Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Helianthus maximiliani


Introductory

SPECIES: Helianthus maximiliani
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Walsh, Roberta A. 1993. Helianthus maximiliani. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : HELMAX SYNONYMS : Helianthus maximilianii Schrad. [17,20] SCS PLANT CODE : HEMA2 COMMON NAMES : Maximilian sunflower Maximillian sunflower Maximilian's sunflower TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Maximilian sunflower is Helianthus maximiliani Schrad. [1,16,18,33]. It is a member of the sunflower family (Asteraceae). There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Helianthus maximiliani
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Maximilian sunflower is native to the Great Plains and adjacent areas [44]. It is found from Saskatchewan and Manitoba south to Missouri and Texas [17,18,22]. It has been sparingly introduced in the Pacific Northwest [20], California [30], and east to the Atlantic states [12]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES29 Sagebrush FRES31 Shinnery FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie STATES : AL AR CA CO CT ID IL IN IA KS KY ME MA MI MN MO MT NE NM NC ND OH OK SD TN TX UT WI WY AB BC MB SK MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K016 Eastern ponderosa forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass K065 Grama - buffalograss K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass K068 Wheatgrass - grama - buffalograss K069 Bluestem - grama prairie K070 Sandsage - bluestem prairie K071 Shinnery K074 Bluestem prairie K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie K076 Blackland prairie K081 Oak savanna K084 Cross Timbers K098 Northern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES : 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 42 Bur oak 62 Silver maple - American elm 67 Shin (Mohrs) oak 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 237 Interior ponderosa pine 239 Pinyon - juniper 241 Western live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Associates of Maximilian sunflower vary with location, since this species has a wide ecological amplitude and it occurs in a variety of prairie ecosystems. Associates of Maximilian sunflower in mixed-grass prairie south of Lake Manitoba in Canada include little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii), alkali muhly (Muhlenbergia asperifolia), common witchgrass (Panicum capillare), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), Russian thistle (Salsola kali), silverberry (Eleagnus commutata), showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa), and western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis) [27]. Associates of Maximilian sunflower in undisturbed tallgrass prairie on Mormon Island on the Platte River in Nebraska include the dominant big bluestem, and lesser components switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), heath aster (Aster ericoides), western ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata), and Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) [8]. Associates of Maximilian sunflower in floodplain tallgrass prairie in a wetlands area in Kansas include prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), ovoid spikesedge (Eleocharis obtusa), Indian grass (Sorgastrum nutans), big bluestem, switchgrass, sedge (Carex frankii), common sunflower (Helianthus annuus), compass plant (Silphium laciniatum), hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), and thickspike gayfeather (Liatris pycnostachya) [7].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Helianthus maximiliani
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Maximilian sunflower is part of the tall, thick, ungrazed cover in North Dakota that ducks and pheasants seek out for nesting. It also provides winter cover and its seeds are an important winter food [40]. In Montana, Maximilian sunflower is rated as valuable fall forage for Rocky Mountain elk [25]. PALATABILITY : Maximilian sunflower is a palatable livestock forage of good quality, [22], and is also used by deer [44]. It remains green after many other forbs have matured [22], but little use is made of the herbage after frost [44]. The seeds are choice food for quail and dove [42], and are eaten by many other birds [44]. Maximilian sunflower palatability for livestock in several western states is as follows [10]: CO MT ND Cattle fair fair good Sheep fair fair fair Horses fair ---- good NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Maximilian sunflower energy value for livestock is fair. Protein value is poor [10]. The food value of Maximilian sunflower for several species of wildlife in some western states is as follows [10]: CO MT ND WY Elk ---- poor ---- good Mule deer ---- poor good poor White-tailed deer ---- ---- good poor Pronghorn poor ---- good ---- Upland game birds ---- ---- fair ---- Waterfowl ---- ---- poor ---- Small nongame birds ---- ---- good ---- COVER VALUE : The cover value of Maximilian sunflower for several species of wildlife in some western states is as follows [10]: ND WY Elk ---- poor Mule deer fair poor White-tailed deer fair