Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Claytonia perfoliata

Introductory

SPECIES: Claytonia perfoliata
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1993. Claytonia perfoliata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : CLAPER SYNONYMS : Montia perfoliata (Donn.) Howell [18,22,27,36] SCS PLANT CODE : CLPE MOPE2 COMMON NAMES : miner's-lettuce claspleaf miner's-lettuce Indian-lettuce TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of miner's-lettuce is Claytonia perfoliata Donn. (Portulacaceae) [38,44]. The Claytonia perfoliata complex is a polyploid group of considerable complexity, with several subspecies and many ecotypes [39,40]. The following subspecies are recognized: C. perfoliata spp. perfoliata [39] C. perfoliata ssp. mexicana (Rydb.) John M. Miller & Chambers [38] C. perfoliata ssp. viridis (A. Davidson) Fellows [39]. Varieties under the synonym Montia perfoliata are listed in several floras [19,27,35,36,38]. Miner's-lettuce hybridizes with C. parviflora, C. sibirica, and C. rubra [38,40]. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Claytonia perfoliata
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Miner's-lettuce is distributed from British Columbia south to Guatemala and east to North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, and Arizona [17,18,19,22,36,38]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES22  Western white pine    FRES23  Fir - spruce    FRES27  Redwood    FRES28  Western hardwoods    FRES29  Sagebrush    FRES30  Desert shrub    FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub    FRES35  Pinyon - juniper    FRES36  Mountain grasslands    FRES37  Mountain meadows    FRES42  Annual grasslands STATES :      AZ  CA  CO  ID  MT  NV  ND  OR  SD  UT      WA  WY  BC  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     1  Northern Pacific Border     2  Cascade Mountains     3  Southern Pacific Border     4  Sierra Mountains     5  Columbia Plateau     6  Upper Basin and Range     7  Lower Basin and Range     8  Northern Rocky Mountains     9  Middle Rocky Mountains    10  Wyoming Basin    11  Southern Rocky Mountains    12  Colorado Plateau    15  Black Hills Uplift    16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K001  Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest    K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest    K005  Mixed conifer forest    K006  Redwood forest    K007  Red fir forest    K009  Pine - cypress forest    K010  Ponderosa shrub forest    K011  Western ponderosa forest    K012  Douglas-fir forest    K013  Cedar - hemlock - pine forest    K015  Western spruce - fir forest    K016  Eastern ponderosa forest    K017  Black Hills pine forest    K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest    K019  Arizona pine forest    K020  Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest    K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland    K024  Juniper steppe woodland    K025  Alder - ash forest    K026  Oregon oakwoods    K028  Mosaic of K002 and K026    K029  California mixed evergreen forest    K030  California oakwoods    K033  Chaparral    K034  Montane chaparral    K035  Coastal sagebrush    K037  Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub    K038  Great Basin sagebrush    K039  Blackbrush    K041  Creosotebush    K048  California steppe    K051  Wheatgrass - bluegrass    K055  Sagebrush steppe SAF COVER TYPES :    206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir    207  Red fir    210  Interior Douglas-fir    211  White fir    213  Grand fir    215  Western white pine    217  Aspen    221  Red alder    222  Black cottonwood - willow    224  Western hemlock    229  Pacific Douglas-fir    230  Douglas-fir - western hemlock    232  Redwood    233  Oregon white oak    234  Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone    235  Cottonwood - willow    237  Interior ponderosa pine    238  Western juniper    239  Pinyon - juniper    243  Sierra Nevada mixed conifer    244  Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir    245  Pacific ponderosa pine    246  California black oak    247  Jeffrey pine    248  Knobcone pine    249  Canyon live oak    250  Blue oak - Digger pine    255  California coast live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : In addition to the species previously listed under DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE information, miner's-lettuce is associated with bigcone Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii), and Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri) [40].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Claytonia perfoliata
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Miner's-lettuce is preferred by cattle in blue oak (Quercus douglasii) savannas in California [5].  It is also grazed by pocket gophers [6]. Mourning doves, California quail, and other seed-eating birds consume the fruits [24,41]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : The nutritional composition of miner's-lettuce has been determined to be 37.1 percent protein, 42.5 percent total carbohydrate, and 12.4 percent crude fiber.  The calcium:phosphorus ratio is 0.66:1.0 [37]. COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : The blossoms, leaves, and stems of miner's-lettuce may be eaten by humans at any time during the growing season.  They are eaten raw or cooked, and are a good source of vitamin C [11,37].  Historically, miner's-lettuce was used as a salad plant and potherb by white settlers and Native Americans [19].  It was also used to avert or cure scurvy [37]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In California, density and overall yield of miner's-lettuce is greater in bracken fern communities than in surrounding grasslands [14,15]. This may be due to increased moisture availability in winter and early spring, when bracken fern is dormant [14]. Miner's-lettuce is a host to the beet western yellows virus, which is spread by aphids [43].  Purslane sawfly larvae, which consume the seeds, afford some biological control over miner's lettuce [42,43].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Claytonia perfoliata
