SPECIES: Clintonia uniflora

Choose from the following categories of information:


Clintonia uniflora: INTRODUCTORY

INTRODUCTORY

SPECIES: Clintonia uniflora

 

  Brother Alfred Brousseau @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Meyer, Rachelle S. 2005. Clintonia uniflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

FEIS ABBREVIATION:
CLIUNI

SYNONYMS:
None

NRCS PLANT CODE [116]:
CLUN2

COMMON NAMES:
queencup beadlily
queen's cup
beadlily
blue bead
blue-bead lily
one-flowered clintonia
single-flowered clintonia
clintonia
bride's bonnet

TAXONOMY:
Clintonia uniflora is the scientific name of the queencup beadlily (Menzies ex J.A. & J.H. Schultes) Kunth (Liliaceae) [30,56,57,60,92].

LIFE FORM:
Forb

FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
None

OTHER STATUS:
None

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Clintonia uniflora
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
Clintonia uniflora occurs along the West Coast from southeastern Alaska into California. Its distribution extends eastward into British Columbia, Alberta, Idaho, and western Montana [56,57]. The Flora of North America provides a distributional map of queencup beadlily.

ECOSYSTEMS [41]:
FRES20 Douglas-fir
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES22 Western white pine
FRES23 Fir-spruce
FRES24 Hemlock-Sitka spruce
FRES25 Larch
FRES26 Lodgepole pine

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES
AK CA ID MT OR WA

CANADA
AB BC

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [18]:
1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
4 Sierra Mountains
8 Northern Rocky Mountains

KUCHLER [68] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
K001 Spruce-cedar-hemlock forest
K002 Cedar-hemlock-Douglas-fir forest
K003 Silver fir-Douglas-fir forest
K004 Fir-hemlock forest
K005 Mixed conifer forest
K007 Red Fir Forest
K011 Western Ponderosa Forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest
K014 Grand fir-Douglas-fir forest
K015 Western spruce-fir forest

SAF COVER TYPES [36]:
107 White spruce
205 Mountain hemlock
206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir
207 Red fir
210 Interior Douglas-fir
211 White fir
212 Western larch
213 Grand fir
215 Western white pine
218 Lodgepole pine
223 Sitka spruce
224 Western hemlock
225 Western hemlock-Sitka spruce
226 Coastal true fir-hemlock
227 Western redcedar-western hemlock
228 Western redcedar
229 Pacific Douglas-fir
230 Douglas-fir-western hemlock
237 Interior Ponderosa Pine
243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [101]:
None

HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Queencup beadlily occurs in many coniferous forests types [12,29,120]. It is an indicator in moist or cool forests [19,45,113] such as western redcedar (Thuja plicata), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), grand fir (Abies grandis), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) [12,23,59,75,113]. In addition to these species, queencup beadlily is associated with western white pine (Pinus monticola) [12], Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) [51], and noble fir (Abies procera) [39]. It also inhabits riparian zones [65]. Queencup beadlily occurs to a lesser extent in drier forest types such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) [12,120]. It has even been reported in mature ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands [77]. Understory species associates include threeleaf foamflower (Tiarella trifoliata), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), and bunchberry dogwood (Cornus canadensis) [26,73,89].

Classifications that use queencup beadlily as an understory dominant, associate, or indicator species are listed below by state or province.

British Columbia [63,67]
Idaho [23,24,26,106]
Montana [48,49,89,95]
Oregon [12,33,53,54,59,65]
Washington [19,26,55,75,113,120]

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Clintonia uniflora 

 

 

      Brother Alfred Brousseau @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  G. D. Carr @ http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/lili.htm

GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available [30,57,92].

Queencup beadlily is a perennial, rhizomatous, semi-succulent herb [20,57]. This native, warm-season species can live for 30 or more years [4]. The spreading rhizome produces a 6-inch (15 cm) aerial shoot from 0.5 to 2.75 inches (1.4 - 6.9 cm) below ground [6]. From this stem a perfect flower approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) long develops. Following pollination, a smooth berry between 0.25 and 0.4 inch (6-10 mm) long forms. The plant has 2 to 3 broad, flat, basal leaves about 3 to 6 inches (7 -15 cm) long. Means and ranges of a selection of morphological characteristics sampled from queencup beadlily individuals in the Cascade Ranges in Oregon are shown below [4] and are followed by characteristics of queencup beadlily fruit from the Rainbow Creek Research Area of southeastern Washington [91].

Morphological Characteristics Mean Range
Number of shoots 2.9 1-9
Number of leaves 5.3 2-15
Number of roots 18 8-48
Maximum root depth (cm) 23 15-30
Total rhizome length (cm) 118 15-392
Maximum rhizome depth (cm) 4.8 3-6
Maximum age of live tissue (yr) 21.3 8-30

Fruit Characteristics

Mean* Standard Error
Fruit diameter (mm) 9.94 0.15
Fresh fruit mass (mg) 435.66 18.92
Pulp dry mass (mg) 16.40 0.67
Number of seeds/fruit 6.76 0.36
Fresh seed mass/fruit (mg) 82.23 5.10
Fresh pulp mass/seed mass (mg) 6.85 0.69
*n=100 fruits

RAUNKIAER [93] LIFE FORM:
Geophyte

REGENERATION PROCESSES:
Queencup beadlily reproduces by production of ramets from spreading rhizomes and germination from seed. Production of new ramets allows individual plants to take advantage of resources available in multiple areas and at different times [105]. It is possible that asexual reproduction occurs more often than germination by seed [4,50,124].

Breeding system: Queencup beadlily is monoecious [57].

Pollination: No information is available on this topic.