poor Pronghorn fair poor Upland game birds fair ---- Waterfowl poor ---- Small nongame birds fair ---- VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Maximilian sunflower was determined by the Soil Conservation Service Plant Materials Center in Kansas to be appropriate for use in rehabilitation of degraded sites and for visual enhancement. In field tests it showed excellent vigor [21]. Maximilian sunflower has been used successfully for revegetation of coal minespoils in Kansas. It established with native grasses on abandoned spoils graded to rolling topography, limed, and disced [43]. The Soil Conservation Service recommends Maximilian sunflower cultivar "Aztec" for use in rehabilitation in southern Oklahoma, all of Texas except the Trans-Pecos region, and eastward. The cultivar "Prairie Gold" has greater cold tolerance, and can be used for revegetation farther north [44]. Maximilian sunflower is suggested for use on roadsides, in parks, for wildlife habitat, and in establishing prairies [37]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Maximilian sunflower roots can be prepared and eaten like those of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). Native American tribes of the Great Plains ate them raw, boiled, or roasted [28]. Maximilian sunflower was evaluated as a potential source of industrial raw materials. Since the natural rubbers present are of low molecular weight, they may have commercial applications [35]. Maximilian sunflower is used as a garden ornamental [28]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Planting for wildlife: Maximilian sunflower has been planted for cover and as a food source for scaled quail, northern bobwhites, and mourning doves in the High and Rolling Plains of Texas [6]. It is a good addition to a mix of shrubs, forbs, and grasses for use as wildlife habitat [42]. Planting for prairie establishment: Due to its aggressive spreading, Maximilian sunflower should be lightly seeded in prairie grass mixtures. Optimal seeding times are November to May in the Central Great Plains, and January to March in the Southern Great Plains. Early planting may aid in breaking seed dormancy [44]. Maximilian sunflower requires low to moderate moisture and full sun [37]. It was included in a mix of native prairie grasses and forbs used to establish prairie on previously cultivated fields in eastern Nebraska from 1975 to 1978. It proved to be susceptible to herbicides, and established best when mechanical means were used to control weeds [5]. When buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) in Minnesota was removed by cutting and stump treatment with herbicide in 1985, Maximilian sunflower, which had not been present, germinated in treated areas within 3 months of initial treatment [4]. Maximilian sunflower was evaluated and grown at the Soil Conservation Service Plant Materials Center in Kansas. Planting procedures are described [9]. Maximilian sunflower seed accessions are held at the wild sunflower (Helianthus spp.) nursery of the Plant Introduction Station in Ames, Iowa. The collection can be used for problems in prairie establishment or restoration [45]. Grazing: Maximilian sunflower is not common on closely grazed ranges. Seedlings should be protected from close use and trampling. Moderate grazing and periodic deferment of grazing during the growing season enhance the persistance of Maxmimilan sunflower [44].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Helianthus maximiliani
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Maximilian sunflower is a warm-season, bunching, perennial native forb [44]. It grows 1.6 to 8.2 feet (0.5-2.5 m) tall [17], with a spread of 1 to 3 feet (0.3-0.9 m) [21]. Stems grow singly or clustered from short rhizomes [44]. The flowers occur in long, raceme-like inflorescences [15]. The floral head is 1.5 to 3 inches (4-8 cm) wide [1]. The fruit is an achene 0.12 to 0.16 (3-4 mm) long [17]. Maximilian sunflower has short, thick, rhizomatous rootstocks [17] with crown-buds [15]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Maximilian sunflower is a perennial which reproduces by seed [31,43]. It also spreads vegetatively by rhizomes, and can form large colonies [44]. Maximilian sunflower cultivar "Aztec" seeds germinate within 1 to 3 weeks with a germination temperature regime of 12 hours each day at 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 deg C) or lower [31]. With other seed sources, germination can occur in 7 to 14 days, but nearly half can be dormant. Seedling vigor is good [44]. Maximilian sunflower seeds from the soilbank at 22 typical habitats in Kansas were collected in November, 1945, and stored in cool, dry conditions until February, 1946. Subsequent germination tests showed two major periods of germination: one between days 6 and 25, and another between days 46 and 55 [26]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Maximilian sunflower occurs on dry to moist open prairie, often on sandy sites [17]. It is best adapted to deep, sandy to clayey loam upland soils of subhumid prairies [44]. Growth is poor on gravel and dense clay, fair on sand and clay, and good on sandy to clayey loam. Maximilian sunflower grows poorly