Persicaria longiseta



INTRODUCTORY


Photo by Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org

AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Persicaria longiseta. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ ].

FEIS ABBREVIATION:
PERLON

NRCS PLANT CODE [68]:
POCE4

COMMON NAMES:
Oriental lady's thumb
Asiatic smartweed
Asiatic waterpepper
bristled knotweed
bunchy knotweed
bristly lady's-thumb
long-bristled smartweed
tufted knotweed

TAXONOMY:
The scientific name of Oriental lady's thumb is Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa (Polygonaceae) [12].

SYNONYMS:
Persicaria caespitosa var. longiseta (Bruijn) C. F. Reed [12]
Polygonum caespitosum Blume [29,34]
Polygonum caespitosum var. longisetum (Bruijn) Steward [12,26,29]
Polygonum cespitosum Blume [13,57,73,79]
Polygonum cespitosum var. longisetum (Bruijn) [16,38,48]
Polygonum longisetum Bruijn [12]

Kartesz [29] reports the variety Polygonum cespitosum var. cespitosum Blume may occur in Pennsylvania.

LIFE FORM:
Forb


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Persicaria longiseta

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
Oriental lady's thumb is native to southeast Asia [16,38], where it occurs along lakeshores [1] and is described as a common weed of rice paddies [36]. A literature review reports that Oriental lady's thumb was first discovered in North America in 1910, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [36]. As of 2010, the North American distribution of Oriental lady's thumb is concentrated in the eastern United States and Canada, with populations in all states from the Atlantic Ocean west to Minnesota and south to Louisiana. Populations are also reported in Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, Alberta, and British Columbia. Plants Database provides a distributional map of Oriental lady's thumb.

HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
In North America, Oriental lady's thumb occurs in a variety of plant communities. Most descriptions in the literature report it occurring in moist plant communities, including wetlands and riparian or bottomland forests. However, it is also reported in upland plant communities.

Wetlands: Oriental lady's thumb occurs in wetland areas, including wet meadows [8,27], marshes [8,20,34,46], barrier wetlands [54], wet pond margins [12,34,76], seeps, and mudflats [60]. In northwestern Tennessee, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in wet meadows covered by shallow backwater in early spring. Vegetation in mid-summer was dominated by sedges (Carex spp.), spikerush (Eleocharis spp.), hedgehyssop (Gratiola spp.), St. Johnswort (Hypericum spp.), rushes (Juncus spp.), and mousetail (Myosurus sp.). It also occurred in emergent marshes in this region. Emergent marshes were similar to wet meadows but were covered by water later into the summer and consequently contained more hydric species, including sedges, rushes, primrose-willow (Ludwigia spp.), saururus (Saururus spp.), cattails (Typha spp.), and often dense stands of knotgrass (Paspalum distichum) [8]. At Richmond National Battlefield Park in northeastern Virginia, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in a marshy area near a creek. The plant community was dominated by hydrophytes, including sedges, rice cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides), whitegrass (L. virginica), green arrow arum (Peltandra virginica), pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), rushes, and smallspike false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica) [20]. At Friendship Hill National Historic Site, Pennsylvania, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in mixed forb marshes dominated by hydrophilic graminoids and forbs including rice cutgrass, woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), and broadleaf cattail (T. latifolia) [46]. Oriental lady's thumb occurred on the edge of barrier wetlands along the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland [54].

Riparian, floodplain, or bottomland forests: Oriental lady's thumb occurs in riparian, floodplain, or bottomland forests throughout its North American range, including locations in the Southeast, mid-Atlantic states, New England, and Texas.

