Corydalis sempervirens


Table of Contents


INTRODUCTORY


Photo by Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org

AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Meyer, Rachelle. 2012. Corydalis sempervirens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

FEIS ABBREVIATION:
CORSEM

COMMON NAMES:
pink corydalis
pale corydalis
rock-harlequin
rock harlequin

TAXONOMY:
The scientific name of pink corydalis is Corydalis sempervirens (L.) Pers. (Fumariaceae) [26,46,51,59,99].

SYNONYMS:
Capnoides sempervirens L. Borkh

LIFE FORM:
Forb

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Corydalis sempervirens
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
Distribution of pink corydalis. Map courtesy of the Flora of North America Association, 7 December 2012.

Pink corydalis occurs throughout Canada, but it is rare in the western United States, occurring only in Alaska and Glacier National Park in northwestern Montana [23,45]. In the eastern United States, pink corydalis occurs in the Great Lakes region and New England, and it ranges south along the Blue Ridge Mountains into extreme northwestern Georgia [104].

States and provinces [92]:
United States: AK, CT, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada: AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

SITE CHARACTERISTICS AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Pink corydalis is characteristic of 2 habitats [14]: rocky sites on dry, well-drained, often acidic soils [10,68]; and recently disturbed sites, including burned areas (see Plant response to fire). It occurs in climates with cold winters and cool summers, having mean January temperatures of -15 to 18 °F (-26 to -8 °C) and mean July temperatures of 63 to 66 °F (17-19 °C) [1,35,64]. Pink corydalis occurs from near sea level in the northeastern United States [68] to over 5,200 feet (1,600 m) in the southern Appalachians [103].

Site characteristics: Sites with pink corydalis in the eastern United States are often described as dry mesic [8,55] to dry [8,55,56,57,84,106]. It occurred on fresh to moist sites in a jack pine stand in Saskatchewan that was regenerating following fire [16]. In the Kenai Mountains of Alaska, pink corydalis was negatively associated (r = -0.21) with site moisture [12].

Pink corydalis is a characteristic species of exposed [18,37,68], rocky areas [34,56,59,68,70,81,89,104], ledges [37,84,99], and cliffs [31,68,72], from the Carolinas [72] to Canada [81] and Alaska [34]. Soils supporting pink corydalis have been described as coarse [47,68,99], shallow [15,53,68,70,106], well to excessively drained [10,37,68,106], and acidic [10,47,68,70]. Pink corydalis is a component of vegetation associated with outcrops [10,14,18,31,42,53,68,72] and talus slopes [21,47,70]. It is listed as a species of exfoliating granitic domes and granitic gneiss in the Appalachians [102], including the Blue Ridge [5] and portions of North Carolina [60,79]. Wiser [103] classified pink corydalis as a rock outcrop obligate in the southern Appalachians. It also occurs in moss mats in southern Ontario granite barrens [15] and on Beaver Island in Lake Superior, Minnesota [39].

Pink corydalis is often found on recently disturbed sites including harvested forests [74], rights-of-way [57], roadsides [34,99], and areas cleared for cultivation [19,86]. Pink corydalis is most prominent in these areas within about 2 years of disturbance [14,19,99]. For information on occurrence of pink corydalis in burned areas see Plant response to fire.

Plant communities: Pink corydalis occurs during early postdisturbance years in a variety of coniferous and mixedwood boreal forest communities in Alaska [74,93,95] and Canada [35,65,83]. In the eastern United States it also occupies deciduous woodlands [5,8,47,60,68,70]. Many of the communities where pink corydalis occurs in the eastern United States are associated with rock outcrops or exposed bedrock. Pink corydalis is an indicator of the eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana)-pink corydalis cliff sparse vegetation community on the Pennsylvania and New Jersey border [68]. See Table 1 for a list of communities pink corydalis occurs in throughout its range. See the Fire Regime Table for a list of plant communities in which pink corydalis may occur and information on the fire regimes associated with those communities.

Table 1. Plant communities in which pink corydalis occurs
Plant community Location
Coniferous forests and woodlands
black spruce (Picea mariana) interior Alaska [50], near Hudson Bay [42], and in Northwest Territories [35]
white spruce (P. glauca) central Alaska [74,93]
lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) boundary of British Columbia and Yukon [65]
eastern white pine (P. strobus) northern Minnesota [86]
eastern redcedar Wisconsin [22]
red pine (P. resinosa) northwestern Vermont [25] and New Hampshire [13]
jack pine (P. banksia) eastern Manitoba [106]
Mixedwood forests and woodlands
red spruce (Picea rubens)-hardwood Queen's County, Nova Scotia [54]
pitch pine (Pinus rigida)-mixed hardwood Pennsylvania [68]
eastern redcedar-white ash (Fraxinus americana) Pennsylvania [68] and Connecticut [56]
hickory (Carya spp.)-eastern redcedar Pennsylvania [68]
paper birch (Betula papyrifera)-black spruce northern Saskatchewan [83]
pine-oak (Pinus spp.-Quercus spp.) West Virginia [53]
Deciduous forests and woodlands
oak savanna or woodland Wisconsin [8]
red oak-rock chestnut oak (Q. rubra-Q. prinus) talus slope woodland and equivalents New England [47,70], Pennsylvania [5,60,68], and the Appalachian Mountains [70]
red oak/Catawba rosebay-smooth azalea (Rhododendron catawbiense-R. arborescens) North Carolina [60]
aspen (Populus tremuloides) near Fairbanks, Alaska [95], and near Great Slave Lake in Alberta [44]
Shrublands
bear oak-sand cherry (Q. ilicifolia-Prunus pumila) northeastern United States [68]
Rocky barrens
exposed rock cliffs Wisconsin [22]
granite rock barrens eastern Ontario [15]
woolly lipfern-poverty oatgrass (Cheilanthes tomentosa-Danthonia spicata) North Carolina [61]
rock spikemoss-little bluestem-orangegrass-densetuft hairsedge (Selaginella rupestris-Schizachyrium scoparium-Hypericum gentianoides-Bulbostylis capillaris) Georgia [60]

