Index of Species Information
SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION :
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Chamerion angustifolium. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ .
Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop. 
Epilobium angustifolium L.
E. a. ssp. angustifolium Mosq.
E. a. ssp. circumvagum Mosq.
E. a. var. canescens Wood
E. a. f. albiflorum (Dum.) Haussk.
E. a. f. spectabile (Simmons) Fern. [72,112,224,230]
SCS PLANT CODE :
COMMON NAMES :
The currently accepted name of fireweed is Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub ;
it is in the evening primrose family (Onagraceae). This is an extremely variable
taxon with worldwide distribution . Recognized subspecies are :
C. a. ssp. angustifolium
C. a. ssp. circumvagum (Mosq.) Hotch
LIFE FORM :
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS :
No special status
OTHER STATUS :
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION :
Fireweed is a circumboreal native species and is found in all of the
Canadian provinces [72,82,127,188]. It occurs throughout the United
States except in the southeastern states and Texas [83,94,113,175,191].
FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES11 Spruce - fir
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
FRES19 Aspen - birch
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES22 Western white pine
FRES23 Fir - spruce
FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce
FRES26 Lodgepole pine
AK AZ CA CO CT DE ID IL IN IA
KS ME MD MA MI MN MT NE NV NH
NJ NM NY NC ND OH OH OR PA RI
SD TN UT VT VA WA WV WI WY AB
BC LB MB NB NF NT NS ON PE PQ
SK YT MEXICO
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :
1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :
K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest
K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest
K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest
K004 Fir - hemlock forest
K005 Mixed conifer forest
K006 Redwood forest
K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest
K010 Ponderosa shrub forest
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K013 Cedar - hemlock - pine forest
K014 Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest
K015 Western spruce - fir forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest
K019 Arizona pine forest
K020 Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest
K021 Southwestern spruce - fir forest
K029 California mixed evergreen forest
K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest
K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
SAF COVER TYPES :
1 Jack pine
5 Balsam fir
12 Black spruce
13 Black spruce - tamarack
18 Paper birch
20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple
55 Northern red oak
76 Shortleaf pine - oak
102 Baldcypress - tupelo
108 Red maple
201 White spruce
202 White spruce - paper birch
203 Balsam poplar
204 Black spruce
205 Mountain hemlock
206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir
210 Interior Douglas-fir
212 Western larch
213 Grand fir
216 Blue spruce
218 Lodgepole pine
223 Sitka spruce
224 Western hemlock
225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce
227 Western redcedar - western hemlock
229 Pacific Douglas-fir
230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock
243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer
251 White spruce - aspen
252 Paper birch
253 Black spruce - white spruce
254 Black spruce - paper birch
256 California mixed subalpine
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES :
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES :
Fireweed is a dominant species in many diverse riparian and upland seral
community types. It is not useful for vegetation classification in some
areas because it is abundant in a wide variety of stands .
Fireweed is an indicator species in ruderal vegetation types in
Minnesota, Alaska, British Columbia, and Quebec [56,88,120,122].
Fireweed is a dominant species and is used in the following
(1) Classification of the riparian vegetation of the montane and
subalpine zones in western Colorado 
(2) Phytogeographia Laurentiana. II. The principal plant associations
of the Saint Lawrence Valley 
(3) Vegetation of the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming, in relation to
substrate and climate 
(4) Montane zone vegetation of the Alsek River region, southwestern
(5) Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities
after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska 
(6) Subalpine forb community types of the Bridger-Teton National
Forest, Wyoming 
(7) Vegetation types in northwestern Alaska and comparisons with
communities in other Arctic regions 
(8) Vegetation relationships among some seral ecosystems in
southwestern British Columbia 
(9) Ecosystem classification and interpretation of the sub-boreal
spruce zone, Prince Rupert Forest Region, British Columbia 
SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE :
Fireweed is a preferred food for ungulates in British Columbia, Wyoming,
and Oregon [29,58,91,184,205]. It is eaten by moose, caribou, muskrats,
and hares in British Columbia . In Alberta, fireweed is incidental
forage for bighorn sheep . Fireweed is consumed by woodland caribou
in Minnesota and Ontario [49,186]. It is an important summer food for
mountain goats in Alaska . Small mammals, such as chipmunks and
pikas, eat fireweed seeds . Fireweed is a nectar source for
hummingbirds [172,200]. Butterflies use both the nectar and pollen from
In the Rocky Mountains, fireweed is an important food for elk in summer
[106,126,129]. Elk sometimes feed exclusively on fireweed . In
one study, utilization of fireweed reflected its availability; an
average of 4 percent of bites of forbs taken by elk on burned areas was
fireweed, compared with less than 0.5 percent of bites on unburned areas
. In another study, elk utilized fireweed more in clearcuts than in
grass-shrub communities .