In Georgia, Oriental lady's thumb was uncommon in mesic riparian forests occurring on floodplains, levees, and bluff hammocks. Dominant canopy trees included pignut hickory (Carya glabra), southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), live oak (Quercus virginiana), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), white ash (Fraxinus americana), and Carolina ash (F. caroliniana) [11]. In the longleaf pine-wiregrass (Pinus palustris-Aristida stricta) ecoregion of south-central North Carolina, Oriental lady's thumb occurred on islands, shores, sandbars, and mudbars along the Little River. Riparian forests were dominated by river birch (Betula nigra) and Carolina ash, with loblolly pine (P. taeda) on high levees. Vegetation on sand and mud bars varied but included shrubs (gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa), hazel alder (Alnus serrulata), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), American black elderberry (Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis )), saplings (river birch and Carolina ash), and herbaceous vegetation [53]. In north-central North Carolina, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in a sweetgum/northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin)/Jack in the pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum ssp. triphyllum) forest [77]. In northwestern Tennessee, Oriental lady's thumb was abundant in bottomland forests. Bottomland forests occurred on low river terraces where soil was flooded or saturated for several months of the year. Canopy dominants included sugar maple, shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), green ash (F. pennsylvanica), sweetgum, swamp chestnut oak (Q. michauxii), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), Shumard oak (Q. shumardii), and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) [27]. In southeastern Kentucky, Oriental lady's thumb was occasional in riverine floodplain forests dominated by river birch and American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) [60].

Oriental lady's thumb was reported in floodplain or bottomland forests in several historic sites in Virginia. At Richmond National Battlefield Park, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in floodplain forests along small streams. Floodplain forests had various combinations of red maple (Acer rubrum), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), sweetgum, river birch, American sycamore, black willow (Salix nigra), willow oak (Q. phellos), swamp chestnut oak, and American beech [42]. At Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in floodplain forests along large rivers. These closed-canopy forests were dominated by silver maple (A. saccharinum) and boxelder (A. negundo) [59]. At Booker T. Washington National Monument, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in alluvial forests dominated by various mixtures of American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), green ash, black walnut (Juglans nigra), yellow-poplar, and American sycamore [41]. At the Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Oriental lady's thumb occurred on a forested floodplain swamp with a continuous herbaceous layer, dense to open shrub associations, and open forests of red maple and green ash [40]. At Mt. Vernon, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in a bottomland plant community dominated by boxelder, red maple, river birch, green ash, and American sycamore [75].

In eastern Maryland, Oriental lady's thumb was uncommon on creek floodplains and river lowland forests. Forests were wet to mesic and were often located near the edges of swamps. Dominant canopy trees included swamp white oak (Q. bicolor), pin oak (Q. palustris), sweetgum, and red maple [55]. On an island in the Potomac River in Maryland, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in floodplain forests dominated by American sycamore, silver maple, red maple, boxelder, green ash, slippery elm, and black walnut [52]. In southeastern Ohio, Oriental lady's thumb was common in mesic ravines and stream terraces, where typical codominants included sugar maple, red maple, shagbark hickory, American beech, green ash, yellow-poplar, black cherry (Prunus serotina), and northern red oak (Q. rubra) [19]. In Pennsylvania, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in American sycamore [46] and American sycamore-mixed-hardwood floodplain forests [44]. At the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in northeastern Pennsylvania, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in black walnut bottomland forests occurring along drainage swales and the floodplains of small streams [43].

Field inventory records from Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire report Oriental lady's thumb occurring on streambanks and in red maple swamp and floodplain forests [35]. In eastern Texas, Oriental lady's thumb was locally common on an alluvial terrace along a small stream surrounded by deciduous riparian forest [9].

Upland forests: Oriental lady's thumb is reported from upland forests in the Southeast, mid-Atlantic States, New England, and the Great Lakes region.

In North Carolina, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in second-growth eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) forest [76] and upland loblolly pine and mixed-hardwood forests [50].

At Richmond National Battlefield Park, Virginia, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in successional yellow-poplar forests and floodplain forests along small streams. The canopy of successional yellow-poplar forests was typically dominated by yellow-poplar and/or sweetgum, though loblolly pine and red maple were common in some areas [42]. In Maryland, Oriental lady's thumb occurred on shale barren openings in a forest community dominated by downy serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea), Allegheny plum (Prunus alleghaniensis), eastern white pine, Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and oaks [28]. In West Virginia, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in both ≥80-year-old second-growth stands and 15-year-old clearcuts containing various amounts of sugar maple, basswood (Tilia americana), and northern red oak [22,23]. In New Jersey, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in oak-hickory forests dominated by white oak (Q. alba), northern red oak, black oak (Q. velutina), pignut hickory, and shagbark hickory [10].