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Corydalis sempervirens
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Photo by Arthur Haines, New England Wild Flower Society

Botanical description: This description includes characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., [32,33,34,59,72,81,84,99]). Pink corydalis is a native, biennial [14,15,31,34,72,81] or annual [14,15,34] forb that grows 8 to 51 inches (20-130 cm) tall [31,32,72,99]. Flowers have united petals with a single spur [31,59,72,81]. The leaves have 3 to 5 primary segments that are 7 to 20 mm long and 3 to 6 mm wide [31,72]. The fruit is an erect [31,34,72,84], elongated [59], dry, dehiscent [33] capsule from 0.8 to 2 inches (2-5 cm) long [31,72,81,84]. Each fruit contains about 25 seeds [33], about 1 to 1.5 mm wide [31,84,99]. The average weight of 1,000 pink corydalis seeds from a single plant in Minnesota was 0.460 grams [87].

Raunkiaer [73] life form:
Hemicryptophyte
Therophyte

SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Pink corydalis flowers from April [104] through September [37]. Flowering occurs earliest in the Appalachians [31,72,104] and latest in New England [84] and New York [37]. In Montana, pink corydalis flowers in July [45]. It fruits from August to September in the Adirondack Mountains [37]. In southern Ontario [15] and Michigan [99] reappearance of pink corydalis in autumn suggests that seeds from early blooming plants may germinate and mature in the same growing season. Pink corydalis may also overwinter as a rosette and flower in its second year [14].

REGENERATION PROCESSES:
Pink corydalis reproduces from seeds. Although the germination requirements of pink corydalis have not been documented [98] and germination without heat treatment has been observed [14], the occurrence of pink corydalis following fire (see Plant response to fire) suggests germination may be enhanced by heat exposure.

Pollination and breeding system: Pink corydalis may outcross but has perfect flowers [31,33,34,59,72,99] and is fully self-compatible. The fittest plants in greenhouse and field experiments were those that were outcrossed [14]. The flowers of pink corydalis are pollinated by wind, ants [35], and possibly other insects [14]. The flowers produce nectar and are visited by numerous insects including bumblebees and skipper butterflies [14].

Seed production: Pink corydalis flowers in either the 1st or 2nd year [14]. Capsules typically produce about 20 [14] to 25 [33] seeds each.

Seed dispersal: Gravity [2], wind, and ants [35] have been reported as the dispersal mechanisms of pink corydalis seed.

Seed banking: Pink corydalis was categorized as a species with an aboveground seed bank [44] and long-lived propagules [4]. It apparently banks its seed in the forest floor for decades or even centuries, until germination is triggered by disturbance, exposure, and/or soil warming [51]. The thick, hard seed coat may contribute to this potentially long period of viability [97].

Viable pink corydalis seeds have been found in soil from forests that have not burned in decades [3,27]. Although mature pink corydalis was absent from an 80-year-old mixed white spruce-jack pine stand in central Alberta, 22 pink corydalis germinants/m² emerged from organic soil samples taken from the site [27]. At the Boundary Waters Canoe Area in Minnesota, pink corydalis seed in soil samples from a jack pine-red pine stand that had not burned in 30 years had a germination rate of 35% [3].

Pink corydalis seeds have been found in the soil of mature and old-growth forests. A maximum density of 200 pink corydalis seeds/m² was found in samples from 4 old-growth deciduous forest sites in southwestern Quebec [43]. Pink corydalis seeds were found in soil samples taken from open lichen woodlands comprised of 42- to 180-year-old black spruce, white spruce, and/or jack pine stands in Northwest Territories [35], and in the organic layer of a soil sample from an approximately 50-year-old boreal mixedwood stand in northwestern Ontario [71].

Germination: As of this writing the germination requirements of pink corydalis seeds have not been documented [98]; however, circumstantial evidence suggests that germination is enhanced by heat [1,67] (see Fire adaptations).

Average germination rates of pink corydalis seed in greenhouse and field experiments were 36.8% for seed produced by selfing and 43.3% for outcrossed seed. These rates were observed without heat treatments [14].

Seedling establishment and plant growth: Little information was available (as of 2012) regarding seedling establishment and growth of pink corydalis. In boreal forest ecosystems of Canada, pink corydalis is categorized as a species that invades disturbed sites and grows rapidly [82].

Vegetative regeneration: There is no evidence that pink corydalis regenerates vegetatively.

SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
Pink corydalis is a pioneer species in secondary succession, particularly after fires. It is most abundant for a few years immediately after disturbances such as wildfire [51]. It develops best in full light and is characterized by rapid establishment and growth [82]. It is considered an early successional species of eastern white pine communities in northern Minnesota [86], white spruce upland boreal forests of interior Alaska [74,93], and paper birch-black spruce in northern Saskatchewan [83]. Pink corydalis is generally present for 3 to 6 years following fire [1,24,36]. See Plant response to fire for more detail regarding its postfire occurrence.