Seed production: The queencup beadlily berry contains several seeds. Piper [91] found a mean of 6.76 seeds per fruit and a mean seed weight of 82.23 mg/fruit (see the table above for more detail) [91]. Fruit production of a given ramet may be infrequent. Antos [4] observed only 4 of 29 ramets blooming in the Cascade Range of Oregon. Harmon and Franklin [50] found no queencup beadlily seeds in a year's worth of seed rain samples or in 6 months of "growing out" 2 soil samples from sites that had 2.9% and 1.5% coverage of queencup beadlily, respectively. However, this result may reflect the length of time before germination more than a lack of seeds [90].

Seed dispersal: Frugivorous birds are the only reported dispersers of queencup beadlily seeds. Observations led Piper [91] to conclude that the varied thrush was the principal species eating several fruits, including those of queencup beadlily, in his study area in southeastern Washington. Hungerford [58] classified queencup beadlily as an important ruffed grouse food, but actual use was not reported. Pojar and MacKinnon [92] and Layser [72] also noted the use of queencup beadlily berries as grouse food. Piper [91] observed fruits taken by elk or deer during grazing. He assumed that queencup beadlily seeds eaten by ungulates and by rodents were lost. However, the germination rates of queencup beadlily seeds in ripe fruits eaten by any species are unknown. Seeds eaten before they ripen are effectively predated [90].

Seed banking: Although little is known of the length of time soil-stored queencup beadlily seeds remain viable, findings to date suggest it is at least a couple years. Piper [90] found an average of 56.55% of seeds did not germinate 500 days after the first individual in a collection germinated. Since percentages of nonviable seeds from ripe fruit were very small, the percent that were dormant would be only slightly less. In addition, queencup beadlily germinated in a greenhouse from soil salvaged from a campground construction site. It was 1 of 6 species that also germinated at the revegetation site within a year [103].

Germination: All the reported queencup beadlily germination information comes from a single study, in which seeds were placed in 0.8 inch (2 cm) of moist sand and kept in a refrigerator at 40 F (5 C). Of seeds that were collected from ripe fruit, an average of 43.45% germinated between the time the first seed germinated and 500 days later. On average it took 325.5 days for the first individual from a collection to germinate. Germination rate increased with later collection dates, with fruit collected on 13 September having a 49% germination rate. No seeds germinated from unripe fruit, and only 8.57% germinated from ripening fruit [90].

Seedling establishment/growth: Piper [90] reported diverse effects of increased light on queencup beadlily seedlings grown in a greenhouse. Queencup beadlily seedlings grew larger and had a higher percentage of root biomass when grown in full sunlight than when grown in 35% of full sun. However, those grown in full sun experienced a 4% lower survival rate than those grown in 35% of full sun. Root biomass of seedlings also increased with day length [90].

Asexual regeneration: Rhizomes of queencup beadlily are long and fast growing [124] and can connect a number of aerial shoots, or ramets [4]. McCune [79] observed an increase in the production of new ramets a year after the initiation of a trenching experiment (roots of surrounding vegetation severed, giving plants in the plot access to more resources).

SITE CHARACTERISTICS:
Queencup beadlily can be found in coniferous forests in a wide variety of moderately dry to moist sites [64,69,77,80], although coverages may be higher in areas with increased soil moisture [38]. It is most common between 3,000 to 5,000 feet (914-1,525 m) [114], but has been reported from below 1,000 up to 6,000 feet (305-1,829 m) elevation [74,100,114]. Topography varies from flat riparian zones [65] to steep slopes [95].

Soils: Queencup beadlily occurs on a wide variety of soil types and site productivity levels. Habitat types that contain queencup beadlily in the subboreal white spruce (Picea glauca) zone of British Columbia occurred on a wide range of soil textures, although some types did not occur on sandy soils [119]. La Roi and Hnatiuk [69] reported queencup beadlily on relatively fine-textured soils in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Alberta. Morainal till [47] and fine-grained metamorphic bedrock such as phyllite and hornfeld [97] have been reported as parent materials. Queencup beadlily also grows in a range of volcanic material including tephra [124], ash [86], and pumice [80]. Queencup beadlily habitat types described by Pfister and others [89] occurred on sites with a wide range of soil textures, although occurrence on clay loam was rare. Gravel content of these sites ranged from 5% to 40%. Coarse content was typically metamorphic rock, including argillite and gneiss/schist, and noncalcareous sedimentary rock. However, other types including igneous and calcareous material occurred. The minimum and maximum duff depths for these sites were 1 inch (2.6 cm) and 3.5 inches (9.0 cm), respectively. The sites shared some characteristics. For instance, all sites had low percentages of bare rock, no bare soil, and acidic soils, with pH ranging from 4.9 to 5.6 [89]. Klinka and others [64] also noted queencup beadlily's preference for acidic soils. Queencup beadlily tolerates a wide range of calcium availability [119] and can occur in nitrogen poor soils [64]. Although associated with sites with high productivity [44,48,66,114], queencup beadlily occurs on sites with a wide range of productivity from poor to high [97,114,115,119]. On more productive sites queencup beadlily is likely to occur in hummocks or on decaying wood [42,119]. Several authors have reported queencup beadlily growing in organic matter [42,64,88,119].

SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
Shade tolerance: Queencup beadlily occurs on sites with a wide range of light availability [35,119]. Its shade tolerance has been widely reported [4,64,70,105]. It has been found on sites with as little as 1.5% to 3.5% full sunlight [35,119] and over 60% full sunlight [35]. Queencup beadlily typically increases as light availability increases from very low levels. For example, Stewart [107] found that queencup beadlily frequency and coverage increased in canopy openings which had an average direct radiation of 9.6% (sx=0.6) compared to closed stands of western hemlock, which had average direct radiation values of 6.1% (sx=0.4). In addition, Emmingham [35] reported an increase in maximum queencup beadlily coverage as light increased from 3.5%-6% of full sunlight to 6%-10% of full sunlight. However, queencup beadlily typically decreases as light availability increases further [38,119]. For instance, Forsythe [38] found that queencup beadlily coverage decreased as the total coverage of overstory species decreased from 18.2% to 1.8%. Effects of full sunlight compared to 35% full sun on seedlings of queencup beadlily can be found in Seedling establishment/growth.

Queencup beadlily occurs in all successional classes, but has higher frequency and is more abundant in mature conifer stands [3,11,25,34,123]. Queencup beadlily's association with mature and old-growth stands is shown by Ruggiero and others [96] and Spies [105] for the southern Washington Cascade Range and by Ruggiero and others [96] for southern Oregon and northern California. However, queencup beadlily also occurs in young stands [15,31,43,117]. Clarke and others [21] found queencup beadlily was most common in the 0- to 50- and 151- to 200-year-old forest age classes. Queencup beadlily also occurred in the 51- to 100- and 101- to 150-year-old age classes, but did not occur in stands older than 200 years. The wide tolerance ranges for nutrients and light mentioned above, and queencup beadlily's ability to persist after moderate disturbances [108], are likely factors influencing the occurrence of queencup beadlily in stands of varying ages.

SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Queencup beadlily typically starts flowering between May and June, and fruits mature from late July through to September. In northern Idaho, Hungerford [58] reported flowering between June 15th and June 30th, presence of immature fruit between July 15th and 30th, and fruit maturation from August to September. Phenology of queencup beadlily in northern Idaho and western Montana from 1928 to 1937 was [99]:

  1st appearance Leaves full grown Flowers start Flowers end Fruits ripe Seed fall starts Leaves color or wither
Average date May 10 June 21 June 16 July 1 August 11 August 19 August 23
Earliest date April 25 June 1 May 30 June 15 July 22 August 1 August 1
Latest date May 30 July 2 July 1 July 25 August 26 September 1 September 1
Standard error (days) 2 3 3 3 3 2 2
Number of observations 13 13 15 15 14 14 14

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Clintonia uniflora
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
Fire adaptations: Queencup beadlily is an onsite survivor that regrows from underground rhizomes [109]. As of this writing, there are no reports in the literature of queencup beadlily establishing from seed within a year after a fire.

Fire regimes: The habitats containing queencup beadlily experience a variety of fire regimes [27,76,104]. Mean fire intervals are typically over 100 years, especially for lethal fires [17,27,76,104,122], but ranges can include intervals as short as 30 years or less [17,27,76,104]. Severities vary greatly and include surface [17,104], mixed-severity [104,122], and stand-replacing fires [17,27,104,122]. The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where queencup beadlily is important. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
silver fir-Douglas-fir Abies amabilis-Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii >200
grand fir A. grandis 35-200 [7]
western larch Larix occidentalis 25-350 [8,17,59]
Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir Picea engelmannii-A. lasiocarpa 35 to > 200 [7]
Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine* Pinus contorta var. latifolia 25-340 [16,17,112]
western white pine* P. monticola 50-200 [7]
interior ponderosa pine* P. ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [7,14,71]
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca 25-100 [7,9,10]
coastal Douglas-fir* P. menziesii var. menziesii 40-240 [7,83,94]
western redcedar-western hemlock Thuja plicata-Tsuga heterophylla >200
western hemlock-Sitka spruce T. heterophylla-Picea sitchensis >200
mountain hemlock* T. mertensiana 35 to >200 [7]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review


POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [109]:
Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Clintonia uniflora
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
Fire top-kills [109] or kills queencup beadlily.

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT:
The extent of damage inflicted on queencup beadlily depends on several factors including root and rhizome depth, fire severity, and whether the plant is rooted in soil or organic material [52,104,110]. Fires with high degree of soil heating, long durations, or those that occur in areas with low moisture content can cause greater mortality [28,52,102].

PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
Queencup beadlily typically declines in frequency and coverage due to fire [47,82,85,102,118]. Declines can be small and short lived. For example, 1 year after a fall experimental burn in a cold, wet area of the Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir zone of south-central British Columbia, mean queencup beadlily coverage dropped from 2.13% before fire to 0.61%. However, subsequent monitoring after 2, 3, 5, and 11 postfire years showed queencup beadlily coverage was equal to or greater than prefire coverage [47]. On a western larch-Douglas-fir site in western Montana, Halvorson [46] listed queencup beadlily as a common species 4 years after a fire on damp fuels that did not affect 65% of the vegetation and only charred the duff in affected areas. However, occurrence of queencup beadlily before the fire was unknown.

Much larger and lasting effects of fire have also been reported for queencup beadlily. For instance, 10 years after the Tillamook Fire in northwestern Oregon, frequency of queencup beadlily was 6% in a burned area compared to 68% within an island of unburned Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar forest [85]. Miller and Miller [82] listed queencup beadlily as an herb typical of unburned western hemlock-Douglas-fir-western redcedar stands, but reported it as absent from burned areas during 3 years of postfire monitoring after lightening started several wildfires in the North Cascades National Park of north-central Washington. After the Sundance wildfire in northern Idaho, an area containing Douglas-fir, western larch, western redcedar, and western hemlock took 10 or more years for queencup beadlily to reach coverages of at least 1% on many sites [111]. Again, coverages before the fire were unknown. It is possible that light and moisture conditions after severe fires are unfavorable for queencup beadlily persistence or establishment.