Fireweed use by white-tailed deer was restricted to the months of
January and May . Foraging deer used fireweed 3 to 8 percent of
the time during July and August in Minnesota .
In Oregon, black-tailed deer prefer fireweed [66,67]. Black-tailed deer
use fireweed as forage from May to July in British Columbia and Alaska
[47,167]. In Washington, black-tailed deer stomach content analyses
showed that fireweed was a major food item, eaten with 14 percent
frequency . It was consumed throughout the entire growing season
(May to October).
Mule deer use fireweed moderately as forage during the summer in Wyoming
and Colorado [57,220]. In Arizona, fireweed is rated as potentially
valuable forage for mule deer and elk during the spring (March to May)
Fireweed comprised 44 percent of summer and 18 percent of fall nonwoody
forage eaten by moose in Idaho . In Montana, moose used fireweed
as food less than 2 percent during spring and winter . Moose used
fireweed as approximately 5 percent of summer forage in Wyoming .
Fireweed was preferred by moose in Minnesota during June and July and
was eaten 7 to 17 percent of the time . In Alaska, before it
flowered, fireweed was a preferred major food item for moose during July
. Postflowering fireweed plants were rarely consumed.
The palatability of fireweed for livestock and wildlife species has been
rated as follows [60,104,200]:
ID MT OR UT WA WY
Cattle ---- ---- good ---- good ----
Sheep good ---- good ---- good ----
Pronghorn ---- ---- ---- good ---- poor
Elk good fair ---- good ---- good
Mule deer good fair ---- good ---- good
White-tailed deer good fair ---- fair ---- good
Small mammals ---- ---- ---- fair ---- good
Small nongame birds ---- ---- ---- fair ---- good
Upland game birds ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- poor
Waterfowl ---- ---- ---- poor ---- poor
NUTRITIONAL VALUE :
Nutritional value of fireweed varies depending on season and site.
Fireweed crude protein averaged 20 percent throughout the second summer
following fire; dry matter digestibility was over 80 percent . In
another study, crude protein content was 13.7 percent, and protein
digestibility (dry matter) was 13 percent . Fireweed collected in
July in Alaska had 11.9 percent protein, 62.2 percent dry matter
digestibility for moose, and 64.7 percent dry matter digestibility for
dairy cow . Fireweed samples taken in July and August in Minnesota
had crude protein of 4 to 9 percent and dry matter digestibility of 28
to 69 percent . In Oregon, June fireweed foliage had 17.7 percent
Fireweed flowers contain tannins that have a very high capacity to
precipitate proteins, reducing the actual amount of protein available to
an herbivore .
