Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Iliamna rivularis


SPECIES: Iliamna rivularis
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1993. Iliamna rivularis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : ILIRIV SYNONYMS : Sphaeralcea rivularis (Dougl.) Torr. [10,11,30] Phymosia rivularis (Dougl.) Rydb. [10,11,30] Malva rivularis Dougl. [11] SCS PLANT CODE : ILRI COMMON NAMES : wild hollyhock mountain hollyhock streambank globemallow TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of wild hollyhock is Iliamna rivularis (Dougl.) Greene [10,11,30]]. A typical variety with five-lobed to seven-lobed, cordate leaves and I. r. var. diversa (Nels.) Hitchc. with three-lobed to five-lobed, truncate leaves are recognized [11,12]. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Iliamna rivularis
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Wild hollyhock occurs mostly east of the Cascade Range from Alberta and British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, and south to Colorado [10,11,17]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES25 Larch FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES37 Mountain meadows FRES44 Alpine STATES : CO ID MT NV OR UT WA WY AB BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 2 Cascade Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K014 Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K016 Eastern ponderosa forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest K021 Southwestern spruce - fir forest K022 Great Basin pine forest K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub K052 Alpine meadows and barren Probably occurs in other Kuchler Plant Associations within its range SAF COVER TYPES : 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 208 Whitebark pine 210 Interior Douglas-fir 212 Western larch 213 Grand fir 217 Aspen 218 Lodgepole pine 237 Interior ponderosa pine Probably occurs in other SAF Cover Types within its range SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Iliamna rivularis
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Wild hollyhock was highly preferred by sheep and cattle in recently burned quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands in Wyoming and Idaho [6]. It was also utilized heavily by elk and mule deer in recently burned areas of Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks [14]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Crude protein percentage of wild hollyhock in aspen stands in Idaho ranged from 12.1 to 22.4 from July to September. In-vitro digestible dry matter ranged from 64.9 to 84.4 percent during the same time period [4]. COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Wild hollyhock may become abundant following clearcutting in grand fir (Abies grandis) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) habitats in central Idaho. It may also appear after mechanical site preparation, but is not as well represented [22]. In Douglas-fir/pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens) habitats in central Idaho, wild hollyhock showed no change following clearcutting, but declined after shelterwood cutting and clearcuting followed by mechanical site preparation. It increased drastically after clearcutting followed by burning and after stand-destroying wildfires [23].


SPECIES: Iliamna rivularis
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Wild hollyhock is a perennial forb with one to several stems arising from a woody caudex. It reaches 24 to 80 inches (60-200 cm) in height [10]. Flowers are on stout stalks in dense axillary or terminal clusters [17]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Wild hollyhock reproduces by seed and is not rhizomatous [22]. Seeds have no dispersal mechanism and are stored in the soil, remaining up to 91 percent viable for long periods of time. The majority of the seeds (around 75 percent) are buried 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) below the soil surface, with the remainder buried in the top 2 inches (0-5 cm). One study reported 8 to 137 viable wild hollyhock seeds per square foot (84-1,470 seeds/sq m) in mature grand fir habitats in central Idaho. Seeds have a smooth, hard coat and require a heat treatment for germination. This fact, in addition to high seed density, depth of burial, and high viability, provides for long-term survival in the seedbank [15]. Wild hollyhock seeds remain viable for at least a few hundred years [28]. Germination takes place in full sun, most often following fire [23]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Wild hollyhock commonly grows on forested slopes, in meadows, along streambanks, and in disturbed areas [7,10,17]. It occurs on mesic sites in deep, moist, but well-drained soil [17]. It has been found to 11,500 feet (3,490 m) elevation in Colorado [10], and 9,570 feet (2900 m) elevation in Utah [30]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Initial Community Species Wild hollyhock is a shade-intolerant, early seral species [15,27]. It becomes abundant following disturbance such as clearcutting, broadcast burning, and wildfire, and flowers profusely in full sun [22]. Wild hollyhock is quickly eliminated from post-disturbance communities when overtopped by other vegetation [15]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Wild hollyhock flowers from June to August in the Pacific Northwest [17].