Oriental lady's thumb was reported in upland forests in several historic sites in Pennsylvania. At Valley Forge National Historical Park, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in successional yellow-poplar-oak forests dominated by yellow poplar. Black oak and white ash were codominant in some areas [47]. At Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in several upland plant communities, including yellow-poplar, successional Virginia pine, and dry oak-mixed hardwood forests. Dry oak-mixed hardwood forests were dominated by white oak or northern red oak [44]. At Friendship Hill National Historic Site, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in successional mixed-hardwood forests dominated by yellow poplar, black cherry, boxelder, and red maple [46]. At the Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in ravine forests dominated by eastern hemlock and yellow-poplar, disturbed or degraded areas of upland hardwood forests dominated by red maple and black cherry, and upland mixed-hardwood forests dominated by yellow-poplar and sugar maple [45].

On the coastal sandplains of southern New England, Oriental lady's thumb occurred at low density (0.5% cover) in shrubland plant communities that included bear oak (Q. ilicifolia), northern bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica), southern arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum), Virginia rose (Rosa virginiana) and Carolina rose (R. carolina) [72]. Field inventory records from Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire reported Oriental lady's occurring on rocky outcrops, open fields, and eastern hemlock, northern hardwood, oak-hickory, and upland red maple forests [35].

Oriental lady's thumb seedlings occurred at low density (1.05 seedlings/m² ) along horse trails in mesic oak-hickory (Quercus-Carya spp.) and beech-maple forests in southern Illinois [7].


BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Persicaria longiseta
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Botanical description: This description covers characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., [13,16,34,38,57,73]).

Oriental lady's thumb is an annual [12,13,16,48,57]. Stems are prostrate or erect, and can reach 3.2 feet (1 m) in height. Leaves are alternate, thin, and lanceolate to elliptic in shape, 0.75 to 3 inches (2-7.5 cm) in length. Flowers are small, dark pink, and arranged in few to many thin spikes. Seeds are small, smooth, trigonous achenes [35].

A USDA Forest Service fact sheet reports that Oriental lady's thumb has fibrous roots and a shallow taproot [66]. Two floras report that Oriental lady's thumb may root from lower nodes [12,16]. Rhizomes and stolons are absent [12].

Photo by Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org

Raunkiaer [49] life form:
Therophyte

SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT:
In North America, Oriental lady's thumb flowers from May to October [12], with some regional variation [16,34,38,48,80].

REGENERATION PROCESSES:

Oriental lady's thumb reproduces by seed and does not regenerate vegetatively.

Pollination and breeding system: Oriental lady's thumb has a mixed breeding system [58] and is capable of self-fertilization [3,37].

Seed production: No information is available on this topic.

Seed dispersal: As of 2010, little information is available about the dispersal of Oriental lady's thumb seed. Animals may disperse Oriental lady's thumb; in Connecticut, Oriental lady's thumb seeds germinated from white-tailed deer fecal pellets [78]. A fact sheet reports that Oriental lady's thumb seeds are dispersed mechanically, and that railroads may have played a role in its dispersal and spread in North America [35].

Seed banking: Oriental lady's thumb forms a persistent seed bank [1,74]. The eruption of Mt Usu in Japan led to the deposition of a 3- to 10-foot- (1-3 m) deep layer of volcanic ash. Five and 6 years after the eruption, Oriental lady's thumb germinated from the soil seed bank when the original topsoil was exposed by erosion [61,62]. Oriental lady's thumb occurred in and emerged from the soil seed bank in constructed wetlands in New Jersey [32].

Germination: Oriental lady's thumb requires moist-cold stratification for germination [1,74]. Germination rates improve with fluctuating temperatures and exposure to light. One germination experiment demonstrated that Oriental lady's thumb could germinate in darkness (57.3% germination), though germination rates were higher with light exposure (approximately 81% germination) (P<0.05). High temperatures, like those occurring in summer (>75 °F (24 °C)), may induce secondary dormancy of Oriental lady's thumb seeds [1]. In Pennsylvania, soil samples were taken from intact hardwood forests and placed in a greenhouse and in 2 field locations for a seed bank germination study. Field locations were mixed hardwood forests 4 years after disturbance by a tornado and included sites with and without a tree canopy. Oriental lady's thumb seeds germinated in the greenhouse and in disturbed forest sites with a canopy, but did not germinate in disturbed forest sites lacking a canopy [24].