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Miner's-lettuce is a native winter or spring annual.  It is branched from the base with stems growing up to 14 inches (35 cm) tall.  Leaves are mostly basal, simple, and 2.4 to 8.0 inches (6-20 cm) long, including the stalk.  Miner's-lettuce has two stem leaves that fuse to form a disc just below the flower stalk.  The elongate stalk bears numerous small flowers.  Fruits are tiny, three-valved capsules containing one to three seeds.  Roots are fibrous [11,22,27,36]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Therophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Miner's-lettuce reproduces by seed [24,33,34].  Selfing is the most common method of pollination, but insect pollination also occurs.  Seeds are dispersed by explosive dehiscence.  They are capable of immediate germination [39]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Miner's-lettuce usually occurs on moist or vernally moist sites [10,14,18,19,22].  Miller [39] reported it from a variety of substrates including river silt, sand, gravel, road tar, loam, rock crevices, talus, and scree.  He also found it on burned sites.  Some polyploids occur on specialized, distinctive sites.  The Columbia River Gorge octoploid, for example, occurs only on north-facing basalt talus slopes or cliff faces.  Other polyploids are more plastic in site requirements [40]. In California, miner's-lettuce is most common below 6,500 feet (2,000 m) [38]; in Arizona it grows at elevations of 2,500 to 7,500 feet (750-2,270 m) [19]; in Utah it grows at elevations of 2,600 to 10,890 feet (800-3,300 m) [36]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Miner's-lettuce occurs in all seral stages.  It often colonizes disturbed sites, particularly following fire [22,24].  Miner's lettuce is also found on virgin fields dominated by bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata) and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda) in southeastern Washington [8].  However, miner's-lettuce is shade tolerant [22,26,27] and is more prominent under a canopy than in openings in oak savanna, western white pine (Pinus monticola), and antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) communities [3,23,26]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Time from germination to flowering varied from 33 to 90 days in a Columbia River Gorge population [39].  Miner's-lettuce flowers from February to May in Arizona and California [19,27].  In Utah, it flowers from June to July [1].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Claytonia perfoliata
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Miner's-lettuce has long-lived seeds that are stored in the soil [33] and germinate following fire [34].  It is a prolific seeder [24]; mass flowering in the years immediately following a fire recharges the seed bank [33].  Miner's-lettuce can develop high cover on exposed soil in full sun [31]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)    Secondary colonizer - on-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Claytonia perfoliata
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Miner's-lettuce is probably killed by fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Miner's-lettuce was present in the first growing season after the stand-destroying Marble-Cone wildfire in the Santa Lucia Range of California in August 1977.  Peak cover was reached in postfire year 2 and declined by postfire year 3.  Percent frequency of miner's-lettuce on two study sites that had been dominated by Coulter pine follows [16]:                      Site                  1978      1979      1980                    ______________________________________________                    Chews Ridge site 1       9        36         8                    Chews Ridge site 2       7        48         2 Miner's-lettuce is common in recently burned chaparral [20].  A year after a fire in chaparral in the Sierra Nevada foothills, miner's-lettuce had high seed production on moist north-east slopes. Postfire cover quickly exceeded prefire levels [24].  Miner's-lettuce was also present the year following a severe fire in a chaparral riparian zone in the Los Padres National Forest, California, but its frequency was reduced by postfire year 2 [9]. Miner's-lettuce is also common after fire in more northern portions of its range.  It was present in the first growing season after a fall wildfire in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho, and had increased in frequency by postfire year 3 [25].  In burned ponderosa pine shelterwood cut units in Idaho, miner's-lettuce was present in postfire year 1 on sites burned with dry fuels, but was not present on sites burned with moist fuels.  It also was not present in the prefire vegetation or in unburned control plots [30]. Miner's-lettuce was present in the first growing season following the stand-destroying Pattee Canyon wildfire in a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)/ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus) habitat type in west-central Montana [7].  It was still present in the herbaceous layer 10 years later [34]. On ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir communities in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon, miner's-lettuce cover and frequency were higher on sites that had been burned 4 years previously than on thinned, thinned and burned, or unburned control sites.  