Although pink corydalis is commonly associated with openings and grows best in full sunlight [77], it does occur in partially shaded and shaded communities. It is associated with openings in the Blue Ridge [104], New England [84], and throughout Canada [81]; and it is considered shade intolerant in the Adirondack Mountains [37]. It occurs in several open woodland communities including red oak woodlands in North Carolina [60] and pitch pine mixed hardwood communities or hickory-eastern redcedar woodlands in Pennsylvania [68]. Pink corydalis has been reported to develop best in full sunlight in boreal ecosystems of Canada [82]. In Queens County Nova Scotia, pink corydalis grew taller in open quadrats within the boundary of a severe summer fire than in quadrats that were covered [54]. Pink corydalis sometimes occurs in shaded communities, such as partially shady and shady sites within dry to dry mesic oak savannas [8] and cedar glades in Wisconsin [22], shaded rock outcrops in Georgia [101], and chestnut oak forests with closed to partially open canopies in Pennsylvania [68].


FIRE EFFECTS AND MANAGEMENT

SPECIES: Corydalis sempervirens
FIRE EFFECTS:
Immediate fire effect on plant: Fire generally kills pink corydalis plants, but not its seed (see Fire adaptations). On a pine-oak forest on the George Washington National Forest in West Virginia, pink corydalis was rare on upper slopes of northeastern aspects of the Dunkle knob site before fire and was absent after fire [53].

Postfire regeneration strategy [88]:
Ground residual colonizer (on site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on- or off-site seed sources)

Fire adaptations and plant response to fire:

Fire adaptations: Pink corydalis establishes from soil-stored seed after fire. Pink corydalis germinated from buried seed after a spring wildfire in white spruce stands of interior Alaska [94]. It established from seed following fires in the subboreal spruce zone of east-central British Columbia [28], a black spruce-jack pine stand in northeastern Minnesota [36], and on sites in the Superior National Forest in Minnesota [2]. Pink corydalis germinated from buried seed after slash burning in east-central British Columbia [29]. It occurred in both uncovered and covered quadrats that were established immediately following a severe summer fire in red spruce-hardwood community in Queen's County, Nova Scotia [54]. Although germination and establishment during early postfire years is well documented (see Plant response to fire), greenhouse and field trials suggest a heat treatment is not required for germination [14]. Little else is known about germination requirements of pink corydalis seed [98]. See Seed banking for more detail on soil-stored pink corydalis seed.

Plant response to fire: Pink corydalis is characteristic of recently burned areas and is most abundant for a few years immediately after wildfire [51]. It occurred within a few months of a spring wildfire in white spruce stands of interior Alaska [94] and germinated within a few weeks of fire on another site in Alaska [97]. It was positively associated (r=0.23) with areas that were burned under prescription in the Kenai Mountains of Alaska [12]. Pink corydalis' occurrence on burned sites and absence from unburned sites was noted in the Superior National Forest in northeastern Minnesota [2], the subboreal spruce zone of east-central British Columbia [28], white spruce-aspen and white spruce-balsam fir stands in north-central Alberta [48], black spruce stands in interior Alaska [11,50], and aspen stands near Fairbanks, Alaska [95,96]. It has been categorized as a fire evader [4,25,76] and a rapid-growth pioneer [4].

Pink corydalis often occurs on burned sites despite being absent before the fire. For instance, pink corydalis occurred in a right-of-way 3 years after fire in the subarctic upland black spruce region in central Northwest Territories, although it was absent before the fire [62]. It was also absent before and present after prescribed burning in black oak sand savannas at Hoosier Prairie Nature Preserve [6,7]. Pink corydalis was present on recently burned jack pine sites in northern lower Michigan, but did not occur on sites that were clearcut and not burned [1].

Pink corydalis's postfire establishment is not related to fire severity or season. It occurred after low [11,80,100], moderate [11,80], and high-severity [44,90] fires and after spring [64], summer [64,66,85], and autumn [90] fires.

Pink corydalis is most common in the first 4 postfire years [30,36,44,50,58,78,91,100], with abundance typically peaking in the first [17,63] or second [65,94] postfire year. This trend has been observed in the boreal forest of northwestern Ontario [20], in the subboreal spruce zone of east-central British Columbia [28,29] (see Table 2 below), in boreal forests near the border of north-central British Columbia and south-central Yukon [65], on white spruce slopes of interior Alaska [94,105], in aspen stands near Fairbanks, Alaska [96], and in jack pine stands in Saskatchewan [17] and northern lower Michigan [1]. Pink corydalis was common in aspen-dominated boreal forest 2 years after wildfire, but absent from similar stands 34 years after wildfire [38].

Table 2. Cover and frequency of pink corydalis during the first 3 years after slashburning at 5 sites in east-central British Columbia [28,29]
Site
1st postfire year
2nd postfire year
3rd postfire year
Frequency (%)
Cover
(%)
Frequency (%)
Cover
(%)
Frequency (%)
Cover
(%)
Francis Lake 83 2.75 67 1.83 17 0.02
Genevieve Lake 75 0.5 100 1.28 50 0.05
Brink 100 2.37 33 0.17 67 0.07
Indianpoint 100 2.17 100 1.7 100 0.7
Windy Point 67 0.4 17 0.08 0 0

Pink corydalis was a significant indicator of burned-unsalvaged forest (Kurulock 2004 cited by [49]), and postfire salvage logging may reduce its abundance in some cases. In aspen-dominated, boreal mixedwood forest in east-central Alberta, pink corydalis cover was significantly (P<0.01) greater 2 years after wildfire in unlogged stands (0.52%) than in salvage-logged stands (0.03%) [38]. In contrast, 2 years following a 250,000-ha, mixed-severity, May wildfire in northeastern Alberta, pink corydalis occurred in both patch-retention and single-tree retention salvage logging treatments in boreal mixedwood forest, but not in unsalvaged controls. However, it did occur in burned, unsalvaged jack pine and jack pine-black spruce forest types within the burned area [49].

