Dynamics of weed        populations in a northern subarctic community. Canadian Journal of        Botany. 69: 814-821.  [14944] 115.  Stelfox, John G. 1976. Range ecology of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in        Canadian national parks. Report Series Number 39. Ottawa, ON: Canadian        Wildlife Service. 50 p.  [13851] 116.  Stevens, O. A. 1956. Flowering dates of weeds in North Dakota. North        Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station Bimonthly Bulletin. 18(6):        209-213.  [5168] 117.  Stevens, Richard; McArthur, E. Durant; Davis, James N. 1992.        Reevaluation of vegetative cover changes, erosion, and sedimentation on        two watersheds -- 1912-1983. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant;        Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on        ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31;        Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 123-128.        [19105] 118.  Sugihara, Neil G.; Reed, Lois J.; Lenihan, James M. 1987. Vegetation of        the Bald Hills oak woodlands, Redwood National Park, California.        Madrono. 34(3): 193-208.  [3788] 119.  Sykes, J. M.; Horrill, A. D. 1981. Recovery of vegetation in a        Caledonian pinewood after fire. Transactions of the Botanical Society of        Edinburgh. 43(4): 317-325.  [19768] 120.  Taye, Alan C. 1983. Flora of the Stansbury Mountains, Utah. Great Basin        Naturalist. 43(4): 619-646.  [14669] 121.  Taylor, Dale L. 1969. Biotic succession of lodgepole pine forests of        fire origin in Yellowstone National Park. Laramie, WY: University of        Wyoming. 320 p. M.S. thesis.  [9481] 122.  Thill, Ronald E.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Patton, David R. 1983. Deer and        elk forage production in Arizona mixed conifer forests. Res. Pap.        RM-248. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p.        [14381] 123.  Toth, Barbara L. 1991. Factors affecting conifer regeneration and        community structure after a wildfire in western Montana. Corvallis, OR:        Oregon State University. 124 p. Thesis.  [14425] 124.  Tyser, Robin W.; Worley, Christopher A. 1992. Alien flora in grasslands        adjacent to road and trail corridors in Glacier National Park, Montana        (U.S.A.). Conservation Biology. 6(2): 253-262.  [19435] 125.  Urness, P. J.; Neff, D. J.; Watkins, R. K. 1975. Nutritive value of mule        deer forages on ponderosa pine summer range in Arizona. Res. Note        RM-304. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 6 p.        [15854] 126.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1971.        Common weeds of the United States. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.        463 p.  [2378] 127.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.        National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.        SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p.  [11573] 128.  Viro, P. J. 1974. Effects of forest fire on soil. In: Kozlowski, T. T.;        Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press:        7-45.  [18305] 129.  Wakimoto, Ronald H.; Willard, E. Earl. 1991. Monitoring post-fire        vegetation recovery in ponderosa pine and sedge meadow communities in        Glacier National Park, NW Montana. Research Joint Venture Agreement        INT-89441. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Intermountain Research Station. 17 p. Progress Report.  [17635] 130.  Wallestad, Richard; Peterson, Joel G.; Eng, Robert L. 1975. Foods of        adult sage grouse in central Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management.        39(3): 628-630.  [2444] 131.  Wallmo, Olof C.; Regelin, Wayne L.; Reichert, Donald W. 1972. Forage use        by mule deer relative to logging in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife        Management. 36: 1025-1033.  [4486] 132.  Ward, A. Lorin; Keith, James O. 1962. Feeding habits of pocket gophers        on mountain grasslands, Black Mesa, Colorado. Ecology. 43(4): 744-749;        1962.  [2453] 133.  Weaver, T.; Lichthart, J.; Gustafson, D. 1990. Exotic invasion of        timberline vegetation, Northern Rocky Moutnains, USA. In: Schmidt, Wyman        C.; McDonald, Kathy J., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on whitebark        pine ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource;        1989 March 29-31; Bozeman, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-270. Ogden, UT: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research        Station: 208-213.  [11688] 134.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944] 135.  Whitson, Tom D., ed. 1987. Weeds and poisonous plants of Wyoming and        Utah. Res. Rep. 116-USU. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, College of        Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 281 p.  [2939] 136.  Wilkins, Bruce T. 1957. Range use, food habits, and agricultural        relationships of the mule deer, Bridger Mountains, Montana. Journal of        Wildlife Management. 21(2): 159-169.  [1411] 137.  Willard, E. Earl. 1990. Use and impact of domestic livestock in        whitebark pine forests. In: Schmidt, Wyman C.; McDonald, Kathy J.,        compilers. Proceedings-symposium on whitebark pine ecosystems: ecology        and management of a high-mountain resource; 1989 March 29-31; Bozeman,        MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-270. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 201-207.  [11687] 138.  Willms, W. D.; Smoliak, S.; Dormaar, J. F. 1985. Effects of stocking        rate on a rough fescue grassland vegetation. Journal of Range        Management. 38(3): 220-225.  [2570] 139.  Wilson, Robert E. 1989. The vegetation of a pine-oak forest in Franklin        County, Texas, and its comparison with a similar forest in Lamar County,        Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 41(2): 167-176.  [8771] 140.  Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North        American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska        Press. 465 p.  [2270] 141.  Youngblood, Andrew; Metlen, Kerry L.; Coe, Kent. 2006. Changes in        stand structure and composition after restoration treatments in low elevation dry        forests of northeastern Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management. 234(1-3): 143-163.  [64992]


FEIS Home Page