Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Corydalis aurea


Introductory

SPECIES: Corydalis aurea
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1993. Corydalis aurea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : CORAUR SYNONYMS : Capnoides aureum (Willd.) Kuntze [13] SCS PLANT CODE : COAU2 COMMON NAMES : golden corydalis golden smoke TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of golden corydalis is Corydalis aurea Willd. [9,11,20]. The following subspecies are recognized [12,16,27]: C. aurea ssp. aurea --racemes generally surpassed by leaves C. aurea ssp. occidentalis (Engelm.) Ownbey --racemes generally surpassing leaves Some authors, however, make this distiction at the varietal level [9,11]. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : Golden corydalis is classified as threatened in New York. Its state rank there is listed as S1 (critically imperiled in New York State because of extreme rarity or is extremely vulnerable to extirpation from the New York State due to biological factors [29].


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Corydalis aurea
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Golden corydalis is distributed from Quebec west to Alaska and south (from east of the Cascade Mountains) to California [14,16,20,28]. In the central United States it is found to Texas and Missouri. Golden corydalis also occurs through the New England states to West Virginia [9,11,12]. Corydalis aurea ssp. occidentalis has more western and southern distribution than C. aurea spp. aurea [14,11,12]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES32 Texas savanna FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES36 Mountain grasslands FRES37 Mountain meadows FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie FRES40 Desert grasslands FRES44 Alpine STATES : AK AZ CA CO ID IL IN IA KS MI MN MO MT NE NV NH NM NY ND OH OK OR PA SD TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY AB BC MB NT ON PQ SK YT MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K016 Eastern ponderosa forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest K021 Southwestern spruce - fir forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub K038 Great Basin sagebrush K039 Blackbrush K040 Saltbush - greasewood K041 Creosotebush K053 Grama - galleta steppe K054 Grama - tobosa prairie K055 Sagebrush steppe K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe K057 Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe K063 Foothills prairie K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass K065 Grama - buffalograss K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass K070 Sandsage - bluestem prairie K074 Bluestem prairie K081 Oak savanna SAF COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Corydalis aurea
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Golden corydalis produces several alkaloids and may be poisonous to sheep and cattle [5,16,17]. PALATABILITY : Golden corydalis is unpalatable to horses, sheep, and cattle [6]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Golden corydalis is poor in energy and protein value [6]. COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Corydalis aurea
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Golden corydalis is a winter annual or biennial forb. It is highly branched with stems usually 4 to 20 inches (10-50 cm) tall, but becoming prostrate with age [11,12,20]. Leaves are one to four times pinnately compound [12,20,28]. Flowers are borne in racemes. The fruits are capsules with seeds about 0.08 inches (0.2 cm) in diameter [11,20]. Golden corydalis has a slender taproot [5,28]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte Therophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Golden corydalis reproduces by long-lived, wind-dispersed seed [2,4,6,15]. Seeds may lie dormant for over 160 years [15]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Golden corydalis grows on open prairies and hillsides, along streams and rocky banks or shores, and in open woodlands [9,11,12,13,26]. It is also often found on disturbed sites such as along roads, in clearings, and around gravel or sand pits [7,22,26,27]. It grows well on moderate to steep slopes [6]. Golden corydalis grows in moist to dry, well-drained rocky, gravelly, or sandy soil [6,14]. Lower and upper elevational limits of golden corydalis in a few western states are as follows: Feet Meters Arizona 1,500-9,500 454-2,878 [16] California 5,000-7,500 1,515-2,272 [20] Colorado 5,000-10,500 1,515-3,181 [13] Utah 2,640-11,071 800-3,355 [28] SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Initial Community Species Golden corydalis usually appears in communities following disturbance and dies out within a few years if conditions are stable [26]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Depending on latitude, golden corydalis generally flowers from May to June or July [9,11,12,14,20]. In Arizona, however, it blooms from February to June [16].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Corydalis aurea
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Golden corydalis reproduces from long-lived seeds. It may also invade recently burned areas by wind-dispersed seed [2]. Germination of seeds of other corydalis species (C. sempervirens) is stimulated by fire [25]. Anderson [1] stated that golden corydalis regenerates vegetatively following fire, but no specific information was given. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community) Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Corydalis aurea
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Golden corydalis is probably always killed by fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Golden corydalis quickly invades recently burned areas by seed. However, its survival in the postfire community appears to be very short lived. Golden corydalis invaded recently burned areas by wind-dispersed seed after stand-replacing summer fire in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands in Colorado. It was not present in adjacent unburned stands, but in burned areas it had a frequency of 27.9 percent in the first postfire year. By the second postfire year, frequency had diminished to 9.7 percent, and it was thereafter eliminated from the postfire community [2]. Golden corydalis was also present 1 year after moderate-severity fires in lodgepole stands in Yellowstone National Park. Information for response after postfire year 1, however, was not given [1]. Golden corydalis bloomed and set seed in the first growing season following severe fire in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)/ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus) habitats in western Montana. However, it had almost completely disappeared from the postfire community by the second growing season. The origin of the postfire seedlings was unknown, but it may have been soil-stored seed [4]. Golden corydalis flowered the August following a May fire in black spruce (Picea mariana)-white spruce (P. glauca) stands in Alaska [15]. No additional information was given. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Corydalis aurea
REFERENCES : 1. Anderson, Jay E.; Romme, William H. 1991. Initial floristics in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests following the 1988 Yellowstone fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 1(2): 119-124. [16008] 2. Barth, Richard C. 1970. Revegetation after a subalpine wildfire. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 142 p. Thesis. [12458] 3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 4. Crane, M. F.; Habeck, James R.; Fischer, William C. 1983. Early postfire revegetation in a western Montana Douglas-fir forest. Res. Pap. INT-319. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 29 p. plus chart. [710] 5. Dayton, William A. 1960. Notes on western range forbs: Equisetaceae through Fumariaceae. Agric. Handb. 161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 254 p. [767] 6. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 7. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129] 8. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 9. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 10. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 11. Gleason, H. A.; Cronquist, A. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. 810 p. [7065] 12. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 13. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 14. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 597 p. [1166] 15. Juday, Glenn P. 1985. The Rosie Creek Fire. Agroborealis. 17(1): 11-20. [19881] 16. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 17. Kingsbury, John M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 626 p. [122] 18. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 19. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798] 20. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 21. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 22. Rosie, Rhonda. 1991. Range extensions and rare vascular plants from southeastern Yukon Territory. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(3): 315-324. [18205] 23. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 24. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 25. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Effects of fire in Alaska and adjacent Canada--a literature review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Mangement, Alaska State Office. 124 p. [7075] 26. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472] 27. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706] 28. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 29. Young, Stephen M., editor. 1992. New York state rare plant status list. August 1992. Latham, NY: Department of Environmental Conservation, Divisison of Lands and Forests, Natural Heritage Program. 79 p. [22563]


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