FUELS AND FIRE REGIMES:
Pink corydalis contributes little to fuel loads and is a component of communities with varied fire regimes.

Fire regimes: Because pink corydalis occurs in a variety of communities, it is subject to many different fire regimes ranging from surface fires with 4-year return intervals in Great Lakes pine barrens, to infrequent, stand-replacement fires in communities such as southern Appalachian high-elevation forest or northern hardwood-spruce. For information on fire regimes of communities were pink corydalis occurs, see the Fire Regime Table and FEIS reviews of dominant species such as black spruce, white spruce, jack pine, eastern redcedar, and red oak.

FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Throughout much of its range, pink corydalis occurs only on recently burned sites [6,62]. Since its abundance declines 3 to 6 years after fire [1] (see Plant response to fire), it is unlikely to occur in areas where fires are excluded. Pink corydalis is likely to establish after fire in areas where it formerly occurred, if viable seed is still present in the soil. Recently burned areas can be monitored to determine whether the potential for viable populations remains.


MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Corydalis sempervirens
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
None

OTHER STATUS:
Information on state- and province-level protection status of plants in the United States and Canada is available at NatureServe.

IMPORTANCE TO WILDLIFE AND LIVESTOCK:
There was no information available (as of 2012) on the importance of pink corydalis to wildlife or livestock.

Palatability and nutritional value: Pink corydalis was 1 of 4 species with high nutrient content due to rapid uptake of soil nutrients after a spring wildfire in white spruce stands of interior Alaska [94].

Cover value: No information is available on this topic.

VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Pink corydalis has potential for use in rehabilitation of disturbed sites. It grows well on disturbed sites and provides erosion protection, yet it is not competitive, thus allowing natural succession to proceed. Germination characteristics and requirements have not been tested in this species [75].

OTHER USES:
No information is available on this topic.

OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Several articles discuss the resistance of pink corydalis to glyphosate (e.g., [69]).


APPENDIX: FIRE REGIME TABLE

SPECIES: Corydalis sempervirens
The following table provides fire regime information that may be relevant to pink corydalis habitats. Follow the links in the table to documents that provide more detailed information on these fire regimes.

Fire regime information on vegetation communities in which pink corydalis may occur. This information is taken from the LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models [41], which were developed by local experts using available literature, local data, and/or expert opinion. This table summarizes fire regime characteristics for each plant community listed. The PDF file linked from each plant community name describes the model and synthesizes the knowledge available on vegetation composition, structure, and dynamics in that community. Cells are blank where information is not available in the Rapid Assessment Vegetation Model.
Northern and Central Rockies Great Lakes Northeast Southern Appalachians
Northern and Central Rockies
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Northern and Central Rockies Forested
Douglas-fir (warm mesic interior) Replacement 28% 170 80 400
Mixed 72% 65 50 250
Grand fir-Douglas-fir-western larch mix Replacement 29% 150 100 200
Mixed 71% 60 3 75
Grand fir-lodgepole pine-western larch-Douglas-fir Replacement 31% 220 50 250
Mixed 69% 100 35 150
Lodgepole pine, lower subalpine Replacement 73% 170 50 200
Mixed 27% 450 40 500
Lodgepole pine, persistent Replacement 89% 450 300 600
Mixed 11% >1,000    
Western larch-lodgepole pine-Douglas-fir Replacement 33% 200 50 250
Mixed 67% 100 20 140
Whitebark pine-lodgepole pine (upper subalpine, Northern and Central Rockies) Replacement 38% 360    
Mixed 62% 225    
Great Lakes
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Great Lakes Woodland
Great Lakes pine barrens Replacement 8% 41 10 80
Mixed 9% 36 10 80
Surface or low 83% 4 1 20
Jack pine-open lands (frequent fire-return interval) Replacement 83% 26 10 100
Mixed 17% 125 10  
Northern oak savanna Replacement 4% 110 50 500
Mixed 9% 50 15 150
Surface or low 87% 5 1 20
Great Lakes Forested
Eastern white pine-eastern hemlock Replacement 54% 370    
Mixed 12% >1,000    
Surface or low 34% 588    
Great Lakes pine forest, eastern white pine-eastern hemlock (frequent fire) Replacement 52% 260    
Mixed 12% >1,000    
Surface or low 35% 385    
Great Lakes pine forest, jack pine Replacement 67% 50    
Mixed 23% 143    
Surface or low 10% 333    
Great Lakes spruce-fir Replacement 100% 85 50 200
Minnesota spruce-fir (adjacent to Lake Superior and Drift and Lake Plain) Replacement 21% 300    
Surface or low 79% 80    
Northern hardwood-eastern hemlock forest (Great Lakes) Replacement 99% >1,000    
Oak-hickory Replacement 13% 66 1  
Mixed 11% 77 5  
Surface or low 76% 11 2 25
Pine-oak Replacement 19% 357    
Surface or low 81% 85    
Red pine-eastern white pine (frequent fire) Replacement 38% 56    
Mixed 36% 60    
Surface or low 26% 84    
Red pine-eastern white pine (less frequent fire) Replacement 30% 166    
Mixed 47% 105    
Surface or low 23% 220    
Northeast
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Northeast Woodland
Oak-pine (eastern dry-xeric) Replacement 4% 185    
Mixed 7% 110    
Surface or low 90% 8    
Pine barrens Replacement 10% 78    
Mixed 25% 32    
Surface or low 65% 12    
Rocky outcrop pine (Northeast) Replacement 16% 128    
Mixed 32% 65    
Surface or low 52% 40    
Northeast Forested
Appalachian oak forest (dry-mesic) Replacement 2% 625 500 >1,000
Mixed 6% 250 200 500
Surface or low 92% 15 7 26
Eastern white pine-northern hardwood Replacement 72% 475    
Surface or low 28% >1,000    
Northern hardwoods-spruce Replacement 100% >1,000 400 >1,000
Northeast spruce-fir forest Replacement 100% 265 150 300
Southeastern red spruce-Fraser fir Replacement 100% 500 300 >1,000
Southern Appalachians
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Southern Appalachians Grassland
Bluestem-oak barrens Replacement 46% 15    
Mixed 10% 69    
Surface or low 44% 16    
Southern Appalachians Woodland
Table Mountain pine-pitch pine Replacement 5% 100    
Mixed 3% 160    
Surface or low 92% 5    
Southern Appalachians Forested
Appalachian oak forest (dry-mesic) Replacement 6% 220    
Mixed 15% 90    
Surface or low 79% 17    
Appalachian oak-hickory-pine Replacement 3% 180 30 500
Mixed 8% 65 15 150
Surface or low 89% 6 3 10
Eastern hemlock-eastern white pine-hardwood Replacement 17% >1,000 500 >1,000
Surface or low 83% 210 100 >1,000
Eastern white pine-northern hardwood Replacement 72% 475    
Surface or low 28% >1,000    
Oak (eastern dry-xeric) Replacement 6% 128 50 100
Mixed 16% 50 20 30
Surface or low 78% 10 1 10
Southern Appalachian high-elevation forest Replacement 59% 525    
Mixed 41% 770    
*Fire Severities—
Replacement: Any fire that causes greater than 75% top removal of a vegetation-fuel type, resulting in general replacement of existing vegetation; may or may not cause a lethal effect on the plants.
Mixed: Any fire burning more than 5% of an area that does not qualify as a replacement, surface, or low-severity fire; includes mosaic and other fires that are intermediate in effects.
Surface or low: Any fire that causes less than 25% upper layer replacement and/or removal in a vegetation-fuel class but burns 5% or more of the area [9,40].