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
Much of the above variation may be explained by the severity of the fire and moisture content of the forest floor at the time of the fire. Neiland [85] was investigating the Tillamook Burn area, a region exposed to 3 severe fires within 12 years. The Sundance Burn was also a severe wildfire [108], while queencup beadlily responses reported by Halvorson [46] and Hamilton and Peterson [47] were after low-severity fires. Hamilton and Peterson's [47] study design included logging followed by no burn, spring burn, and fall burn treatments. Although both were low-severity fires, drier conditions occurred on the spring burn. This fire resulted in 24.9% duff reduction compared to 10.4% duff reduction in the fall burn. The dry, spring burn had the largest effect on queencup beadlily. Coverage dropped from 2.30% before treatment to 0.23% the year after treatment. After 11 years queencup beadlily coverage at the site (1.68%) had yet to the reach pretreatment level (2.30%). It is important to note that the treatments in this study were pseudoreplicated. Thus, results should not be extrapolated to other areas. Simmerman and others [102] investigated the response of vegetation after a shelterwood cut and 3 burn treatments (dry burn, moist burn, and a no burn control) on a Priest River Experimental Forest site in northern Idaho. Overstory was about 51% Douglas-fir, 33% ponderosa pine, and the remainder a mixture of western larch, western redcedar, and western white pine. They also found a larger effect from a dry burn. Queencup beadlily coverage was reduced from 2.4% to 0.3% compared to a reduction from 3.0% to 1.4% on the moist burn and a decrease from 3.6% to 2.7% on the site where only the shelterwood cut was performed.

In addition to fire severity and moisture content at the time of the burn, the substrate in which queencup beadlily is rooted can have a large effect. Queencup beadlily can root in soil or in organic layers [100,110]. Plants rooted in organic layers are much more susceptible to fire [104,110]. The rhizomes and roots of plants growing within the organic layer are consumed as a fire burns through, while those in the soil are protected. Rooting depth in the soil is also an important factor, as rhizomes and roots that are deeper are more protected from fire [52].

The Research Papers (Hamilton 2006a, Hamilton 2006b) and Research Project Summary of Hamilton's studies provide information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species including queencup beadlily.

FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
A decline in queencup beadlily coverage and frequency can be expected after fire. The extent and duration of the effect depends on many factors including fire severity, rooting depth and substrate, and site conditions, such as moisture content of the organic mantle, before and after the fire. Effects on queencup beadlily may be mitigated by performing low-severity prescribed burns when the forest floor is moist [47,102].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Clintonia uniflora
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Queencup beadlily is of at least minor importance as food for some wildlife species [58,90,92].

Palatability/nutritional value: Queencup beadlily is food for several wildlife species. Frugivorous birds eat queencup beadlily berries. Varied thrush was the main species eating fruit in a study in southeastern Washington [90]. Grouse have also been reported to eat queencup beadlily seeds [72,92]. Hungerford [58] lists queencup beadlily as an important ruffed grouse food; however, use was not demonstrated. Almack [2] reported a grizzly bear eating queencup beadlily roots. Piper [91] reported a low incidence of rodent use of queencup beadlily during an investigation of frugivorous birds. Elk and deer consume queencup beadlily berries while grazing, although the extent was not reported [91]. Young and Robinette [121] list queencup beadlily as a low-importance food for elk on the Selway Game Preserve of northern Idaho, although queencup beadlily was not included as a food item in other studies that have investigated ungulate diets [61,62,84]. Queencup beadlily is not considered palatable to many species [66,92] and the berry may be poisonous [44,45,92,114]. Nutritional content of the berry is given below [91].

Component Mean*
Protein 5.95
Lipid 3.06
Neutral detergent fiber 13.15
Ash 12.4
Calcium 0.768
Magnesium 0.31
Phosphorus 0.424
Potassium 5.594
* Percentage based on dry pulp masses

Cover value: No information is available on this topic.

VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
No information is available on this topic.

OTHER USES:
Queencup beadlily is a useful indicator for the health of certain stands. It typically occurs on sites that have high conifer productivity [44,48,66,114]. Schenk and others [98] determined that queencup beadlily indicated low risk of grand fir mortality from fir engraver beetles. Frederick and Partridge [40] found queencup beadlily was a good indicator of sites with high incidence of decay due to the moist nature of the areas in which fungus occurs.

Halverson's [45] summary of indicator plants of western Oregon and southwestern Washington noted the traditional use of queencup beadlily juice for sore eyes and bruised leaves to stop bleeding [45]. Queencup beadlily is currently used as a garden ornamental [44,66].

OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Several studies have investigated the effect of logging on understory species including queencup beadlily. Many investigators have reported lower queencup beadlily coverage in clearcuts compared to undisturbed stands [5,78,87]. In a Pacific silver fir-western hemlock forest in western Washington, North and others [87] found queencup beadlily frequency on a clearcut was 5% compared to a frequency of 6.7% in an adjacent, intact, 65-year old forest. In western Montana, Marcum [78] found queencup beadlily had declined on 1- and 3-year-old clearcuts compared to neighboring intact stands, and was absent from a 17-year-old clearcut despite its occurrence in a nearby undisturbed site. In addition, Stickney and Campbell [111] reported effects of logging-slash-broadcast burn treatments performed in several areas of northern Idaho and northwestern Montana. Of 9 sites containing queencup beadlily before treatment, only 1 had queencup beadlily coverage of at least 1% within 5 years of treatment. Dyrness [32] found that the trace amount of queencup beadlily found before logging was absent after clearcutting at H. J. Andrews Experimental Forests in the central Cascades of Oregon. However, thinning treatments may increase queencup beadlily coverage. Alaback and Herman [1] found an increase in mean queencup beadlily coverage 17 years after thinning treatments in a western hemlock stand in Oregon. Queencup beadlily coverage increased from zero in the control plot (>1,452 trees/ha) to 1.5% in the heavy thinning treatment (thinned to 330 trees/ha), and 0.375% in the extreme thinning treatment (261 trees/ha). Sixteen months after harvesting, North and others [87] reported a queencup beadlily frequency of 16.7% in a green tree retention harvest (27 trees/ha) in western Washington. Frequency was 6.7%  in the nearby, undisturbed forest. In contrast, in a Douglas-fir-ponderosa pine community in northern Idaho, Simmerman and others [102] recorded a queencup beadlily decline, from 3.6% coverage to 2.7%, about 2 years after a shelterwood cut that reduced basal area to 40 or 80 feet per acre. Statistical significance of individual species responses were not tested in any of these 3 studies. The different responses could reflect the several differences between the studies, including the sites investigated and logging methods used.

