Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Sarracenia minor


Introductory

SPECIES: Sarracenia minor
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Walkup, Crystal. 1991. Sarracenia minor. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : SARMIN SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : SAMI9 COMMON NAMES : hooded pitcher-plant TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for hooded pitcher-plant is Sarracenia minor Walt. Hybridization between various species of Sarracenia has been observed from southeastern Virginia to Mississippi. Populations of S. alata apparently do not overlap with S. flava or S. minor, but hybrids have been produced under greenhouse conditions [11]. Naturally occurring hybrids include: S. minor X S. psittacina = S. formosa S. minor X S. purpurea = S. swaniana S. minor X S. rubra = S. X rehedri S. minor X S. flava = S. X harperi LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : Hooded pitcher-plant is state-listed as threatened in Florida [16].


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Sarracenia minor
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Hooded pitcher-plant's range extends from central and western Florida north to southeast North Carolina, and inland from North Carolina to northeastern Georgia. This is the only Sarracenia species extending into the Florida Peninsula [11,13]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress FRES41 Wet grasslands STATES : FL GA NC SC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K079 Palmetto prairie K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest K114 Pocosin SAF COVER TYPES : 70 Longleaf pine 75 Shortleaf pine 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 84 Slash pine 97 Atlantic white-cedar 98 Pond pine 101 Baldcypress 102 Baldcypress - tupelo 103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo 104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Sarracenia minor
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : A symbiotic relationship exists between hooded pitcher-plant and several insect species, such as ants, moths, flies, butterflies, and wasps. Insects benefit by obtaining nectar, and the plant benefits from an occasional insect falling into the pitcher while feeding [14]. Another capture mechanism is the clear to whitish areas on the back of the pitcher, which provide the brightest light source inside the pitcher. Flying insects unsuccessfully attempt to escape through these areas [13,14]. In Florida, hooded pitcher-plant captures mainly ants, which are often more abundant than other insects in the drier savannas where it grows [5,13]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Their unique beauty and unusual mode of life make hooded pitcher-plants desirable as houseplants [8]. Collection of wild species has sometimes resulted in localized extinction. Almost all Sarracenia species can be obtained commercially. A number of dealers specialize almost exclusively in carnivorous plants [4]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Sarracenia minor
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Hooded pitcher-plant is a native, perennial, carnivorous forb. The hollow-shaped leaves form pitchers which have an overarching, helmet-shaped hood [7,11]. The leaves average 9.8 to 11.8 inches (25-30 cm) in length but may reach 31.5 inches (80 cm) in certain areas. Rhizomes are 0.4 to 0.8 inch (1-2 cm) thick. The flower is odorless and has pale yellow to yellow-green petals [13]. Fruits are broad and tuberculate, from 0.2 to 0.6 inch (0.8-1.8 cm) long. Seeds are very small, averaging 0.04 inch (1.1-1.3 mm) in length. Distinguishing characteristics are the translucent spots on the leaves, and the concave hood [11]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Undisturbed State: Cryptophyte (geophyte) Burned or Clipped State: Cryptophyte (geophyte) REGENERATION PROCESSES : Reproduction is typically by seeds, but plants may regenerate vegetatively from fragmentation of the rhizomes. Bees, the main pollinators, are polytropic; however, during the peak of Sarracenia flowering, bees are effectively monotropic on sites where there are large stands of flowers, visiting only Sarracenia species [5]. Bare ground is vital for seedling establishment [7]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Hooded pitcher-plant has wider ecological amplitude than other Sarracenia species, and grows on both wet and dry sites. It inhabits mesic to well-drained upland savannas, wet flatwoods, and bogs [4,13]. Hooded pitcher-plants reach their largest size in the very wet habitat of the Okefenokee swamp, where they grow intermixed with S. psittacina on huge floating sphagnum islands called prairies. The plants are hardier in wet substrates, indicating the drier locations are probably not preferred [13]. Along the Gulf Coast, Sarracenia species are often associated with Sphagnum, sundew (Drosera spp.), butterwort (Pinguicula spp.), pipewort (Eriocaulon spp.), bladderwort (Utricularia spp.), grass-pink (Calopogon spp.), burmannia (Burmannia spp.), and other genera characteristic of acidic sites [11]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Plant succession on pitcher-plant bogs is toward a sedge-woody species dominated community. Fire, however, retards this succession, and pitcher-plant bogs are thought to be fire disclimaxes [2]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Hooded pitcher-plant flowers along the Gulf Coast from late March to mid-May, blooming later in the northern range [11,13]. This is the only species in which flowering commonly occurs simultaneously with or slightly after pitcher growth. Pitchers persist all winter in sheltered stands in the southernmost range, but die back during severe winters [13].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Sarracenia minor
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Fire generally benefits hooded pitcher-plant. Periodic, moderate fires are necessary to reduce the encroachment of competing plants and stimulate growth by releasing nutrients bound up in organic matter [5]. Hooded pitcher-plant survives fire by resprouting from rhizomes [11]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving rhizomes

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Sarracenia minor
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Hooded pitcher-plant is usually top-killed by fire. Severe fires may burn into the peat layer and also destroy the rhizomes, thereby killing the plant [11,13]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : The genus Sarracenia is well adapted to moderate fires which remove old growth, destroy competing vegetation, and help induce flowering. Density of hooded pitcher-plant increased greatly following 27 years of annual burning in Georgia [11]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Fire suppression results in a build-up of fuels, causing severe fires which damage species normally considered to be fire tolerant, such as hooded pitcher-plant. Fire is a natural event in carnivorous plant habitats and should be implemented in management plans [4].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Sarracenia minor
REFERENCES : 1. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 2. Eleuterius, L. N.; Jones, S. B., Jr. 1969. A floristic and ecological study of pitcher plant bogs in south Mississippi. Rhodora. 71: 29-34. [12333] 3. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 4. Folkerts, George W. 1977. Endangered and threatened carnivorous plants of North America. In: Prance, G. T.; Elias, T. S. ed, eds. Extinction is forever. Threatened and endangered species of plants in the Americas and their significance today and in t; 1976 May 11-13; New York. [Place of publication unknown]. [Publisher unknown]. 301-313. [12388] 5. Folkerts, George W. 1982. The Gulf Coast pitcher plant bogs. American Scientist. 70: 260-267. [10131] 6. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 7. Jones, F. M. 1921. Pitcher plants and their moths. Natural History. 21: 296-316. [12301] 8. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 9. Lloyd, F. E. 1942. The carnivorous plants. Waltham, MA: Chronica Botanica Company. 352 p. [12247] 10. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 11. McDaniel, Sidney. 1971. The genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae). Bulletin of the Tall Timbers Research Station. 9: 1-36. [15245] 12. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 13. Schnell, Donald E. 1976. Carnivorous plants of the United States and Canada. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair. 125 p. [12292] 14. Slack, Adrian. 1979. Carnivorous plants. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 240 p. [12293] 15. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 16. Wood, Don A., compiler. 1994. Official lists of endangered & potentially endangered fauna and flora in Florida. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. 22 p. [24196]


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