Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Ratibida columnifera


SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Walsh, Roberta A. 1994. Ratibida columnifera. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : RATCOL SYNONYMS : Ratibida columnaris (Sims) D. Don [34,48,52] SCS PLANT CODE : RACO3 COMMON NAMES : upright prairie coneflower prairie coneflower columnar prairie coneflower long headed coneflower Mexican hat TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of upright prairie coneflower is Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. and Standl. (Asteraceae) [1,26,30,51]. There is one recognized form as follows: R. c. forma pulcherrima (DC.) Fern. [1,26] Upright prairie coneflower hybridizes with prairie coneflower (Ratibida tagetes) in Colorado [54]. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Upright prairie coneflower is predominantly a Great Plains species which extends from southeastern British Columbia [30] to Manitoba [21] and Michigan [55], south through Illinois [21] to Louisiana, and west through Texas and northern Mexico [24] to Arizona [27]. Naturalized populations occur east of the Cascades [30] and in New England [2]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES31 Shinnery FRES32 Texas savanna FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES36 Mountain grasslands FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie STATES : AZ AR CO IL IA KS LA MI MN MO MT NE NM ND OK SD TN TX UT WI WY AB BC MB SK MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K011 Western ponderosa forest K016 Eastern ponderosa forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest K021 Southwestern spruce - fir forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub K038 Great Basin sagebrush K040 Saltbush - greasewood K045 Ceniza shrub K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe K060 Mesquite savanna K062 Mesquite - live oak savanna K063 Foothills prairie K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass K065 Grama - buffalograss K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass K070 Sandsage - bluestem prairie K071 Shinnery K074 Bluestem prairie K077 Bluestem - sacahuista prairie K081 Oak savanna K084 Cross Timbers K086 Juniper - oak savanna K098 Northern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES : 14 Northern pin oak 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 42 Bur oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 62 Silver maple - American elm 66 Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper 67 Mohrs (shin) oak 68 Mesquite 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 237 Interior ponderosa pine 239 Pinyon - juniper 241 Western live oak 242 Mesquite SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Upright prairie coneflower is widespread throughout the Great Plains. It is not listed as an indicator species in available publications. It occurs with a variety of associated species, depending on geographic location and site conditions. Lists of associated species are available for the following areas outside the main range of upright prairie coneflower: the "hard lands" of northeastern and east-central Colorado [39], the Edwards Plateau of west-central Texas [43], the lower Rio Grande Valley of south Texas [52], and the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas [13].


SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : In a 1-year study in the central Black Hills of South Dakota, upright prairie coneflower made up 0.4 percent of cattle diets in June but was not utilized from July through October [50]. Another 1-year study showed that upright prairie coneflower was an important species in the diets of white-tailed deer in southeastern Texas from early spring through summer [9]. However, upright prairie coneflower seedlings in restored native prairie in southeastern Minnesota were not grazed by white-tailed deer, although seedlings of other forbs were eaten [19]. Upright prairie coneflower seeds were eaten by wild turkeys in south-central South Dakota. In September and October these seeds made up 1.2 percent of the volume of crop contents and were used by 10 percent of wild turkeys studied [37]. PALATABILITY : Prior to heading upright prairie coneflower is palatable to livestock [33,53]. Upright prairie coneflower palatability is rated poor to fair for cattle and horses, and fair for sheep [14]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Upright prairie coneflower energy value and protein value for livestock is poor [14]. The food value of upright prairie coneflower is listed as follows [14]: MT ND Elk poor ---- Mule deer poor poor White-tailed deer fair poor Pronghorn ---- poor Upland game birds good ---- Small nongame birds fair ---- Small mammals fair ---- COVER VALUE : The cover value of upright prairie coneflower for wildlife in North Dakota is fair for mule deer and pronghorn, and poor for white-tailed deer [14]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Upright prairie coneflower is suggested for use on roadsides, park and recreation areas, and