REFERENCES:


1. Abrams, Marc D.; Dickmann, Donald I. 1982. Early revegetation of clear-cut and burned jack pine sites in northern Lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 60: 946-954. [7238]
2. Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1960. Some effects of fire on reproduction and growth of vegetation in northeastern Minnesota. Ecology. 41(3): 431-445. [207]
3. Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1979. Buried seed in the forest floor of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 271. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, College of Forestry. 4 p. [3459]
4. Archibold, O. W. 1989. Seed banks and vegetation processes in coniferous forests. In: Leck, Mary Allessio; Parker, V. Thomas; Simpson, Robert L., eds. Ecology of soil seed banks. San Diego, CA: Academic Press: 107-122. [60861]
5. Association for Biodiversity Information. 2001. International classification of ecological communities: terrestrial vegetation of the United States, Chattahoochee and Oconee National Forests final report--Report from Biological Conservation Datasystem. Arlington, VA: Association for Biodiversity Information. 301 p. Available online: http://www.natureserve.org/library/chattaocon.pdf [2011, September 7]. [79608]
6. Bacone, John A.; Post, Thomas W. 1986. Effects of prescribed burning on woody and herbaceous vegetation in black oak sand savannas at Hoosier Prairie Nature Preserve, Lake Co., Indiana. In: Koonce, Andrea L., ed. Prescribed burning in the Midwest: state-of-the-art: Proceedings of a symposium; 1986 March 3-6; Stevens Point, WI. Stevens Point, WI: University of Wisconsin, College of Natural Resources, Fire Science Center: 86-90. [16273]
7. Bacone, John A.; Post, Thomas W. 1987. Effects of prescribed burning on woody and herbaceous vegetation in black oak sand savannas at Hoosier Prairie Nature Preserve, Lake Co., Indiana. Proceedings, Indiana Academy of Science. 96: 205-208. [15588]
8. Bader, Brian J. 2001. Developing a species list for oak savanna/oak woodland restoration at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum. Ecological Restoration. 19(4): 242-250. [82468]
9. Barrett, S.; Havlina, D.; Jones, J.; Hann, W.; Frame, C.; Hamilton, D.; Schon, K.; Demeo, T.; Hutter, L.; Menakis, J. 2010. Interagency Fire Regime Condition Class Guidebook. Version 3.0, [Online]. In: Interagency Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior; The Nature Conservancy (Producers). Available: http://www.frcc.gov/. [85876]
10. Bergeron, Yves; Bouchard, Andre. 1983. Use of ecological groups in analysis and classification of plant communities in a section of western Quebec. Vegetatio. 56(1): 45-63. [83875]
11. Bernhardt, Emily L.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III. 2011. Fire severity mediates climate-driven shifts in understory community composition of black spruce stands of interior Alaska. Journal of Vegetation Science. 22(1): 32-44. [83112]
12. Boucher, Tina V. 2003. Vegetation response to prescribed fire in the Kenai Mountains, Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-554. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 59 p. [48392]
13. Bradley, Adam F.; Crow, Garrett E. 2010. The flora and vegetation of Timber Island, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, U.S.A. Rhodora. 112(950): 156-190. [80508]
14. Cartier, Julie. 1985. Short-term advantages of outcrossing in the autogamous wildflower, Corydalis sempervirens. Montreal, QC: McGill University. 118 p. Dissertation. [86332]
15. Catling, Paul M.; Brownell, Vivian R. 1999. The flora and ecology of southern Ontario granite barrens. In: Anderson, Roger C.; Fralish, James S.; Baskin, Jerry M., eds. Savannas, barrens, and rock outcrop plant communities of North America. New York: Cambridge University Press: 392-405. [61086]
16. Chrosciewicz, Z. 1983. Jack pine regeneration following postcut burning and seeding in central Saskatchewan. Information Report NOR-X-253. Edmonton, AB: Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Northern Forest Research Centre. 11 p. [16916]
17. Chrosciewicz, Z. 1988. Forest regeneration on burned, planted, and seeded clear-cuts in central Saskatchewan. Information Report NOR-X-293. Edmonton, AB: Canadian Forestry Service, Northern Forestry Centre. 16 p. [16697]
18. Cochrane, Theodore S. 1993. Status and distribution of Talinum rugospermum Holz. (Portulaceaceae). Natural Areas Journal. 13(1): 33-41. [20159]
19. Conn, Jeffery S.; Delapp, John A. 1983. Weed species shifts with increasing field age in Alaska. Weed Science. 31(4): 520-524. [83892]
20. Croskery, P. R.; Lee, P. F. 1981. Preliminary investigations of regeneration patterns following wildfire in the boreal forest of northwestern Ontario. Alces. 17: 229-256. [7888]
21. Crow, Garrett E.; Ritter, Nur P.; McCauley, Kathleen M.; Padgett, Donald J. 1994. Botanical reconnaissance of Mountain Pond Research Natural Area. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-187. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. [24134]
22. Curtis, John T. 1959. Savanna. In: The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press: 325-351. [60528]
23. Cushwa, Charles T.; Martin, Robert E.; Miller, Robert L. 1968. The effects of fire on seed germination. Journal of Range Management. 21: 250-254. [11494]
24. Dyrness, C. T.; Viereck, L. A.; Van Cleve, K. 1986. Fire in taiga communities of interior Alaska. In: Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III; Flanagan, P. W.; Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T., eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaskan taiga. A synthesis of structure and function. Vol. 57. New York: Springer-Verlag: 74-86. [3881]
