Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Lespedeza striata


Introductory

SPECIES: Lespedeza striata
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Lespedeza striata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : LESSTR SYNONYMS : Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. SCS PLANT CODE : LEST4 COMMON NAMES : common lespedeza striate lespedeza annual lespedeza Japan clover Japanese clover Japanese bushclover TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for common lespedeza is Lespedeza striata (Thunb.) H. & A. [10,30]. There are no subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Lespedeza striata
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Common lespedeza is widely planted and naturalized in the southeastern United States. Its range extends from southern New Jersey west to southern Iowa and eastern Kansas, and south to eastern Texas and Oklahoma [10,29]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory STATES : AL AR DE FL GA HI IL IN IA KS KY LA MD MS MO NJ NC OH OK PA SC TN TX VA WV BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K089 Black Belt K100 Oak - hickory forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K114 Pocosin K115 Sand pine scrub SAF COVER TYPES : 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 43 Bear oak 44 Chestnut oak 46 Eastern redcedar 50 Black locust 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 57 Yellow-poplar 58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 64 Sassafras - persimmon 67 Mohrs ("shin") oak 69 Sand pine 70 Longleaf pine 72 Southern scrub oak 73 Southern redcedar 75 Shortleaf pine 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 84 Slash pine 85 Slash pine - hardwood 87 Sweet gum - yellow-poplar 109 Hawthorn 110 Black oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Lespedeza striata
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Common lespedeza is planted for high-quality forage, pasturage, and hay for all classes of livestock [10,25]. White-tailed deer and wild turkeys consume the foliage [11,25]. The seeds are eaten by rodents and birds, including cotton rats, northern bobwhites, wild turkeys, mallards, starlings and mourning doves [2,9,11,25]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : The nutritional value of first cut, sun-cured, common lespedeza hay is as follows [19]: percent dry weight Dry matter 91.4 Ash 4.8 Crude fiber 25.2 Ether extract 3.8 N-free extract 43.7 Digestible protein Cattle 9.2 Goats 9.7 Horses 9.5 Rabbits 9.4 Sheep 9.2 COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Common lespedeza has some applications for soil stabilization [20,25]. It does not do well, however, on highly eroded subsoils [9]. In southern Virginia and northern Tennessee, seed mixtures containing common lespedeza were either hydroseeded or aerially seeded on graded, fertilized maganese mine spoils. This treatment resulted in excellent cover [17]. Common lespedeza is often included in grass mixtures or grass-perennial legume mixtures in order to promote rapid establishment of grasses [27,29]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Common lespedeza is planted for soil improvement [27,29]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Common lespedeza is relatively drought resistant [9]. In northern parts of its range, frost may kill common lespedeza before seed maturation [20]. Scarification of common lespedeza seed improves germination rates [25]. Methods of cultivation are detailed [20,29]. In Mississippi, the best growth of legumes, including common lespedeza, was achieved with a prescribed fire treatment. Less favorable growth resulted from burning and grazing, grazing alone, and protection from both fire and grazing [28].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Lespedeza striata
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Common lespedeza is an exotic, annual legume with a bushy, erect growth form. When grown in shade, it may have a prostrate form [10]. It grows up to 15.7 inches (40 cm) in height, but is usually less than 12 inches (30.5 cm) in height. It has a well-developed taproot [9,10,25]. The inflorescence is a raceme [10]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Therophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : NO-ENTRY SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Common lespedeza is naturalized in old fields, roadsides, dry open woods, rocky open areas, gravelly stream banks, and waste places [10,30]. It tolerates acids soils, with a lower pH limit of 4.5 [27]. Common lespedeza grows in clay or sand, and is best adapted to well-drained, fertile soils [9,20,25]. It occurs at elevations below 2,000 feet (610 m) at the northern limits of its range [27]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Initial Community Species Common lespedeza is a pioneer on disturbed sites [3,9]. Once established, it reseeds well, but is usually overgrown by other pioneers in 2 or 3 years [9,18]. In Alabama, common lespedeza density was greatest in 3- to 5-year-old fields, and decreased with advancing succession [22]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Germination of common lespedeza occurs in late February to March. Growth is slow in the early spring; development is more rapid in the summer months [9,24]. It flowers from July to October [10], and seeds mature in late autumn [9].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Lespedeza striata
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Common lespedeza is not well adapted to survive fire. It is, however, an colonizer of disturbed areas. It is common in early postfire seres when an off-site seed source is available [6]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Lespedeza striata