The increase of queencup beadlily in some thinned stands may result from its ability to take advantage of forest openings due to natural disturbance [105]. To an extent, queencup beadlily typically increases with increasing light (see Shade tolerance). This extent is typically surpassed in a clearcut, giving a likely cause for the responses above. Other factors associated with clearcutting that are likely to affect queencup beadlily are changes in moisture regimes and damage done during the logging process. Forsythe [38] reported an increase of queencup beadlily with increasing soil moisture. Thus, changes to the moisture regime such as increased evaporation on the forest floor, may negatively affect queencup beadlily. In addition, Cole [22] found that queencup beadlily had low resistance to trampling. A 50% reduction from pretreatment frequency was observed after queencup beadlily was walked over 75 to 100 times, which illustrates the degree of sensitivity of queencup beadlily to logging activity. Performing logging activities in late summer or when there is snow cover can reduce soil compaction, which can preserve the typically high productivity of many queencup beadlily-containing sites [48], and may mitigate some effects on queencup beadlily.

Clintonia uniflora: References


1. Alaback, Paul B.; Herman, F. R. 1988. Long-term response of understory vegetation to stand density in Picea-Tsuga forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 18: 1522-1530. [6227]

2. Almack, Jon. 1986. Grizzly bear habitat use, food habits, and movements in the Selkirk Mountains, northern Idaho. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans, Keith E., compilers. Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985 April 30 - May 2; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 150-157. [10815]

3. Antos, J. A.; Habeck, J. R. 1981. Successional development in Abies grandis (Dougl.) Forbes forests in the Swan Valley, western Montana. Northwest Science. 55(1): 26-39. [12445]

4. Antos, Joseph A. 1988. Underground morphology and habitat relationships of three pairs of forest herbs. American Journal of Botany. 75(1): 106-113. [15052]

5. Antos, Joseph A.; Shearer, Raymond C. 1980. Vegetation development on disturbed grand fir sites, Swan Valley, northwestern Montana. Res. Pap. INT-251. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p. [7269]

6. Antos, Joseph A.; Zobel, Donald B. 1984. Ecological implications of belowground morphology of nine coniferous forest herbs. Botanical Gazette. 145(4): 508-517. [17417]

7. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]

8. Arno, Stephen F.; Fischer, William C. 1995. Larix occidentalis--fire ecology and fire management. In: Schmidt, Wyman C.; McDonald, Kathy J., compilers. Ecology and management of Larix forests: a look ahead: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1992 October 5-9; Whitefish, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. GTR-INT-319. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 130-135. [25293]

9. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]

10. Arno, Stephen F.; Scott, Joe H.; Hartwell, Michael G. 1995. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands and its relationship to fire history. Res. Pap. INT-RP-481. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 25 p. [25928]

11. Arsenault, Andre; Bradfield, Gary E. 1995. Structural - compositional variation in three age-classes of temperate rainforests in southern coastal British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany. 73: 54-64. [26148]

12. Atzet, Thomas; McCrimmon, Lisa A. 1990. Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain province. Grants Pass, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siskiyou National Forest. 330 p. [12977]

13. Atzet, Thomas; White, Diane E.; McCrimmon, Lisa A.; Martinez, Patricia A.; Fong, Paula Reid; Randall, Vince D., tech. coords. 1996. Field guide to the forested plant associations of southwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-17-96. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. Available online: http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/siskiyou/guide.htm [2004, October 7]. [49881]

14. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986]

15. Banner, Allen; Pojar, Jim; Trowbridge, Rick; Hamilton, Anthony. 1986. Grizzly bear habitat in the Kimsquit River Valley, coastal British Columbia: classification, description, and mapping. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans, Keith E., compilers. Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985 April 30 - May 2; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 36-49. [10810]

16. Barrett, Stephen W. 1993. Fire regimes on the Clearwater and Nez Perce National Forests north-central Idaho. Final Report: Order No. 43-0276-3-0112. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. 21 p. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [41883]

17. Barrett, Stephen W.; Arno, Stephen F.; Key, Carl H. 1991. Fire regimes of western larch - lodgepole pine forests in Glacier National Park, Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1711-1720. [17290]

18. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

19. Brockway, Dale G.; Topik, Christopher; Hemstrom, Miles A.; Emmingham, William H. 1985. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone: Gifford Pinchot National Forest. R6-Ecol-130a. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 122 p. [525]

20. Brown, James K.; Arno, Stephen F.; Barrett, Stephen W.; Menakis, James, P. 1994. Comparing the prescribed natural fire program with presettlement fires in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 4(3): 157-168. [25485]