25. Engstrom, F. Brett. 1988. Fire ecology in six red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) populations in northwestern Vermont. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont. 62 p. Thesis. [60792]
26. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2013. Flora of North America north of Mexico, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1. [36990]
27. Fyles, James W. 1989. Seed bank populations in upland coniferous forests in central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67: 274-278. [6388]
28. Hamilton, Evelyn H. 2006. Fire effects and post-burn vegetation development in the sub-boreal spruce zone: Mackenzie (Windy Point) site. Technical Report 033. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests and Range, Forest Science Program. 19 p. Available online: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Tr/Tr033.pdf [2008, October 1]. [64177]
29. Hamilton, Evelyn H. 2007. Post-fire vegetation development and fire effects in the SBS zone: Haggen Creek, Francis Lake, Genevieve Lake, Brink, and Indianpoint sites. Technical Report 041. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests and Range, Forest Science Program. 74 p. [71203]
30. Hanson, William A. 1979. Preliminary results of the Bear Creek fire effects studies. Proposed open file report. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage District Office. 83 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; FEIS files. [6400]
31. Hill, L. Michael. 1992. A floristic and chromosomal study of the Fumariaceae in Virginia. Castanea. 57(4): 273-281. [86331]
32. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 597 p. [1166]
33. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
34. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
35. Johnson, E. A. 1975. Buried seed populations in the subarctic forest east of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories. Canadian Journal of Botany. 53: 2933-2941. [6466]
36. Krefting, Laurits W.; Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1974. Small mammals and vegetation changes after fire in a mixed conifer-hardwood forest. Ecology. 55(6): 1391-1398. [9874]
37. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
38. Kurulok, Stephanie E.; Macdonald, S. Ellen. 2007. Impacts of postfire salvage logging on understory plant communities of the boreal mixedwood forest 2 and 34 years after disturbance. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 37(12): 2637-2651. [70545]
39. Lakela, Olga. 1948. Ferns and flowering plants of Beaver Island, Lake Superior, Minnesota. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 75(3): 265-271. [62785]
40. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2005. Reference condition modeling manual (Version 2.1), [Online]. In: LANDFIRE. Cooperative Agreement 04-CA-11132543-189. Boulder, CO: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior (Producers). 72 p. Available: http://www.landfire.gov/downloadfile.php?file=RA_Modeling_Manual_v2_1.pdf [2007, May 24]. [66741]
41. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2007. Rapid assessment reference condition models, [Online]. In: LANDFIRE. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab; U.S. Geological Survey; The Nature Conservancy (Producers). Available: http://www.landfire.gov/models_EW.php [2008, April 18] [66533]
42. Larsen, James A. 1980. Boreal communities and ecosystems: the broad view. In: Larsen, James A., ed. The boreal ecosystem. New York: Academic Press: 128-236. [64915]
43. Leckie, Sara; Vellend, Mark; Bell, Graham; Waterway, Marcia J.; Lechowicz, Martin J. 2000. The seed bank in an old-growth, temperate deciduous forest. Canadian Journal of Botany. 78(2): 181-192. [36152]
44. Lee, Philip. 2004. The impact of burn intensity from wildfires on seed and vegetative banks, and emergent understory in aspen-dominated boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Botany. 82(10): 1468-1480. [51462]
45. Lesica, Peter. 1984. Rare vascular plants of Glacier National Park, Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, Department of Botany. 27 p. [12049]
46. Lichvar, Robert W.; Kartesz, John T. 2009. North American Digital Flora: National wetland plant list, version 2.4.0, [Online]. Hanover, NH: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory; Chapel Hill, NC: The Biota of North America Program (Producers). Available: https://rsgis.crrel.usace.army.mil/apex/f?p=703:2:497900423993445::NO::: [2012, April 4]. [84896]
47. Lubinski, Sara; Hop, Kevin; Gawler, Susan. 2003. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Acadia National Park, Maine. Final report. [Revised edition]. La Crosse, WI: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Studies Center. 50 p. [+ appendices]. Available online: http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/acad/acadrpt.pdf [2012, January 12]. [79619]
48. Lypowy, Jaime Nicole. 2009. The effect of forest fire on understory plant community development: a comparison of pre- and post-fire vegetation in the boreal mixedwood forest. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 168 p. Thesis. [86335]
49. Macdonald, S. Ellen. 2007. Effects of partial post-fire salvage harvesting on vegetation communities in the boreal mixedwood forest region of northeastern Alberta, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management. 239(1-3): 21-31. [65505]
50. Mack, Michelle C.; Treseder, Kathleen K.; Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Vogel, Jason G.; Randerson, James T.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III. 2008. Recovery of aboveground plant biomass and productivity after fire in mesic and dry black spruce forest of interior Alaska. Ecosystems. 11(2): 209-225. [69973]