prairie restoration projects where annual precipitation is from 10 to 30 inches (254-762 mm) [45]. Plant vigor and seed quality are rated excellent [32]. Upright prairie coneflower has been established successfully from seed [3,17,42], greenhouse stock [3], and tissue culture [31]. Research from southeastern Montana, however, indicates that moisture stress can reduce growth of seedlings. The potential for for vigorous establishment during extended drought was rated as low to moderate [18]. Prairie hay harvested from natural grassland in 1978 was used successfully as a source of upright prairie coneflower seeds in central North Dakota. This method was used to establish vegetation in the Central Great Plains after the drought of the 1930's. Both recently harvested and stored hay produced seedlings in greeenhouse tests [42]. Upright prairie coneflower seeds were collected locally in southwestern Ohio, and raked into the soil of a prairie reclamation site on a sand and gravel borrow-pit. The seeds germinated and the plants flowered [10]. Upright prairie coneflower seeds collected in the Badlands of western North Dakota were grown on raw coal spoil material. Upright prairie coneflower had good emergence of seedlings. Seedlings and greenhouse transplants showed vigorous growth for 2 years. Upright prairie coneflower developed substantially more cover on the plots than did most of the other species tested [3]. In southeastern Montana, upright prairie coneflower was recommended for inclusion in seed mixtures for strip mine reclamation. Seeds germinated well even under high water stress and with high sodium chloride concentration in the soil. Seedling performance was favorable [17]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Cheyenne Indians boiled upright prairie coneflower leaves and stems to make a solution applied externally to draw poison from rattlesnake bites. The solution was also applied for relief from poison-ivy (Toxicodendron spp.) [48]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Upright prairie coneflower responds variably to grazing. It often increases in mixtures with more palatable species, but decreases in mixed-grass prairies lacking more palatable forbs [53]. On mixed-grass prairie in east-central South Dakota, upright prairie coneflower increases when cattle grazing reduces more palatable species [38]. In southwestern Texas, upright prairie coneflower occurred on severely overgrazed shortgrass pasture [11]. A 1-year study in southeastern Texas showed no significant difference in upright prairie coneflower cover between short-duration and continuous grazing pastures [9]. Upright prairie coneflower increased slightly following mechanical brush removal in west-central Texas [43]. A northeastern Kansas tallgrass prairie containing upright prairie coneflower was mowed with different schedules on matched plots. Upright prairie coneflower canopy cover after mowing was less than 1 percent on all plots. Frequency ranged from 0 to 45 percent, varying with soil and mowing treatment [23]. Upright prairie coneflower seeds can be planted in the fall. If they are placed in winter storage for spring planting, they should be stratified with a cold dry treatment [4].


SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Upright prairie coneflower is a native [21] warm-season [53] perennial forb [1,27,30,51]. It has one to several stems 12 to 47 inches (0.3-1.2 m) tall [30], often branched in the upper part [24,55]. Leaves are up to 6 inches (15 cm) long [26] and pinnately divided [21]. Flowerheads are borne singly [48] at the ends of naked peduncles [1,26]. The floral disk is columnar, 0.6 to 1.6 inches (1.5-4 cm) long [30], and about 0.4 inches (1 cm) across. The fruit is a small achene [26]; the pappus is reduced to one or two prominent awn-teeth [1,30]. Upright prairie coneflower has a caudex and a stout taproot [26,55] with branch roots [53]. It is an obligate mycotroph [29]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : The most frequent pollinator of upright prairie coneflower in northeastern Kansas is an andrenid bee (Andrena rudbekii) [28]. Requirements for optimum germination of upright prairie coneflower seeds vary. According to research conducted in east-central South Dakota, upright prairie coneflower seeds have an impermeable membrane which completely inhibits germination. Moist-cold stratification produced 11 percent germination. If the seed membrane was punctured with a probe, germination increased to 95-100 percent without stratification. Filled seed constituted 47.5 percent of the seed collected [46]. Upright prairie coneflower seeds from southeastern Montana outlier stands of tallgrass prairie were tested for viability, germination, and seedling vigor. Seeds had good germination over a broad range of temperatures and pretreatments; optimum germination temperatures were 68 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (20-30 deg C). At 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 deg C), 50 percent germination was achieved in 2 days. Seedling survival was excellent [18]. Germination rates of upright prairie coneflower seeds from western North Dakota were tested. Maximum germination occurred with dry cold storage (29%, occurring in January) [4]. Upright prairie coneflower can regrow until seasonal maturity if partially defoliated by mowing or grazing [53]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Upright prairie coneflower grows well on sandy loam, loam, and clayey loam soils [14]. It can also be found growing on thin, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils. It is tolerant of weakly acidic to moderately alkaline soils and weakly saline soils [53]. Optimum soil depth for upright prairie coneflower growth is 20 or more inches (51 cm) [14]. It has low to moderate water requirements [13] and grows in full sun [45]. It is found on dry plains, prairies [21], hillsides [15], and also roadsides, railway grades and other "waste places" [51]. A field survey of minimally disturbed native grassland of the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas was conducted in May, 1987. Upright prairie coneflower occurred in five of ten sites on dune ridges and well-drained flats, with mean absolute frequency of 14 percent and relative cover of 3 percent. In swales and on moderately drained flats it occurred on only one of five sites, with absolute frequency of 5 percent and trace relative cover [13]. Upright prairie coneflower occurs at the following elevations: Elevation (feet) Elevation (meters) CO 3,500-7,000 1,067-2,134 [27] MT 3,200-5,200 975-1,585 [14] SD 3,600-5,000 1,097-1,524 [44] UT 4,500-8,416 1,372-2,565 [14,55] WY 3,700-8,000 1,128-2,434 [14] SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Upright prairie coneflower is listed as an early seral species in southeastern Montana [17]. It shows weak shade tolerance and is usually found on open or exposed sites [53]. After the drought of the 1930's, upright prairie coneflower was particularly common in mixed-grass prairie of the Great Plains as bare areas were colonized. It was one of only five species that showed marked recovery from the drought by 1943 [12]. Upright prairie coneflower was not present on a range site in southwestern North Dakota that had been ungrazed for 39 years. A similar grazed site had an average of 1.3 upright prairie coneflower stems per square meter [7]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Upright prairie coneflower resumes growth in spring [53]. In north-central Texas, it broke dormancy in early March, bloomed in June, and shed seed in July [16]. In southwestern North Dakota, upright prairie coneflower resumed growth in late April, bloomed during the latter part of July, and obtained maximum height by the end of July. Mature height, averaged over 8 years (1955-1962), was 11.3 inches (28.7 cm) [25]. Upright prairie coneflower bloomed an average of 41 days a year in central North Dakota [8]. Upright prairie coneflower flowering times are: Begin Peak End Flowering Flowering Flowering CO June July September [14] KS June July September [28] ND June July August [8] North TX June ---- ---- [16] South TX April ---- ---- [52] UT June ---- August [14] WY July July September [14] Great Plains June ---- September [26] N. Great Plains July ---- September [51]


SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Upright prairie coneflower is fire sensitive when actively growing, but has good fire tolerance in the dormant state [53] since it sprouts from the caudex [26,55]. In the central Great Plains tallgrass prairie, upright prairie coneflower was reported to be harmed by fire [57]. Upright prairie coneflower produces numerous small seeds [1] and can establish on burned sites, since it thrives in the open, sunny conditions [45] created by fire. It may be an initial on-site colonizer, but no information was available on presence in the seedbank. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Caudex, growing points in soil Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Upright prairie coneflower is probably top-killed by fire during the growing season. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Upright prairie coneflower response to fire varies considerably, depending to some extent on geographic area and season of burning. Upright prairie coneflower was studied in tallgrass prairie of northeastern Kansas, where it was abundant. Plants from sites not burned for 9 years or more were 2.6 times larger, produced 50 percent more stems, and had more flowerheads and seeds than did plants from recently burned sites. Reproductive effort (the ratio of inflorescence biomass to total vegetative biomass) was 33 percent lower in annually burned prairie than in prairies with longer fire intervals. However, percent cover and frequency were not significantly different between burned and unburned sites. Variation in upright prairie coneflower response to fire is probably due to changes in its competitive status relative to the dominant perennial grasses and to changes in abiotic conditions after fire [28]. Another study in northeastern Kansas reported that upright prairie coneflower