21. Clark, Donald F.; Antos, Joseph A.; Bradfield, Gary E. 2003. Succession in sub-boreal forests of west-central British Columbia. Journal of Vegetation Science. 14: 721-732. [48408]

22. Cole, David N. 1988. Disturbance and recovery of trampled montane grassland and forests in Montana. Res. Pap. INT-389. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 37 p. [3622]

23. Cooper, Stephen V.; Neiman, Kenneth E.; Roberts, David W. 1991 [Revised]. Forest habitat types of northern Idaho: a second approximation. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-236. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 143 p. [14792]

24. Cooper, Stephen V.; Neiman, Kenneth E.; Steele, Robert; Roberts, David W. 1987. Forest habitat types of northern Idaho: a second approximation. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-236. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 135 p. [867]

25. Cormack, R. G. H. 1953. A survey of coniferous forest succession in the eastern Rockies. Forestry Chronicle. 29: 218-232. [16458]

26. Daubenmire, Rexford F.; Daubenmire, Jean B. 1968. Forest vegetation of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Technical Bulletin 60. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 104 p. [749]

27. Davis, Kathleen M. 1980. Fire history of a western larch/Douglas-fir forest type in northwestern Montana. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 69-74. [12813]

28. DeByle, Norbert V. 1981. Clearcutting and fire in the larch/Douglas-fir forests of western Montana--a multifaceted research summary. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-99. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 73 p. [7270]

29. DeMeo, Thomas. 1989. Preliminary forest plant association management guide: Ketchikan Area, Tongass National Forest. [Portland, OR]: [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service]. 164 p. [19017]

30. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819]

31. Driscoll, K. G.; Arocena, J. M.; Massicotte, H. B. 1999. Post-fire soil nitrogen content and vegetation composition in sub-boreal spruce forests of British Columbia's central interior, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management. 121: 227-237. [30330]

32. Dyrness, C. T. 1965. The effect of logging and slash burning on understory vegetation in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest. Res. Note PNW-31. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p. [4939]

33. Dyrness, C. T.; Franklin, J. F.; Moir, W. H. 1974. A preliminary classification of forest communities in the central portion of the western Cascades in Oregon. Bulletin No. 4. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Ecosystem Analysis Studies, Coniferous Forest Biome. 123 p. [8480]

34. Elzinga, Caryl L.; Shearer, Raymond C. 1997. Vegetation structure in old-growth stands in the Coram Research Natural Area in northwestern Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GRT-364. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 22 p. [27446]

35. Emmingham, W. H. 1972. Conifer growth and plant distribution under different light environments in the Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 50 p. Thesis. [9651]

36. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

37. Flora of North America Association. 2000. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 2: Pteridophytes and gymnosperms, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://hua.huh.harvard.edu/FNA/ [2004, October 27]. [36990]

38. Forsythe, Warren Louis. 1975. Site influence on the post-fire composition of a Rocky Mountain forest. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 173 p. Dissertation. [6723]

39. Franklin, Jerry F. 1990. Abies procera Rehd. noble fir. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 80-87. [13371]

40. Frederick, D. J.; Partridge, A. D. 1977. Indicators of decay in the grand fir/white fir complex in central Idaho. Northwest Science. 51(4): 282-292. [12902]

41. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

42. Green, R. N.; Courtin, P. J.; Klinka, K.; Slaco, R. J.; Ray, C. A. 1984. Site diagnosis, tree species selection, and slashburning guidelines for the Vancouver Forest Region. Land Management Handbook Number 8 [Abridged version]. Burnaby, BC: Ministry of Forests, Vancouver Forest Region. 143 p. [9475]

43. Habeck, James R. 1968. Forest succession in the Glacier Park cedar-hemlock forests. Ecology. 49(5): 872-880. [6479]

44. Hall, Frederick C. 1974. Key to some common forest-zone plants of northwestern Washington. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 34 p. [3235]

45. Halverson, Nancy M., compiler. 1986. Major indicator shrubs and herbs on national forests of western Oregon and southwestern Washington. R6-TM-229. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 180 p. [3233]

46. Halvorson, Curtis H. 1982. Rodent occurrence, habitat disturbance, and seed fall in a larch-fir forest. Ecology. 63(2): 423-433. [8522]

47. Hamilton, Evelyn; Peterson, Les. 2003. Response of vegetation to burning in a subalpine forest cutblock in central British Columbia: Otter Creek site. Res. Pap. 23. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forestry, Research Branch. 60 p. [46111]

48. Hansen, Paul; Boggs, Keith; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John. 1990. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in central and eastern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Montana Riparian Association. 279 p. [12477]

49. Hansen, Paul; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John; [and others]. 1989. Classification and management of riparian sites in southwestern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Riparian Association. 292 p. Draft Version 2. [8900]

50. Harmon, Janice M.; Franklin, Jerry F. 1995. Seed rain and seed bank of third- and fifth-order streams on the western slope of the Casade Range. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-480. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 27 p. [25915]

51. Harris, A. S. 1990. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach Alaska-cedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 97-102. [13373]

52. Hartford, Roberta A.; Frandsen, William H. 1992. When it's hot, it's hot...or maybe it's not! (Surface flaming may not portend extensive soil heating). International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2(3): 139-144. [19513]

53. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Emmingham, W. H.; Halverson, Nancy M.; [and others]. 1982. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone, Mt. Hood and Willamette National Forests. R6-Ecol 100-1982a. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 104 p. [5784]

54. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Logan, Sheila E.; Pavlat, Warren. 1987. Plant association and management guide: Willamette National Forest. R6-Ecol 257-B-86. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 312 p. [13402]

55. Henderson, Jan A.; Peter, David H.; Lesher, Robin D.; Shaw, David C. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP 001-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 502 p. [23405]