on saline soils. Its optimum soil depth is 20 inches (50 cm) or more. It is more common on heavier soils [44]. It is also found on waste ground, roadsides, pastures [1], fence rows [33], riverbanks [18], and other disturbed areas [29]. Maximilian sunflower generally occurs in areas with 10 to 50 inches (250-1270 mm) annual precipitation [35], but it can occur on lowlands with better moisture conditions in the semiaric zones [44]. Maximilian sunflower exhibits good growth on gentle slopes and poor growth on moderate and steep slopes [10]. Maximilian sunflower occurs at the following elevations [10]: Elevation (feet) Elevation (m) CO 3,500-7,000 1,067-2,134 MT 2,300-3,900 700-1,190 WY 3,600-6,000 1,100-1,830 SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Maximilian sunflower thrives in sunlight and has only fair shade tolerance [44]. Stand longevity can be 5 or more years [9]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Maximilian sunflower seeds germinate best when soil is warm [31], generally in May throughout much of the area in which it occurs. Stands develop rather rapidly from seed. Growth occurs in late spring and summer [43], with some flowering possible by the end of the first growing season in the South. However, plants are not usually fully developed until the second year [44]. Maximilian sunflower dies back to the ground each year, and regenerates new growth from rhizomes or root crown buds [43]. Plants continue to spread by rhizomes after establishment [44]. Maximilian sunflower flowering times are: Begin Peak End Flowering Flowering Flowering CO June August September [10] IL July ---- August [29] KS August September October [21] MT July July September [10] NC September ---- October [33] ND July August September [10] SD July ---- September [22] WY July July September [10] Great Plains August ---- October [17] New England August ---- September [36]

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Helianthus maximiliani
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Maximilian sunflower has good fire tolerance in the dormant state, and can reproduce by rhizomes [44]. It produces numerous, small, wind-dispersed seeds which germinate over a wide range of temperature and moisture regimes [38] and can establish on burned sites. Maximilian sunflower thrives in the open, sunny conditions created by fire [14]. Maximilian sunflower seeds have been found in the seedbank [26], and it may be an initial on-site colonizer, but no information was available on seed tolerance to heat or length of seed viability in the seedbank. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Helianthus maximiliani
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Maximilian sunflower is probably top-killed by fire during the growing season. It survives by sprouting from persistent rhizomes [17,44]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Fire usually enhances Maximilian sunflower, probably by removing litter, allowing more sunlight to reach the soil surface, and reducing competition. Maximilian sunflower was burned in prescribed fires in May, 1970 and May, 1971 in east-central North Dakota. It increased in cover more than 100 percent within the first 2 postfire years [23]. When dead vegetation mulch was burned in North Dakota in 1968 and 1969, Maximilian sunflower and other plants grew taller, stiffer, and seeded more vigorously [40]. Tallgrass prairie sites containing Maximilian sunflower in northwestern Minnesota were subjected to prescribed fire in early May, 1972. The removal of litter by fire varied with the site. In undisturbed prairie on a mesic site, flowering decreased significantly following fire. On a wet-mesic site in highly disturbed prairie, there was a slight, nonsignificant decrease in flowering. On a wet swale in undisturbed prairie, there was a very significant increase in flowering [32]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In southwestern Minnesota, a degraded prairie that had been invaded by shrubs and cool-season grasses was burned each spring from 1983 to 1987. Native warm-season grasses and forbs, including Maximilian sunflower, increased in dominance, and the prairie became more open each year. Maximilian sunflower showed increased vigor, and new individuals were established [2]. In the High and Rolling Plains of Texas, prescribed fire is used every 3 to 5 years to maintain optimum quail habitat in the grass stands where Maximilian sunflower occurs [6]. In the Northern Great Plains, the best increases in Maximilian sunflower vigor, canopy cover, and seed production are obtained with late spring (May-June) fires [19].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Helianthus maximiliani