Methods for germinating Oriental lady's thumb seeds for greenhouse experiments included cold stratification at 39 °F (4 °C) for 8 weeks followed by seed exposure to temperatures of 71.2 °F to 76.6 °F (21.8–24.8°C) during the day and 67.6 °F to 71.2 °F (19.8–21.8°C) at night [3].

Seedling establishment and plant growth: As of 2010, little information is available about the establishment and growth of Oriental lady's thumb. A collection of terrestrial field records from Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire reported Oriental lady's thumb seedlings establishing at both low and high abundances, in both open- and closed-canopy habitat. It was most commonly reported occurring at low levels (<5% cover) in groups of 0 to 99 plants, though it dominated (75% to 100% cover) an open field in Connecticut and a floodplain forest in New Hampshire [35]. In southern Illinois, Oriental lady's thumb seedlings occurred at low density (1.05 seedlings/m²) along horse trails in mesic oak-hickory and beech-maple forests [7]. Oriental lady's thumb seedlings also occurred at low densities (0.02 seedlings/m²) 6 months after wildfire in a Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) forest in central Japan [15].

Vegetative regeneration: Oriental lady's thumb does not regenerate vegetatively. Rhizomes and stolons are absent [12].

SITE CHARACTERISTICS:
General site characteristics: Oriental lady's thumb occurs on a variety of sites, including wetlands and riparian or floodplain, bottomland, and upland forests (see Habitat types and plant communities). Floras report Oriental lady's thumb in disturbed areas [12,16,48], including roadsides [34,55], along railroads [39], and in "waste" areas [12,34,57,73]. It also occurs along trails [7,19,35,58] and in fallow fields, hedgerows [55], lawns [38], gardens [34], and old home sites [35].

Elevation: In North America, Oriental lady's thumb occurs from 0 to 1,000 feet (0-300 m) [12].

Climate: Its wide North American distribution both north to south and east to west suggests that Oriental lady's thumb tolerates a range of climates. Annual precipitation for sites with Oriental lady's thumb averaged 42 inches (1,064 mm) in Maryland [54] and 44 inches (1,120 mm) in New Jersey [10].

Soils: Floras report Oriental lady's thumb occurring on moist soil [13,48,73,80], though it is occasionally reported in dry areas [35,73]. In more than 40 terrestrial field records from Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, the majority of sites were described as mesic, a few were described as saturated or inundated, and only 1 was described as dry [35]. In Massachusetts and Connecticut, Oriental lady's thumb was restricted to consistently moist soils that did not flood [58], but other sources report it occurring in areas that flooded or were inundated with water [8,27,35,52]. Some sources state that Oriental lady's thumb occurs on well-drained soils [10,11,46]. In greenhouse experiments, Oriental lady's thumb roots showed high phenotypic plasticity in response to moisture availability; both flooding and lack of moisture led to lower root biomass. Oriental lady's thumb plants produced the longest roots when exposed to constant moisture, and roots were shortest when exposed to dry or flooded conditions [3].

Oriental lady's thumb is often associated with sandy soil, including soils dominated by sand in Massachusetts and Connecticut [58], deep sandy soil in Maryland [52], and coarse sand in Texas [9]. It occurred in silt loams at multiple locations in Pennsylvania [44,46]. In Massachusetts and Connecticut, Oriental lady's thumb occurred on soils with a broad range of macronutrient availabilities and soil pH (range 4.8 to 8) [58].

SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
Several sources report Oriental lady's thumb occurring in disturbed areas [12,16,27,34,39,45,48,55,57,65,73], though it is not clear what characteristics of disturbed areas it prefers. It occurs in areas that experience frequent flooding [46,52]. A USDA Forest Service fact sheet reports that Oriental lady's thumb is restricted to disturbed areas and is not invasive in undisturbed habitats [65], though its presence in a variety of undisturbed plant communities (see Habitat types and plant communities) suggests that it may either establish without disturbance or spread from disturbed into undisturbed areas. In mixed-hardwood forests in West Virginia, Oriental lady's thumb occurred in both ≥80-year-old second-growth stands and 15-year-old clearcuts [22,23].