56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]

57. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptogams, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. [1169]

58. Hungerford, Kenneth E. 1957. Evaluating ruffed grouse foods for habitat improvement. Transactions, 22nd North American Wildlife Conference. [Volume unknown]: 380-395. [15905]

59. Johnson, Charles G., Jr.; Simon, Steven A. 1987. Plant associations of the Wallowa-Snake Province: Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP-255A-86. Baker, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. 399 p. [9600]

60. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]

61. Keay, Jeffrey A. 1977. Relationship of habitat use patterns and forage preferences of white-tailed and mule deer to post-fire vegetation, upper Selway River. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 76 p. Thesis. [1316]

62. Kingery, James L.; Mosley, Jeffrey C.; Bordwell, Kirsten C. 1996. Dietary overlap among cattle and cervids in northern Idaho forests. Journal of Range Management. 49(1): 8-15. [26611]

63. Klinka, K.; Green, R. N.; Courtin, P. J.; Nuszdorfer, F. C. 1984. Site diagnosis, tree species selection, and slashburning guidelines for the Vancouver Forest Region, British Columbia. Land Management Report No. 25. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Information Services Branch. 180 p. [15448]

64. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]

65. Kovalchik, Bernard L. 1987. Riparian zone associations: Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema National Forests. R6 ECOL TP-279-87. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 171 p. [9632]

66. Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Hopkins, William E.; Brunsfeld, Steven J. 1988. Major indicator shrubs and herbs in riparian zones on national forests of central Oregon. R6-ECOL-TP-005-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 159 p. [8995]

67. Krajina, Vladimir J. 1965. Biogeoclimatic zones and biogeocoenoses of British Columbia. Ecology of Western North America. 1: 1-17. [51764]

68. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]

69. La Roi, George H.; Hnatiuk, Roger J. 1980. The Pinus contorta forests of Banff and Jasper National Parks: a study in comparative synecology and syntaxonomy. Ecological Monographs. 50(1): 1-29. [8347]

70. Larsen, J. A. 1940. Site factor variations and responses in temporary forest types in northern Idaho. Ecological Monographs. 10(1): 1-54. [12933]

71. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. [7183]

72. Layser, Earle F. 1980. Flora of Pend Oreille County, Washington. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension; 1980. 146 p. [1427]

73. Lee, Lyndon C.; Pfister, Robert D. 1978. A training manual for Montana forest habitat types. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 142 p. [1434]

74. Lesher, Robin D.; Henderson, Jan A. 1989. Indicator species of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP003-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 79 p. [15376]

75. Lillybridge, Terry R.; Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Williams, Clinton K.; Smith, Bradley G. 1995. Field guide for forested plant associations of the Wenatchee National Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-359. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 335 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wenatchee National Forest. [29851]

76. Losensky, Jack. 1987. A strategy to implement ecosystem maintenance burning on the Lolo National Forest. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Lolo National Forest. 89 p. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula, MT. [29444]

77. Lunan, James S.; Habeck, James R. 1973. The effects of fire exclusion on ponderosa pine communities in Glacier National Park, Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 3(4): 574-579. [6312]

78. Marcum, Les. 1971. Vegetal development on montane fir clearcuts in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 122 p. Thesis. [36494]

79. McCune, Bruce. 1986. Root competition in a low-elevation grand fir forest in Montana: a trenching experiment. Northwest Science. 60(1): 52-54. [12937]

80. McNeil, Robert C.; Zobel, Donald B. 1980. Vegetation and fire history of a ponderosa pine-white fir forest in Crater Lake National Park. Northwest Science. 54(1): 30-46. [166]

81. Mesler, Michael R.; Lu, Karen L. 1990. The status of Asarum marmoratum (Aristolochiaceae). Brittonia. 42(1): 33-37. [48896]

82. Miller, Margaret M.; Miller, Joseph W. 1976. Succession after wildfire in the North Cascades National Park complex. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference: Pacific Northwest; 1974 October 16-17; Portland, OR. No. 15. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 71-83. [6574]

83. Morrison, Peter H.; Swanson, Frederick J. 1990. Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-254. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 77 p. [13074]

84. Mundinger, John G. 1979. Population ecology and habitat relationships of white-tailed deer in coniferous forest habitat of northwestern Montana. Montana deer studies: Job progress report 1978-1979. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Fish and Game. 65 p. [21526]

85. Neiland, Bonita J. 1958. Forest and adjacent burn in the Tillamook Burn area of northwestern Oregon. Ecology. 39(4): 660-671. [8879]

86. Nimlos, Thomas J. 1981. Volcanic ash soils in Montana. Bulletin 45. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 21 p. [8193]

87. North, Malcom; Chen, Jiquan; Smith, Gordon; [and others]. 1996. Initial response of understory plant diversity and overstory tree diameter growth to a green tree retention harvest. Northwest Science. 70(1): 24-35. [26579]

88. Pabst, Robert J.; Spies, Thomas A. 1998. Distribution of herbs and shrubs in relation to landform and canopy cover in riparian forests of coastal Oregon. Canadian Journal of Botany. 76: 298-315. [28627]

89. Pfister, Robert D.; Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Arno, Stephen F.; Presby, Richard C. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-34. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 174 p. [1878]

90. Piper, Jon K. 1986. Germination and growth of bird-dispersed plants: effects of seed size and light on seedling vigor and biomass allocation. American Journal of Botany. 73(7): 959-965. [5033]

91. Piper, Jon K. 1986. Seasonality of fruit characters and seed removal by birds. Oikos. 46: 303-310. [15348]

92. Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy, eds. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska. Redmond, WA: Lone Pine Publishing. 526 p. [25159]

93. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

94. Ripple, William J. 1994. Historic spatial patterns of old forests in western Oregon. Journal of Forestry. 92(11): 45-49. [33881]

95. Ross, Robert L.; Hunter, Harold E. 1976. Climax vegetation of Montana: Based on soils and climate. Bozeman, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 64 p. [2028]

96. Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Jones, Lawrence L. C.; Aubry, Keith B. 1991. Plant and animal habitat associations in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest: an overview. In: Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Aubry, Keith B.; Carey, Andrew B.; Huff, Mark H., technical coordinators. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 447-462. [17334]

97. Scagel, Rob; Green, Bob; Von Hahn, Helmar; Evans, Richard. 1989. Exploratory high elevation regeneration trials in the Vancouver forest region: 10-year species performance of planted stock. FRDA Report 098. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 40 p. [1477]

98. Schenk, J. A.; Mahoney, R. L.; Moore, J. A.; Adams, D. L. 1976. Understory plants as indicators of grand fir mortality due to the fir engraver. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia. 73: 21-24. [48928]

99. Schmidt, Wyman C.; Lotan, James E. 1980. Phenology of common forest flora of the northern Rockies--1928 to 1937. Res. Pap. INT-259. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. [2082]

100. Sharpe, Grant William. 1956. A taxonomical - ecological study of the vegetation by habitats in eight forest types of the Olympic Rain Forest, Olympic National Park, WA. Seattle, WA: University of Seattle. 313 p. Dissertation. [12386]

101. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

102. Simmerman, Dennis G.; Arno, Stephen F.; Harrington, Michael G.; Graham, Russell T. 1991. A comparison of dry and moist fuel underburns in ponderosa pine shelterwood units in Idaho. In: Andrews, Patricia L.; Potts, Donald F., eds. Proceedings, 11th annual conference on fire and forest meteorology; 1991 April 16-19; Missoula, MT. SAF Publication 91-04. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 387-397. [16186]

103. Slagle, Kevin; Wilson, Mark Griswold. 1992. Revegetation efforts accompany campsite rehabilitation in a Pacific silver fir plant community. Restoration & Management Notes. 10(1): 82-83. [20624]

104. Smith, Jane Kapler; Fischer, William C. 1997. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-363. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 142 p. [27992]

105. Spies, Thomas A. 1991. Plant species diversity and occurrence in young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir stands in western Oregon and Washington. In: Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Aubry, Keith B.; Carey, Andrew B.; Huff, Mark H., technical coordinators. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 111-121. [17309]

106. Steele, Robert; Pfister, Robert D.; Ryker, Russell A.; Kittams, Jay A. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-114. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 138 p. [2231]

107. Stewart, G. H. 1988. The influence of canopy cover on understory development in forests of the western Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. Vegetatio. 76: 79-88. [6631]

108. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance Forest Fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 26 p. [2255]

109. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]

110. Stickney, Peter F. 1991. Effects of fire on flora: Northern Rocky Mountain forest plants. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [21628]

111. Stickney, Peter F.; Campbell, Robert B., Jr. 2000. Data base for early postfire succession in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-61-CD, [CD-ROM]. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Producer). Available: Rocky Mountain Research Station. [43743]

112. Tande, Gerald F. 1979. Fire history and vegetation pattern of coniferous forests in Jasper National Park, Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 1912-1931. [18676]

113. Topik, Christopher. 1989. Plant association and management guide for the grand fir zone, Gifford Pinchot National Forest. R6-Ecol-TP-006-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 110 p. [11361]

114. Topik, Christopher; Hemstrom, Miles A., compilers. 1982. Guide to common forest-zone plants: Willamette, Mt. Hood, and Siuslaw National Forests. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 95 p. [3234]

115. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Division of Timber Management, Region 1. 1970. Reference material: Daubenmire habitat types. Unpublished report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 17 p. [+ appendices]. [17399]

116. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resource Conservation Service. 2005. PLANTS database (2004), [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]

117. Ugolini, F. C. 1982. Soil development in the Abies amabilis zone of the central Cascades, Washington. In: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing; Kenady, Reid M., eds. Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest symposium; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Contribution No. 45. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources: 165-173. [6863]

118. Vogl, Richard J.; Ryder, Calvin. 1969. Effects of slash burning on conifer reproduction in Montana's Mission Range. Northwest Science. 43(3): 135-147. [8546]

119. Wali, M. K.; Krajina, V. J. 1973. Vegetation-environment relationships of some sub-boreal spruce zone ecosystems in British Columbia. Vegetatio. 26: 237-381. [9856]

120. Williams, Clinton K.; Kelley, Brian F.; Smith, Bradley G.; Lillybridge, Terry R. 1995. Forest plant associations of the Colville National Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-360. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 375 p. [27360]

121. Young, Vernon A.; Robinette, W. Leslie. 1939. A study of the range habits of elk on the Selway Game Preserve. Bulletin No. 9. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, School of Forestry. 47 p. [6831]

122. Zack, Arthur C.; Morgan, Penelope. 1994. Fire history on the Idaho Panhandle National Forest. Coeur d'Alene, ID: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Idaho Panhandle National Forest. Unpublished review draft on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 44 p. [50853]

123. Zamora, Benjamin Abel. 1975. Secondary succession on broadcast-burned clearcuts of the Abies grandis-Pachistima myrsinites habitat type in northcentral Idaho. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 127 p. Dissertation. [5154]

124. Zobel, Donald B.; Antos, Joseph A. 1987. Composition of rhizomes of forest herbaceous plants in relation to morphology, ecology, and burial by tephra. Botanical Gazette. 148(4): 490-500. [3882]




FEIS Home Page