COVER VALUE :
The degree to which fireweed provides cover during one or more seasons
for wildlife species have been rated as follows :
MT UT WY
Pronghorn ---- poor poor
Elk ---- poor poor
Mule deer ---- fair poor
White-tailed deer poor ---- ----
Small mammals poor fair fair
Small nongame birds poor ---- fair
Upland game birds ---- fair fair
Waterfowl ---- poor poor
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES :
Fireweed is used for revegetation of mined land. In Alberta, fireweed
successfully establishes on mine spoils in alpine and subalpine habitats
[32,183]. Fireweed voluntarily seeded into plantings of commercial
species on coal strip mines in Alaska . Elliott and others 
cautioned against fireweed invasion when using nonnative reclamation
species. Fireweed formed mycorrhizal associations on coal mine spoils
When establishing on borrow pits of differing ages in northwestern
Canada, fireweed had variable success but was present on all sites
. Kershaw and Kershaw  advocated the use of fireweed in
revegetation programs in tundra regions.
During a planting trial that tested the revegetation potential of
species along disturbed roadsides in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming,
fireweed naturally seeded in with the planted grasses and forbs during
the first year . Fireweed is recommended for use as protective
groundcover throughout British Columbia on disturbed sites, such as
roadways and logged areas . Planting guidelines for fireweed are
Revegetation of crude oil spills is a concern in tundra regions.
Fireweed was 1 of 14 plants with cover greater than 2 percent on oil
spill areas that were 35 years old . In British Columbia, fireweed
was able to survive diesel oil on its foliage; however, the plants died
where the spill penetrated to the roots .
Planting fireweed rhizomes may speed colonization of a disturbed area
. Dormant rhizomes were collected and planted in simulated
pipeline trenches and road rights-of-way in the Northwest Territories
. Fireweed plants established best with the addition of
OTHER USES AND VALUES :
Young shoots were collected by Nuxalk Indians in British Columbia for
food . Fireweed petals are made into jelly . Mature leaves
are dried and used as tea . Roots are eaten raw by Siberian Eskimos
Fireweed is grown as an ornamental; however, it can become an aggressive
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
Although fireweed does not readily invade established vegetation, it may
be a problem when establishing confer seedlings . Fireweed overtops
conifer seedlings and will persist for 10 years or more [15,29,43,
138,166]. It contributes to snow press damage of tree seedlings .
The thick rhizomes of fireweed may serve as occasional sources of
rootrot (Armillaria ostoyae), a destructive disease in ponderosa pine
(Pinus ponderosa) .
Fireweed is better adapted to subalpine habitats than are some
introduced species used in roadside seedings. Some managers regard
fireweed as the most prominent weed of montane areas .
Biological Control: A wide range of aphids and other insects have been
reported as parasites or associates on fireweed . In a fireweed
population in northern Idaho, the smaller plants were dying of Aecidium
Chemical Control: Soil-acting compounds (e.g., bromacil) and foliar
sprays (e.g., 2,4-D) give effective control of fireweed [29,43].
However, glyphosate only gives a short-term reduction in fireweed cover
[43,171]. Other herbicides, such as pronamid or terbacil at rates of 2
pounds active ingredients per acre (2.2 kg ai/ha), do not control
In a visual assessment of foliar susceptibility, fireweed was
extensively damaged by sulphur dioxide released from a burning landfill
Mechanical Control: Fireweed is susceptible to damage from continual
grazing, trampling, or mowing . However, stembases are stimulated
by cutting to produce more shoots and rhizomes . Early spring
grazing of fireweed stimulates shoot production; plants can be grazed
again in the fall. Since this grazing regime lowers fireweed
vitality, grazing can be used for suppression . Fireweed cover was
reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent after 2 years of grazing by sheep
. By year 7, fireweed began to disappear. Fireweed has low
resistance to human trampling. Less than 40 passes per year through a
fireweed population reduced its frequency and cover , but it was
able to recover between seasons of use.
Various straw mulches were placed on a clearcut in Quebec to suppress
herbaceous vegetation . The mulch had no effect on the presence of
Disturbance to the forest floor may increase fireweed. V-blade and
brush rake site preparation methods after clearcutting increased the
amount of fireweed; however, disking did not . Unscalped areas
supported more fireweed cover on both clearcut and shelterwood cut white
spruce (Picea glauca) stands in Alaska . Unscarified areas in
clearcut sub-boreal forests had higher fireweed cover than
blade-scarified areas; however, unscarified areas in clearcut boreal
forests had lower fireweed cover than blade-scarified areas .