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Common lespedeza is killed by cool fires [15]. Seeds near the ground surface are probably killed by fire; a 4-minute exposure of common lespedeza seeds to dry heat at temperatures above 185 degrees Fahrenheit (84 deg C) severely reduced germination rates [16]. No information was available concerning the survival of buried seed. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Following prescribed fires in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in South Carolina, common lespedeza appeared in 3 percent of spring-burned plots and 4 percent of summer-burned plots. It was not present in prefire or in control plots [4]. Common lespedeza increased after prescribed fire in a southern Illinois grassland [1]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed fire in winter is useful for improving northern bobwhite and wild turkey habitat. Such fire reduces woody vegetation and increases cover and density of grasses and legumes, including common lespedeza [2,11]. Northern bobwhite habitat is enhanced when common lespedeza is seeded in (either alone or in grass mixtures) after prescribed fire. Because common lespedeza germinates early, seedlings may be killed by late winter or spring fires [2,15,24]. Fire is not recommended on sites where common lespedeza has already germinated and seedlings are dense [24].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Lespedeza striata
REFERENCES : 1. Anderson, Roger C.; Van Valkenburg, Charles. 1977. Response of a southern Illinois grassland community to burning. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Science. 69(4): 399-414. [19481] 2. Arner, Dale H. 1981. Prescribed burning in utility rights-of-way management. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 163-166. [14823] 3. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124] 4. Cushwa, Charles T.; Hopkins, Melvin; McGinnes, Burd S. 1970. Response of legumes to prescribed burns in loblolly pine stands of the South Carolina Piedmont. Res. Note SE-140. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 6 p. [11587] 5. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 6. Garren, Kenneth H. 1943. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Botanical Review. 9: 617-654. [9517] 7. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 8. Moran, G. F.; Marshall, D. R.; Muller, W. J. 1981. Phenotypic variation and plasticity in the colonizing species Xanthium strumarium L. (Noogoora Burr). Australian Journal of Biological Science. 34: 639-648. [20392] 9. Graham, Edward H. 1941. Legumes for erosion control and wildlife. Misc. Publ. 412. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 153 p. [10234] 10. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 11. Hurst, George A. 1981. Effects of prescribed burning on the eastern wild turkey. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 81-88. [14813] 12. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 13. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 14. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376] 15. Landers, J. Larry. 1981. The role of fire in bobwhite quail management. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 73-80. [14812] 16. Martin, Robert E.; Cushwa, Charles T. 1966. Effects of heat and moisture on leguminous seed. In: Proceedings, 5th annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1966 March 24-25; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 159-175. [18925] 17. Muncy, Jack A. 1989. Reclamation of abandoned manganese mines in southwest Virginia and northeast Tennessee. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 199-208. [14355] 18. Murray, Robert W.; Frye, O. E., Jr. 1964. The bobwhite quail and its management in Florida. 2d ed. Game Publ. No. 2. [Place of publication unknown]: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. 55 p. [15421] 19. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. [1731] 20. Offutt, Marion L.; Baldridge, Joe D. 1973. The Lespedezas. In: Heath, Maurice E.; Metcalfe, Darrel S.; Barnes, Robert F., eds. Forages: The science of grassland agriculture. 3rd ed. Ames, IA: The Iowa State University Press: 189-198. [21655] 21. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 22. Speake, Dan W. 1966. Effects of controlled burning on bobwhite quail populations and habitat of an experimental area in the Alabama piedmont. Proceedings, Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissions. 20: 19-32. [14649] 23. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 24. Stoddard, Herbert L. 1961. Memorandum on the spring 1932 burning of quail lands. In: The Cooperative Quail Study Association: May 1, 1931-May 1, 1943. Misc. Publ. No. 1. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 274-280. [15071] 25. Stubbendiek, James; Conard, Elverne C. 1989. Common legumes of the Great Plains: an illustrated guide. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 330 p. [11049] 26. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 27. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15576] 28. Wahlenberg, W. G.; Greene, S. W.; Reed, H. R. 1939. Effects of fire and cattle grazing on longleaf pine lands, as studied at McNeill, Mississippi. Tech. Bull. No. 683. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 52 p. [13795] 29. Wheeler, W. A.; Hill, D. D. 1957. Grassland seeds. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. 628 p. [18902] 30. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]


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