SPECIES: Iliamna rivularis
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Wild hollyhock is a seedbanking species that survives even severe fire by germination of dormant, fire-activated seeds [19]. It flowers during early postfire stages. Seeds survive in the soil and remain viable for long periods of time [22]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - on-site seed


SPECIES: Iliamna rivularis
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : NO-ENTRY DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Wild hollyhock is a residual colonizer that is prominent in initial postfire communities, even after holocaustic fires [26]. It becomes abundant following severe wildfire and hot broadcast burning, particularly when slash has been piled [22]. Wild hollyhock dominated the postfire vegetation after moderate to severe fire in quaking aspen and quaking aspen-mixed conifer habitats in Idaho. It formed dense stands within the first postfire growing season, but was absent from the preburn vegetation. It continued to dominate the site for several seasons, producing an average of 2,000 pounds per acre (2,260 kg/ha) in postfire year 2, and 835 pounds per acre (940 kg/ha) in postfire year 3. By postfire year 4, production had further declined, and wild hollyhock foliage appeared chlorotic. It disappeared from the site by the sixth growing season following the fire. In postfire year 2, wild hollyhock produced an average of 1,329 seeds per square foot (14,300 seeds/sq m) [3]. In Douglas-fir habitats in central Idaho, wild hollyhock was prominent in postfire communities but was absent from preburn vegetation. It had the following frequencies in postfire growing seasons: year 1, 52 percent; year 2, 36 percent; year 3, 52 percent; year 4, 52 percent; year 5, 56 percent; year 6, 52 percent; and year 7, 48 percent. Wild hollyhock had a frequency of 4 percent in an adjacent 20-year-old burn. By postfire year 3, it dominated the site along with fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium). Together, they comprised 40 percent of total vegetal cover. In successive years, they made up 20 percent of total cover, but were not as abundant after postfire year 6 [18]. In general, wild hollyhock flowers profusely and becomes very abundant for a short period following fire but is eventually replaced by other vegetation [13,24,28]. It has shown this response after fires in grand fir [31], ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) [21], aspen (Populus spp.) [4], and Douglas-fir [1,5] habitats in the Northwest. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Iliamna rivularis
REFERENCES : 1. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1985. Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-177. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 74 p. [349] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Brown, James K.; DeByle, Norbert V. 1989. Effects of prescribed fire on biomass and plant succession in western aspen. Res. Pap. INT-412. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 16 p. [9286] 4. Canon, S. K.; Urness, P. J.; DeByle, N. V. 1987. Habitat selection, foraging behavior, and dietary nutrition of elk in burned aspen forest. Journal of Range Management. 40(5): 443-438. [3453] 5. Crane, M. F.; Habeck, James R.; Fischer, William C. 1983. Early postfire revegetation in a western Montana Douglas-fir forest. Res. Pap. INT-319. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 29 p. plus chart. [710] 6. DeByle, Norbert V.; Urness, Philip J.; Blank, Deborah L. 1989. Forage quality in burned and unburned aspen communities. Res. Pap. INT-404. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 8 p. [6588] 7. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129] 8. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 9. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 10. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 11. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 614 p. [1167] 12. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 13. Kapler, Jane E. 1976. Forest fire management: Glacier National Park: Draft environmental assessment. West Glacier, MT: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Glacier National Park. 171 p. [20646] 14. Kay, Charles E. 1993. Aspen seedlings in recently burned areas of Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks. Northwest Science. 67(2): 94-104. [21653] 15. Kramer, Neal B. 1984. Mature forest seed banks on three habitat types in central Idaho. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 106 p. Thesis. [1375] 16. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 17. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798] 18. Lyon, L. Jack. 1971. Vegetal development following prescribed burning of Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-105. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 30 p. [1495] 19. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 20. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 21. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1991. Monitoring the effects of postfire grass seeding on the Lowman Burn. Unpublished first year progress report. 4 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [17154] 22. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1992. The grand fir/mountain maple habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-284. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 90 p. [17791] 23. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1993. The Douglas-fir/pinegrass habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-298. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 83 p. [21512] 24. Stickney, Peter. 1989. After forest wildfire, then what? .... Masses of flowers!. Words on Wilderness: The Newsletter of the Wilderness Studies Information Center. Missoula, MT: University of Montana: 6. [17441] 25. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 26. Stickney, Peter F. 1990. Early development of vegetation following holocaustic fire in Northern Rocky Mountains. Northwest Science. 64(5): 243-246. [12715] 27. Stickney, Peter F. 1991. Effects of fire on flora: Northern Rocky Mountain forest plants. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Missoula, MT: 10 p. [21628] 28. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Sawtooth National Forest, Sawtooth National Recreation Area; Boise National Forest. 1981. Sawtooth Wilderness and Sawtooth Addition: Natural Fire Management Plan. (Revised). Twinfalls, ID; Boise, ID. 72 p. [21256] 29. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 30. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 31. Leege, Thomas A.; Godbolt, Grant. 1985. Herebaceous response following prescribed burning and seeding of elk range in Idaho. Northwest Science. 59(2): 134-143. [1436]