51. MacKinnon, Andy; Pojar, Jim; Coupe, Ray, eds. 1992. Plants of Northern British Columbia. Edmonton, AB: Lone Pine Publishing. 351 p. [86321]
52. Magee, Dennis W.; Ahles, Harry E. 2007. Flora of the Northeast: A manual of the vascular flora of New England and adjacent New York. 2nd ed. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. 1214 p. [74293]
53. Marsh, Michael A. 2005. Floristic dynamics of Appalachian pine-oak forests over a prescribed fire chronosequence. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University. 278 p. Thesis. [79749]
54. Martin, J. Lynton. 1955. Observations on the origin and early development of a plant community following a forest fire. The Forestry Chronicle. 31(2): 154-161. [11363]
55. Maycock, P. F.; Curtis, J. T. 1960. The phytosociology of boreal conifer-hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Ecological Monographs. 30(1): 1-36. [62820]
56. McCauley, Kathleen M.; Crow, Garrett E. 2005. The vegetation and flora of Platt Park, Southbury, Connecticut. Rhodora. 107(930): 186-230. [65341]
57. McGee, Ann; Feller, M. C. 1993. Seed banks of forested and disturbed soils in southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany. 71: 1574-1583. [25756]
58. Miller, Donald Ray. 1976. Wildfire and caribou on the taiga ecosystem of northcentral Canada. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 129 p. Dissertation. [40270]
59. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. [Revised edition]. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
60. NatureServe. 2004. International ecological classification standard: terrestrial ecology classifications, Nantahala-Pisgah National Forests final report. Arlington, VA: NatureServe. 195 p. Available online: http://www.natureserve.org/library/nantPisgNF.pdf [2011, September 7]. [79631]
61. Newell, Claire L.; Peet, Robert K. 1998. Vegetation of Linville Gorge Wilderness, North Carolina. Castanea. 63(3): 275-322. [71985]
62. Nowak, Stephanie; Kershaw, G. Peter; Kershaw, Linda J. 2002. Plant diversity and cover after wildfire on anthropogenically disturbed and undisturbed sites in subarctic upland Picea mariana forest. Arctic. 55(3): 269-280. [46067]
63. Ohmann, Lewis F.; Grigal, David F. 1977. Some individual plant biomass values from northeastern Minnesota. Res. Note NC-227. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 2 p. [8151]
64. Ohmann, Lewis F.; Grigal, David F. 1981. Contrasting vegetation responses following two forest fires in northeastern Minnesota. The American Midland Naturalist. 106(1): 54-64. [8285]
65. Oswald, E. T.; Brown, B. N. 1990. Vegetation establishment during 5 years following wildfire in northern British Columbia and southern Yukon Territory. Information Report BC-X-320. Victoria, BC: Forestry Canada, Pacific and Yukon Region, Pacific Forestry Centre. 46 p. [16934]
66. Outcalt, Kenneth Wayne; White, Edwin H. 1981. Phytosociological changes in understory vegetation following timber harvest in northern Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 11(1): 175-183. [16301]
67. Parminter, John. 1983. Fire-ecological relationships for the biogeoclimatic zones and subzones of the Fort Nelson Timber Supply Area: summary report. In: Northern Fire Ecology Project: Fort Nelson Timber Supply Area. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 53 p. [9203]
68. Perles, Stephanie J.; Podniesinski, Gregory S.; Eastman, E.; Sneddon, Lesley A.; Gawler, Sue C. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area: Volume 2 of 2--Appendix G, [Online]. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Northeast Region, Natural Resource Stewardship and Science (Producer). 400 p. Available: http://www.nps.gov/nero/science/FINAL/DEWA_veg_map/DEWA_veg_map.htm [2010, March 3]. [79090]
69. Pline-Srnic, Wendy. 2006. Physiological mechanisms of glyphosate resistance. Weed Technology. 20(2): 290-300. [86329]
70. Podniesinski, Gregory S.; Perles, Stephanie J.; Milinor, William A.; Sneddon, Lesley A. 2005. Vegetation classification and mapping of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2005/012. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Northeast Region. 158 p. [79637]
71. Qi, Meiqin; Scarratt, John B. 1998. Effect of harvesting method on seed bank dynamics in a boreal mixedwood forest in northwestern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany. 76(5): 872-883. [29373]
72. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
73. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
74. Rees, Daniel C.; Juday, Glenn Patrick. 2002. Plant species diversity on logged versus burned sites in central Alaska. Forest Ecology and Management. 155(1-3): 291-302. [40745]
75. Rosen, David J.; Jones, Stanley D.; Rettig, Virginia E. 2003. A floristic survey of Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. SIDA. 20(3): 1189-1216. [7075]
76. Rowe, J. S. 1983. Concepts of fire effects on plant individuals and species. In: Wein, Ross W.; MacLean, David A., eds. The role of fire in northern circumpolar ecosystems. SCOPE 18. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 135-154. [2038]
77. Rowe, J. S.; Scotter, G. W. 1973. Fire in the boreal forest. Quaternary Research. 3(3): 444-464. [72]
78. Rowe, J. Stan; Spittlehouse, David; Johnson, Edward; Jasieniuk, Marie. 1975. Fire studies in the upper Mackenzie Valley and adjacent Precambrian uplands. ALUR Rep. 74-75-61. Ottawa, ON: Indian and Northern Affairs. 128 p. [69483]
79. Schafale, Michael P.; Weakley, Alan S. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina: 3rd approximation. Raleigh, NC: Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, North Carolina Natural Heritage Program. 325 p. Available online: http://www.ncnhp.org/Images/Other%20Publications/class.pdf [2011, August 29]. [41937]