One report from its native range suggests that Oriental lady's thumb may establish in early succession but may not persist with continued disturbance. Five years following the deposition of 3 to 10 feet (1-3 m) of volcanic ash and pumice after the eruption of Mt Usu in Japan, Oriental lady's thumb germinated from the soil seed bank of original topsoil exposed by erosion. It was one of 2 annual species dominating the exposed area 5 and 7 years after the eruption. However, it failed to persist because the instability of the soil surface caused high seedling mortality and consequent low reproductive success [62].

Oriental lady's thumb shows no clear preference for light. Several floras report that Oriental lady's thumb occurs in shaded areas [38,58,80]. In Massachusetts and Connecticut, Oriental lady's thumb did not occur at any site with a canopy light level of >39% of full sun; canopy light level averaged <18% at 5 sites and was as low as 4%. Though the author stated that Oriental lady's thumb was "excluded from high light habitats", he also suggested that its persistence in shaded areas may be more related to its drought intolerance than its inability to tolerate full sun [58]. Field inventory records from Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire report Oriental lady's thumb occurring in the full range of canopy closure from 0% to 100% [35]. In Virginia, Oriental lady's thumb was reported in sites with full sun, partial sun, and shade [71]. Germination experiments suggest that Oriental lady's thumb germination is improved by light exposure though it may germinate in full darkness [1]. Field seed bank germination experiments in Pennsylvania showed that Oriental lady's thumb seeds failed to germinate in disturbed forest sites lacking a canopy [24].

It is not clear whether Oriental lady's thumb may influence the successional trajectories of native plant communities where it establishes. The documentation of Oriental lady's thumb establishing at both low and high abundance [35] suggests that its impact on plant community succession probably varies by location.


FIRE EFFECTS AND MANAGEMENT

SPECIES: Persicaria longiseta
FIRE EFFECTS: Immediate fire effect on plant: As of this writing (2010), no information was available about the immediate effects of fire on Oriental lady's thumb. It is likely that fire would kill entire plants. Information was also lacking on fire effects on Oriental lady's thumb seeds.

Postfire regeneration strategy [56]:
Ground residual colonizer (on site, initial community)
Initial off-site colonizer (off site, initial community)

Fire adaptations: As of 2010, there was no published information regarding Oriental lady's thumb adaptations to fire. The information presented here is inferred from reported botanical traits.

Oriental lady's thumb does not regenerate vegetatively (See Vegetative regeneration), so on-site plants would likely be killed by fire. Available literature suggests Oriental lady's thumb may establish after fire [15], either from the soil seed bank or dispersal from off-site sources. The requirement of moisture for Oriental lady's thumb germination suggests that its establishment would be limited in areas where fire created dry conditions (e.g., through litter consumption and soil exposure). Though many sources document Oriental lady's thumb occurring in disturbed areas, its lack of germination in disturbed forested sites without a canopy in Pennsylvania suggests that disturbance alone does not facilitate its establishment [24] (see Successional status). This topic warrants further study.

Plant response to fire: As of 2010, only 1 study documented Oriental lady's thumb occurring in a burned area. Six months after wildfire in a Japanese red pine forest in central Japan, Oriental lady's thumb seedlings were established in the burned area, though it is not known whether seeds germinated from the soil seed bank or were dispersed from off-site sources. Oriental lady's thumb seedling density was low (0.02 seedlings/m²) compared to the density of other plants [15].

FUELS AND FIRE REGIMES:
Fuels: As of 2010, little is known about the fuel characteristics of Oriental lady's thumb. The potential for Oriental lady's thumb to alter fuel characteristics likely varies by its population density and characteristics of the invaded plant community.