REFERENCES : 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801] 2. Becker, Donald A. 1989. Five years of annual prairie burns. In: Bragg, Thomas A.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 163-168. [14037] 3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 4. Boudreau, Denise; Willson, Gary. 1992. Buckthorn research and control at Pipestone National Monument. Restoration & Management Notes. 10(1): 94-95. [19497] 5. Bragg, Thomas B.; Sutherland, David M. 1989. Establishing warm-season grasses and forbs using herbicides and mowing. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 81-89. [14023] 6. Bryant, Fred C.; Smith, Loren M. 1988. The role of wildlife as an economic input into a farming or ranching operation. In: Mitchell, John E., ed. Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the Great Plains: Proceedings; 1987 September 16-18; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-158. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-98. [5147] 7. Cink, Calvin L.; Lowther, Peter E. 1989. Breeding bird populations of a floodplain tallgrass prairie in Kansas. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 259-262. [14059] 8. Currier, Paul J. 1989. Plant species composition and groundwater levels in a Platte River wet meadow. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 19-24. [14013] 9. Dickerson, John A.; Longren, Warren G.; Hadle, Edith K. 1981. Native forb seed production. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 218-222. [3431] 10. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 12. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 14. Gersib, Dick. 1984. From out of the ashes. Nebraskaland. 62(7): 24-29. [14772] 15. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329] 16. Gonzalez-Elizondo, M. Socorro; Gomez-Sanchez, Daniel. 1992. Notes on Helianthus (Compositae-Helianthaeae) from Mexico. Phytologia. 72(1): 58-62. [22004] 17. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 18. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 19. Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kruse, Arnold D.; Piehl, James L. 1989. Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains. Ext. Circ. EC-760. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. 36 p. [14185] 20. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 21. Jacobson, Erling T. 1975. The evaluation, selection and increase of prairie wildflowers for conservation beautification. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 395-404. [4437] 22. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18500] 23. Kirsch, Leo M.; Kruse, Arnold D. 1973. Prairie fires and wildlife. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. Number 12. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 289-303. [8472] 24. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 25. Kufeld, Roland C. 1973. Foods eaten by the Rocky Mountain elk. Journal of Range Management. 26(2): 106-113. [1385] 26. Lippert, Robert D.; Hopkins, Harold H. 1950. Study of viable seeds in various habitats in mixed prairie. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 53(3): 355-364. [1461] 27. Love, Askell; Love, Doris. 1954. Vegetation of a prairie marsh. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 81(1): 16-34. [18104] 28. Lynn, Sandra D. 1989. Maximilian sunflower. Horticulture. 67: 72. [22003] 29. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383] 30. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 31. Owens, D. W.; Call, C. A. 1985. Germination characteristics of Helianthus maximilianai Schrad. and Simsia calva (Engelm. & Gray) Gray. Journal of Range Management. 38(4): 336-339. [22005] 32. Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240. [3435] 33. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 34. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 35. Seiler, Gerald J.; Carr, Merle E.; Bagby, Marvin O. 1991. Renewable resources from wild sunflowers (Helianthus spp., Asteraceae). Economic Botany. 45(1): 4-15. [22002] 36. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604] 37. Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 1989. Catalog of wildflowers and forbs. Amarillo, TX: Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 20 p. [18001] 38. Skousen, J. G.; Call, C. A. 1985. Sod-seeding low maintenance plant species into coastal bermudagrass sod on lignite overburden in Texas. In: Williams, Dean; Fisher, Scott E., Jr., co-chairmen. "Bridging the gap between science, regulation, & the surface mining operation": Proc., 2nd annualmeeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation; [Date of meeting unknown]; [Place of meeting unknown]. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 18-23. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [2152] 39. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 40. Troester, Herbert G. 1970. Managed prairie burning for wildlife. North Dakota Outdoors. 32(11): 7-9. [14898] 41. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 42. Ueckert, Darrell N. 1988. Establishment of shrubs and forbs in the Southern Plains region. In: Mitchell, John E., ed. Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the Great Plains; 1987 September 16-18; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-158. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 47-51. [5146] 43. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577] 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837] 45. Widrlechner, Mark P. 1989. Germplasm resources information network and ex situ conservation of germplasm. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 109-114. [14028]


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