Miner's-lettuce was determined to be an indicator species for thinned sites (P0.05). For further information on the effects of thinning and burning treatments on miner's-lettuce and 48 other species, see the Research Project Summary of Youngblood and others' [45] study. A basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. tridentata)-Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis)-bluebunch wheatgrass community at the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in east-central Oregon was burned in the spring and fall.  Although not in the prefire vegetation, miner's-lettuce was present in trace amounts (less than 2% frequency) the summer after the fall prescribed fire.  It was not present after the spring fire or in control plots [29].  See the Research Project Summary of this work for more information on fire effects on miner's-lettuce and 60 additional forbs, grasses, and woody plant species. Miner's-lettuce establishes after fire in disturbed and climax grasslands in southeastern Washington [8]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species including miner's-lettuce. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Rapid growth of miner's-lettuce after fire in chaparral in the Sierra Nevada foothills contributes to an increased food supply for flocking bird species such as mourning dove and western meadowlark [24].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Claytonia perfoliata
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Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168] 19.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563] 20.  Keeley, Jon E.; Keeley, Sterling C. 1986. Chaparral and wildfires.        Fremontia. 14(3): 18-21.  [18365] 21.  Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation        of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:        American Geographical Society. 77 p.  [1384] 22.  Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central        Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research        Station. 648 p.  [13798] 23.  Larsen, J. A. 1922. Effect of removal of the virgin white pine stand        upon the physical factors of site. 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Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Intermountain Forestand Range Experiment Station: 126-136.  [1684] 27.  Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1905 p.  [6155] 28.  Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant        geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  [2843] 29.  Sapsis, David S. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed        burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass        communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis.        [16579] 30.  Simmerman, Dennis G.; Arno, Stephen F.; Harrington, Michael G.; Graham,        Russell T. 1991. A comparison of dry and moist fuel underburns in        ponderosa pine shelterwood units in Idaho. In: Andrews, Patricia L.;        Potts, Donald F., eds. Proceedings, 11th annual conference on fire and        forest meteorology; 1991 April 16-19; Missoula, MT. SAF Publication        91-04. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 387-397.  [16186] 31.  Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1992. The grand fir/mountain        maple habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen.        Tech. Rep. INT-284. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Intermountain Research Station. 90 p.  [17791] 32.  Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern        Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire        Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p.  [20090] 33.  Stickney, Peter F. 1993. Effects of fire on upland forests in the        Northern Rocky Mountains. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department        of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire        Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT: 3 p.  [21627] 34.  Toth, Barbara L. 1991. Factors affecting conifer regeneration and        community structure after a wildfire in western Montana. Corvallis, OR:        Oregon State University. 124 p. Thesis.  [14425] 35.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.        National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.        SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p.  [11573] 36.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944] 37.  Schelstraete, Marc; Kennedy, Barbara M. 1980. Composition of miner's        lettuce (Montia perfoliata). Journal of the American Dietetic        Association. 77(1): 21-25.  [22163] 38.  Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of        California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p.        [21992] 39.  Miller, J. M. 1976. Variation on populations of Claytonia perfoliata        (Portulacaceae)       .. Systematic Botany. 1(1): 20-34.  [22190] 40.  Miller, John M. 1978. Phenotypic variation, distribution and        relationships of diploid and tetr tetraploid populations of the        Claytonia perfoliata complex (Portulacace. Systematic Botany. 3(3):        322-341.  [18036] 41.  Biswell, H. H.; Taber, R. D.; Hedrick, D. W.; Schultz, A. M. 1952.        Management of chamise brushlands for game in the north coast region of        California. California Fish and Game. 38(4): 453-484.  [13673] 42.  Gorske, S. F.; Hopen, H. J. 1978. Case of the purslane sawfly. American        Vegetatble Growers. 2b(8): 14-15.  [22191] 43.  Smith, H. G.; Stevens, M.; Hallsworth, P. B. 1991. The use of monoclonal        antibodies to detect beet mild yellowing virus and beet western yellows        virus in aphids. Annals of Applied Biology. 119: 295-302.  [22266] 44.  Swanson, John R. 1966. 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