Fire regimes: It is not known what type of fire regime Oriental lady's thumb is best adapted to. As the Fire Regime Table indicates, Oriental lady's thumb occurs in a wide range of North American plant communities that exhibit a full range of fire regime characteristics. See the Fire Regime Table for further information on fire regimes of vegetation communities in which Oriental lady's thumb may occur. The impacts of Oriental lady's thumb on these fire regimes are unknown.

FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Preventing postfire establishment and spread: The little available literature suggests that Oriental lady's thumb has the potential to establish in burned areas, though it is not clear whether postfire conditions promote establishment or whether it establishes from on-site or off-site sources. The requirement of moisture for Oriental lady's thumb germination suggests that its establishment would be limited in areas where fire creates dry conditions (e.g., through litter consumption and soil exposure). However, its frequent occurrence in riparian or bottomland plant communities with high soil moisture suggests that these plant communities may be important areas to monitor after fire if Oriental lady's thumb is known to be in the area.

Preventing invasive plants from establishing in weed-free burned areas is the most effective and least costly management method. This may be accomplished through early detection and eradication, careful monitoring and follow-up, and limiting dispersal of invasive plant seed into burned areas. General recommendations for preventing postfire establishment and spread of invasive plants include:

For more detailed information on these topics see the following publications: [2,3,14,67].

Use of prescribed fire as a control agent: As of this writing (2010) there is no information available on the use of prescribed fire to control Oriental lady's thumb. Its annual habit and lack of vegetative regeneration suggest that prescribed fire would kill established Oriental lady's thumb plants. However, the presence of seedlings following wildfire in Japan [15] suggests that either on-site seeds can survive fire or dispersal mechanisms may facilitate establishment from off-site sources.


MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Persicaria longiseta
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
None

OTHER STATUS:
Information on state-level noxious weed status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.

IMPORTANCE TO WILDLIFE AND LIVESTOCK:
Palatability and/or nutritional value: A fact sheet states that Oriental lady's thumb is mildly toxic and has few natural predators [69]. A flora reports that Oriental lady's thumb may be eaten by wildlife and has been planted in some areas for that purpose [37]. Oriental lady's thumb seeds germinated from white-tailed deer pellets in Connecticut [78], suggesting that plants are consumed by some animals.

Cover value: No information is available on this topic.

IMPACTS AND CONTROL:
Impacts: As of this writing (2010) there is little published literature documenting the impacts of Oriental lady's thumb. Fact sheets suggest that Oriental lady's thumb has the potential to invade shaded or moist plant communities and displace native species [35,66,69]. The documentation of Oriental lady's thumb plants dominating an open field in Connecticut and a floodplain forest in New Hampshire [35] suggests that displacement of native species is possible. However, in the USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region, Oriental lady's thumb is classified as a widespread nonnative species that is restricted to disturbed areas and is not invasive in undisturbed habitats [65].

Control: As of 2010, little information is available regarding control of Oriental lady's thumb. In all cases where invasive species are targeted for control, no matter what method is employed, the potential for other invasive species to fill their void must be considered [5]. Control of biotic invasions is most effective when it employs a long-term, ecosystem-wide strategy rather than a tactical approach focused on battling individual invaders [33].

Fire: For information on the use of prescribed fire to control this species, see Fire Management Considerations.

Prevention: It is commonly argued that the most cost-efficient and effective method of managing invasive species is to prevent their establishment and spread by maintaining "healthy" natural communities [33,51] (e.g., avoid road building in wildlands [64]) and by monitoring several times each year [25]. Managing to maintain the integrity of the native plant community and mitigate the factors enhancing ecosystem invasibility is likely to be more effective than managing solely to control the invader [21].

Weed prevention and control can be incorporated into many types of management plans, including those for logging and site preparation, grazing allotments, recreation management, research projects, road building and maintenance, and fire management [67]. See the Guide to noxious weed prevention practices [67] for specific guidelines in preventing the spread of weed seeds and propagules under different management conditions.

Cultural control: No information is available on this topic.

Physical or mechanical control: A USDA Forest Service fact sheet suggests that Oriental lady's thumb may be controlled by hand pulling, digging up small infestations, or mowing frequently [66].