80. Scholefield, Scott R. 2007. Regeneration of lodgepole pine after wildfire in mountain pine beetle-killed stands in north-central British Columbia. Prince George, BC: University of Northern British Columbia. 101 p. Thesis. [86334]
81. Scoggan, H. J. 1978. The flora of Canada. Part 3: Dicotyledoneae (Saururaceae to Violaceae). National Museum of Natural Sciences: Publications in Botany, No. 7(3). Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. 1115 p. [75493]
82. Scotter, George W. 1972. Fire as an ecological factor in boreal forest ecosystems of Canada. In: Fire in the environment: Symposium proceedings; 1972 May 1-5; Denver, CO. FS-276. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 15-24. [13404]
83. Scotter, George Wilby. 1964. Effects of forest fires on the winter range of barren-ground caribou in northern Saskatchewan. Wildlife Management Bulletin. Series 1. No. 18. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Wildlife Service, National Parks Branch, Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources. 111 p. [28989]
84. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2nd ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
85. Skutch, Alexander F. 1929. Early stages of plant succession following forest fires. Ecology. 10(2): 177-190. [21349]
86. Stallard, Harvey. 1929. Secondary succession in the climax forest formations of northern Minnesota. Ecology. 10(4): 476-547. [3808]
87. Stevens, O. A. 1957. Weights of seeds and numbers per plant. Weeds. 5: 46-55. [44071]
88. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in northern Rocky Mountain forests. FEIS workshop: Postfire regeneration. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]
89. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books. 1079 p. [23213]
90. Torrey, Raymond H. 1932. Marchantia polymorpha after forest fires. Torreyana. 32: 9-10. [14072]
91. Treter, U. 1995. Fire-induced succession of lichen-spruce woodland in central Labrador-Ungava, Canada. Phytocoenologia. 25(2): 161-183. [66303]
92. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2013. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]
93. Van Cleve, K.; Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T. 1996. State factor control of soils and forest succession along the Tanana River in interior Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 28(3): 388-400. [65672]
94. Van Cleve, K.; Viereck, L.A.; Dyrness, C.T. 1988. Vegetation productivity and soil fertility in post-fire secondary succession in Interior Alaska. In: Slaughter, Charles W.; Gasbarro, Tony. Proceedings of the Alaska forest soil productivity workshop; 1987 April 28-30; Anchorage, AK. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-219. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Station; Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management: 101-102. [5582]
95. Viereck, L. A.; Foote, M. J. 1979. Biotic factors: Biomass. In: Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T., tech. eds. Ecological effects of the Wickersham Dome fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-90. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 34-39. [85962]
96. Viereck, L. A.; Foote, M. J. 1979. Biotic factors: Vegetation analysis. In: Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T., tech. eds. Ecological effects of the Wickersham Dome fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-90. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 25-34. [85961]
97. Viereck, Leslie A. 1973. Wildfire in the taiga of Alaska. Quaternary Research. 3: 465-495. [7247]
98. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Effects of fire in Alaska and adjacent Canada--a literature review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6; BLM/AK/TR-80/06. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office. 124 p. [28862]
99. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bulletin 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
100. Wang, G. Geoff; Kemball, Kevin J. 2005. Effects of fire severity on early development of understory vegetation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35(2): 254-262. [60329]
101. Wharton, Charles H. 1978. The natural environments of Georgia. Atlanta, GA: Georgia Department of Natural Resources. 227 p. [24582]
102. White, Rickie D., Jr. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Carl Sandberg Home National Historic Site. NatureServe Technical Report: Prepared for the National Park Service under Cooperative Agreement H 5028 01 0435. Durham, NC: NatureServe. 152 p. Available online: http://www.natureserve.org/library/sandburgreport.pdf [2011, February 18]. [79627]
103. Wiser, Susan Kathleen. 1993. Vegetation of high-elevation rock outcrops of the southern Appalachians: composition, environmental relationships, and biogeography of communities and rare species. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina. 290 p. Dissertation. [86328]
104. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
105. Yarie, J.; Viereck, L.; Van Cleve, K.; Dryness, C. T. 1988. The chronosequence as an aid to understanding the long-term consequences of management activities. In: Dyck, W. J.; Mees, C. A., eds. Research strategies for long-term productivity: Proceedings, IEA/BE A3 workshop; 1988 August; Seattle, WA. IEA/BE A3 Report No. 8. Rotorua, New Zealand: Forest Research Institute: 25-38. [17745]
106. Zoladeski, C. A.; Delorme, R. J.; Wickware, G. M.; Corns, I. G. W.; Allan, D. T. 1998. Forest ecosystem toposequences in Manitoba. Special Report 12. Edmonton, AB: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre. 63 p. [35768]

FEIS Home Page