cover was not significantly correlated with years since burning at postfire years 1 to 4 [58]. Upright prairie coneflower was less prevalent on north-central Nebraska sand hills 2 to 3 months after an early May wildfire than on similar unburned sites [56]. Changes in upright prairie coneflower flowering were not significant after May prescribed fires in northwestern Minnesota [40]. A survey of literature on plant response to fire indicates that upright prairie coneflower decreased or showed no change in response to spring fires [35]. Upright prairie coneflower in a south Texas chaparral-bristlegrass (Setaria spp.) community had varying responses to fire. Plots burned in September produced 3 pounds of upright prairie coneflower herbage per acre; plots burned the December of the next year produced 8 pounds per acre; plots burned at both times produced 3 pounds per acre. Unburned plots produced 2 pounds per acre [6]. Percent cover of upright prairie coneflower was 3 percent or less on all burned and unburned plots, some of which were also mechanically treated by shredding, chopping, or scalping [5]. Upright prairie coneflower in tallgrass prairie in northeastern Kansas was burned on different schedules on matched plots. Cover was less than 1 percent on all treatments, burned and unburned. Frequency varied with soil type, fire frequency, and season of burning [23]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
REFERENCES : 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1982. Perennial forbs for wildlife habitat restoration on mined lands in the northern Great Plains. In: Western proceedings, 62nd annual conference of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies; 1982 July 19-22; Las Vegas, Nevada. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 257-271. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. [2932] 4. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262. [14354] 5. Box, Thadis W.; Powell, Jeff; Drawe, D. Lynn. 1967. Influence of fire on south Texas chaparral communities. Ecology. 48(6): 955-961. [499] 6. Box, Thadis W.; White, Richard S. 1969. Fall and winter burning of south Texas brush ranges. Journal of Range Management. 22(6): 373-376. [11438] 7. Brand, M. D.; Goetz, H. 1978. Secondary succession of a mixed grass community in southwestern North Dakota. Annual Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science. 32(2): 67-78. [7512] 8. Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64. [20450] 9. Cohen, Will E.; Drawe, D. Lynn; Bryant, Fred C.; Bradley, Lisa C. 1989. Observations on white-tailed deer and habitat response to livestock grazing in south Texas. Journal of Range Management. 42(5): 361-365. [9323] 10. Conover, Denis G.; Geiger, Donald R. 1989. Establishment of a prairie on a borrow-pit at the Bergamo-Mt. St. John Nature Preserve in Greene County, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science. 89(3): 42-44. [9744] 11. Cottle, H. J. 1931. Studies in the vegetation of southwestern Texas. Ecology. 12(1): 105-155. [4556] 12. Coupland, Robert T. 1958. The effects of fluctuations in weather upon the grasslands of the Great Plains. Botanical Review. 24(5): 273-317. [12502] 13. Diamond, David D.; Fulbright, Timothy E. 1990. Contemporary plant communities of upland grasslands of the Coastal Sand Plain, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. 35(4): 385-392. [14127] 14. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 15. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819] 16. Dyksterhuis, E. J. 1948. The vegetation of the western Cross Timbers. Ecological Monographs. 18(3): 326-376. [3683] 17. Eddleman, Lee E.; Doescher, Paul S. 1978. Selection of native plants for spoils revegetation based on regeneration characteristics and successional status. In: Land Reclamation Program, Annual Report July 1976-October 1977. ANL/LRP-2. Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory, Energy & Environmental Systems Division: 132-138. [5729] 18. Eddleman, Lee E.; Meinhardt, Patricia L. 1981. Seed viability and seedling vigor in selected prairie plants. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The Prairie Peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 213-217. [3410] 19. Englund, Judy Voigt; Meyer, William J. 1986. The impact of deer on 24 species of prairie forbs. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 210-212. [3575] 20. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 21. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 22. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 23. Gibson, David J. 1989. Hulbert's study of factors effecting botanical composition of tallgrass prairie. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 115-133. [14029] 24. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329] 25. Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 141 p. Thesis. [5661] 26. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 27. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 28. Hartnett, David C. 1991. Effects of fire in tallgrass prairie on growth and reproduction of prairie coneflower (Ratibida columnifera: Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany. 78(3): 429-435. [14117] 29. Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Todd, T. C. 1992. Relationships of mycorrhizal symbiosis, rooting strategy, and phenology among tallgrass prairie forbs. Canadian Journal of Botany. 70: 1521-1528. [19783] 30. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 31. Holden, D. J.; Ellis, B. E.; Chen, C. H. 1978. Cloning native prairie plants by tissue culture. In: Glenn-Lewin, David C.; Landers, Roger Q., Jr., eds. Proceedings, 5th Midwest prairie conference; 1976 August 22-24; Ames, IA. Ames, IA: Iowa State University: 92-95. [3355] 32. Jacobson, Erling T. 1975. The evaluation, selection and increase of prairie wildflowers for conservation beautification. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 395-404. [4437] 33. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18501] 34. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 35. Kruse, Arnold D.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1990. Effects of prescribed fire upon wildlife habitat in northern mixed-grass prairie. In: Alexander, M. E.; Bisgrove, G. F., technical coordinators. The art and science of fire management: Proceedings, 1st Interior West Fire Council annual meeting and workshop; 1988 October 24-27; Kananaskis Village, AB. Inf. Rep. NOR-X-309. Edmonton, AB: Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre: 182-193. [14146] 36. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 37. Laudenslager, Scott L.; Flake, Lester D. 1987. Fall food habits of wild turkeys in south central South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 19(1): 37-40. [251] 38. Lewis, James K.; Van Dyne, George M.; Albee, Leslie R.; Whetzal, Frank W. 1956. Intensity of grazing: Its effect on livestock and forage production. Bulletin 459. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 44 p. [11737] 39. McGinnies, William J.; Shantz, Homer L.; McGinnies, William G. 1991. Changes in vegetation and land use in eastern Colorado: A photographic study, 1904-1986. ARS-85. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 165 p. [18826] 40. Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240. [3435] 41. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 42. Ries, R. E.; Hofmann, L. 1983. Number of seedlings established from stored prairie hay. In: Brewer, Richard, ed. Proceedings, 8th North American prairie conference; 1982 August 1-4; Kalamazoo, MI. Kalamazoo, MI: Western Michigan University, Department of Biology: 3-4. [3112] 43. Rollins, Dale; Bryant, Fred C. 1986. Floral changes following mechanical brush removal in central Texas. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 237-240. [10415] 44. Schripsema, Janet R. 1978. Ecological changes on pine-grassland burned in spring, late spring and winter. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota State University. 99 p. Thesis. [2092] 45. Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 1989. Catalog of wildflowers and forbs. Amarillo, TX: Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 20 p. [18001] 46. Sorensen, J. T.; Holden, D. J. 1974. Germination of native prairie forb seeds. Journal of Range Management. 27(2): 123-126. [15617] 47. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 48. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 465 p. [2270] 49. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 50. Uresk, Daniel W.; Lowrey, Dennis G. 1984. Cattle diets in the central Black Hills of South Dakota. In: Noble, Daniel L.; Winokur, Robert P., eds. Wooded draws: characteristics and values for the Northern Great Plains: Symposium proceedings; 1984 June 12-13; Rapid City, SD. Great Plains Agricultural Council Pub. No. 111. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota School of Mines and Technology: 50-52. [2400] 51. Vance, F. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; McLean, J. S. 1984. Wildflowers of the Northern Great Plains. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 336 p. [22199] 52. Vora, Robin S. 1990. Plant phenology in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 42(2): 137-142. [11832] 53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837] 54. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706] 55. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 56. Wolfe, Carl W. 1973. Effects of fire on a sandhills grassland environment. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. Number 12. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 241-255. [8469] 57. Wright, Henry A.; Thompson, Rita. 1978. Fire effects. In: Fire management: Prairie plant communities: Proceedings of a symposium and workshop; 1978 April 25-28; Jamestown, ND. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: V-1 to V-12. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. [3249] 58. Gibson, David J. 1988. Regeneration and fluctuation of tallgrass prairie vegetation in response to burning frequency. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 115(1): 1-12. [4426]