Biological control: As of this writing (2010) no biological control agent has been identified to control Oriental lady's thumb. A fact sheet from Virginia reports that Oriental lady's thumb has few natural predators [69].

Biological control of invasive species has a long history that indicates many factors must be considered before using biological controls. Refer to these sources: [70,79] and the Weed control methods handbook [63] for background information and important considerations for developing and implementing biological control programs.

Chemical control: A USDA Forest Service fact sheet suggests that Oriental lady's thumb can be controlled using any general-use herbicide, though its occurrence in riparian areas may limit herbicide application [66].

Herbicides are effective in gaining initial control of a new invasion or a severe infestation, but they are rarely a complete or long-term solution to weed management [6]. See the Weed control methods handbook [63] for considerations on the use of herbicides in natural areas and detailed information on specific chemicals.

Integrated management: No information is available on this topic.


APPENDIX: FIRE REGIME TABLE

SPECIES: Persicaria longiseta
The following table provides fire regime information that may be relevant to Oriental lady's thumb habitats. Follow the links in the table to documents that provide more detailed information on these fire regimes.

Fire regime information on vegetation communities in which Oriental lady's thumb may occur. This information is taken from the LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models [31], which were developed by local experts using available literature, local data, and/or expert opinion. This table summarizes fire regime characteristics for each plant community listed. The PDF file linked from each plant community name describes the model and synthesizes the knowledge available on vegetation composition, structure, and dynamics in that community. Cells are blank where information is not available in the Rapid Assessment Vegetation Model.
Great Lakes Northeast South-central US Southern Appalachians Southeast
Great Lakes
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Great Lakes Forested

Northern hardwood maple-beech-eastern hemlock

Replacement 60% >1,000    
Mixed 40% >1,000    

Oak-hickory

Replacement 13% 66 1  
Mixed 11% 77 5  
Surface or low 76% 11 2 25
Northeast
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Northeast Grassland

Northern coastal marsh

Replacement 97% 7 2 50
Mixed 3% 265 20  
Northeast Woodland

Rocky outcrop pine (Northeast)

Replacement 16% 128    
Mixed 32% 65    
Surface or low 52% 40    
Northeast Forested

Eastern white pine-northern hardwoods

Replacement 72% 475    
Surface or low 28% >1,000    

Northern hardwoods-eastern hemlock

Replacement 50% >1,000    
Surface or low 50% >1,000    

Appalachian oak forest (dry-mesic)

Replacement 2% 625 500 >1,000
Mixed 6% 250 200 500
Surface or low 92% 15 7 26

Beech-maple

Replacement 100% >1,000    
South-central US
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
South-central US Forested

Southern floodplain (rare fire)

Replacement 42% >1,000    
Surface or low 58% 714    
Southern Appalachians
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Southern Appalachians Forested

Bottomland hardwood forest

Replacement 25% 435 200 >1,000
Mixed 24% 455 150 500
Surface or low 51% 210 50 250

Mixed mesophytic hardwood

Replacement 11% 665    
Mixed 10% 715    
Surface or low 79% 90    

Appalachian oak-hickory-pine

Replacement 3% 180 30 500
Mixed 8% 65 15 150
Surface or low 89% 6 3 10

Eastern hemlock-eastern white pine-hardwood

Replacement 17% >1,000 500 >1,000
Surface or low 83% 210 100 >1,000
Appalachian Virginia pine Replacement 20% 110 25 125
Mixed 15% 145    
Surface or low 64% 35 10 40
Southeast
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Southeast Forested

Mesic-dry flatwoods

Replacement 3% 65 5 150
Surface or low 97% 2 1 8

Southern floodplain

Replacement 7% 900    
Surface or low 93% 63    
*Fire Severities
Replacement: Any fire that causes greater than 75% top removal of a vegetation-fuel type, resulting in general replacement of existing vegetation; may or may not cause a lethal effect on the plants.
Mixed: Any fire burning more than 5% of an area that does not qualify as a replacement, surface, or low-severity fire; includes mosaic and other fires that are intermediate in effects.
Surface or low: Any fire that causes less than 25% upper layer replacement and/or removal in a vegetation-fuel class but burns 5% or more of the area [18,30].

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