Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Dracocephalum parviflorum
American dragonhead flower cluster. ©2015 Barry Breckling.


SPECIES: Dracocephalum parviflorum
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1993. Dracocephalum parviflorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : DRAPAR SYNONYMS : Moldavica parviflora Britt. SCS PLANT CODE : DRPA2 COMMON NAMES : American dragonhead false dragonhead dragonhead dragon's head TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of American dragonhead is Dracocephalum parviflorum Nutt. (Lamiaceae) [8,17,29]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : American dragonhead is classified as rare in New York. Its state rank there is listed as S1 (critically imperiled in New York State because of extreme rarity or is extremely vulnerable to extirpation from New York State due to biological factors) [30].


SPECIES: Dracocephalum parviflorum
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : American dragonhead is distributed from Quebec to Alaska, south to Arizona in the West, Missouri in the central United States, and North Carolina in the East [8,12,29]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES29 Sagebrush FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES44 Alpine Probably occurs in other ecosystems, but information is lacking STATES : AK AZ CO CT DE ID IL IN IA KY ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY ND OH OR PA RI SD UT VT WA WV WI WY AB BC MB NT ON PQ SK YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : Occurs in most Kuchler Plant Associations within its range SAF COVER TYPES : Occurs in most SAF Cover Types within its range SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : Occurs in most SRM Cover Types within its range HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Dracocephalum parviflorum


SPECIES: Dracocephalum parviflorum
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : American dragonhead is a native annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial forb. Solitary or clustered stems arise from a taproot and are 6 to 32 inches (15-80 cm) tall [8]. Leaves are coarsely serrate and flowers are crowded in a dense terminal or axillary cluster. The fruits are nutlets [29]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : American dragonhead is a seedbanking species. Seeds are large and are not wind-dispersed. Buried seeds remain viable for a long period of time [13]. Seeds require fire or other disturbance for germination [20]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : American dragonhead commonly grows on open, moist sites [8,17,20] and in disturbed areas [9,15,18]. In the Great Plains it grows on gravelly soils along streams, in open woodlands, or on moist wooded hillsides [15]. In the Northeast, American dragonhead is found on rocky or gravelly calcareous soils in recently cleared areas [12]. It occurs from 4,500 to 10,000 feet (1,360-3,000 m) elevation in Colorado [16], and from 4,850 to 10,890 feet (1,470-3,300 m) elevation in Utah [29]. Some species commonly associated with American dragonhead include russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis), Oregon-grape (Mahonia repens), snowberry (Symphoricarpos spp.), serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.), western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), strawberry (Fragaria spp.), heartleaf arnica (Arnica cordifolia), fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium), Bicknell geranium (Geranium bicknellii), and wild hollyhock (Iliamna rivularis) [1,4]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : American dragonhead is prominent in initial or early successional communities following disturbance [26]. Its seedbanking ability allows colonization of disturbed areas even when no parent plants are present [13]. American dragonhead has usually disappeared or declined in importance within the first few years following disturbance [4]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : American dragonhead flowers from June to August in the Intermountain region [8], and from June to September in the Great Plains [15].


SPECIES: Dracocephalum parviflorum
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Seedbanked American dragonhead seeds are fire activated, germinating after even severe fire [22]. American dragonhead flowers during the first few postfire years. New seeds remain dormant in the soil until the next stand-replacing fire or other disturbance occurs [1]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - on-site seed


SPECIES: Dracocephalum parviflorum
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : NO-ENTRY DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : American dragonhead is a residual colonizer that is prominent in initial postfire communities, even after holocaustic fires [26]. After fire in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) habitats in central Idaho, American dragonhead dominated the initial postfire vegetation. Plants were absent from preburn communities and adjacent 20-year-old burns. Frequencies in postfire years 1 and 2 were 96 and 100 percent, respectively. American dragonhead comprised 30 percent of all plant cover in the first postfire year and 37 percent of all cover in the second postfire year. It's cover was greatly reduced by the third growing season following the fire [21]. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) types in the Black Hills of South Dakota, American dragonhead exhibited initial postfire prominence but disappeared or greatly declined in importance by the second or third postfire growing season [23]. It showed the same response in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) habitats in Saskatchewan [6], white spruce (Picea glauca) habitats in Alaska [28], quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)-mixed conifer types in Idaho [5], and in Douglas-fir habitats in western Montana [7]. American dragonhead was present in 4-year-old and 29-year-old burns in pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) habitats in Colorado, but cover was sparse [10]. It played an important role in early succession after severe fires in fir (Abies spp.)-spruce (Picea spp.) habitats in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, but disappeared within 43 postfire years [2]. American dragonhead had greater density in moderately-burned stands compared to severely-burned lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands in Yellowstone National Park [1]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Dracocephalum parviflorum
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[6388] 14. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 15. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 16. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 17. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 18. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 19. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 20. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798] 21. Lyon, L. Jack. 1971. Vegetal development following prescribed burning of Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-105. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 30 p. [1495] 22. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 23. Orr, Howard K. 1970. Runoff and erosion control by seeded and native vegetation on a forest burn: Black Hills, South Dakota. Res. Pap. RM-60. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p. [1802] 24. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 25. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 26. Stickney, Peter F. 1990. Early development of vegetation following holocaustic fire in Northern Rocky Mountains. Northwest Science. 64(5): 243-246. [12715] 27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 28. Van Cleve, K.; Viereck, L.A.; Dyrness, C.T. 1988. Vegetation productivity and soil fertility in post-fire secondary succession in Interior Alaska. In: Slaughter, Charles W.; Gasbarro, Tony. Proceedings of the Alaska forest soil productivity workshop; 1987 April 28-30; Anchorage, AK. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-219. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Station; Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management: 101-102. [5582] 29. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 30. Young, Stephen M., editor. 1992. New York state rare plant status list. August 1992. Latham, NY: Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Lands and Forests, Natural Heritage Program. 79 p. [22563]