To enhance forage species, such as fireweed, subalpine fir (Abies
lasiocarpa) was clearcut in strips. Fireweed significantly (p<0.05)
increased in standing crop biomass on the cut areas . Foliar cover
and height of fireweed are able to account for 89 percent of the
variation in biomass in a variety of cover types in Alaska . This
model can be used to predict the productivity of an area.
Industry Considerations: Fireweed is an important nectar producer for
the honey industry throughout Canada . Honey production from
fireweed in the Soviet Union was reported as 892.2 pounds per acre (1,000
kg/ha) . Ingram  noted that apiarists followed logging
operations to ensure fireweed nectar sources.
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS :
Fireweed is a robust native perennial forb. It has fine roots and
rhizomes that extend down vertically to 17.7 inches (45 cm) from the
plant, with most growing between 0 and 5.9 inches (0-15 cm) deep
[103,154,161]. The single stems are from 3 to 9 feet (1-2.7 m) tall and
may be very leafy [72,104]. Leaves are 2.8 to 5.9 inches (7-15 cm) long
. One plant may have 15 or more flowers . Each flower produces
a capsule with 300 to 500 seeds [72,196]. Seeds have a tuft of long
hairs on one end .
RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :
REGENERATION PROCESSES :
Fireweed regenerates sexually and asexually. Airborne seeds allow
fireweed to establish rapidly . Hungerford  noted that an
opening in a canopy was not enough to ensure fireweed establishment.
Fireweed requires bare mineral soil in addition to high light for
germination . Moisture supply is more stable and more nutrients
are available on a mineral soil seedbed . Once established, it
forms large colonies via rhizomes and produces large amounts of seed
Vegetative Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction is more prevalent than
sexual reproduction . Fireweed may not flower every year in the
northern limits of its range or at alpine elevations in the southern
Fireweed readily sprouts from rhizomes following disturbance. Fireweed
was a residual survivor on Mount St. Helens, Washington, following the
1980 volcanic eruption [143,152]. Shoots sprouting from rhizomes are
capable of very rapid growth; they may bloom within 1 month .
Fragmentation of rhizomes stimulates shoot production . A
4-year-old rhizome was excavated and found to be 20 feet (6.1 m) long;
it had 56 perennating buds. Rhizome length depends on soil fertility
and amount of competing vegetation present .
Sexual Reproduction: Fireweed flowers can self-cross or outcross .
They are principally pollinated by insects . Fireweed is a prolific
seed producer . One plant may produce about 80,000 seeds per year
. In seed traps placed on a burn in Saskatchewan, fireweed
represented 63 percent of all germinated seeds . One year after the
Mount St. Helens explosion, 81 percent of seed collected in seed traps
were fireweed seeds . Fireweed was one of the most abundant
colonizers on Mount St. Helens [143,152,158].
Seeds are nondormant and germinate over a variety of temperatures. One
hundred percent of newly collected fireweed seeds germinated within 10
days . Fireweed does not create a long-lived seed bank [10,110,146].
Most seeds lose viability after 18 to 24 months [29,43,87]. Optimum
germinating conditions are warm, well-lighted, and humid . Seed
collected from subalpine (9,285 feet [2,830 m]) meadows in the Sierra
Nevada, California, gave 55 to 68 percent germination under day/night
temperature regimes of 62/55 degrees Fahrenheit (17/13 deg C) and 81/73
degrees Fahrenheit (27/23 deg C), respectively. The lowest percent
germination (12 percent) was at 53.6/46.4 degrees Fahrenheit (12/8 deg
C) . Broderick  reported similar germination rates; however, he
saw 86 percent germination at 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 deg C).
Fireweed seed hairs or plumes respond to humidity. Increased humidity
causes a decreased plume diameter which results in reduced loft .
This increases the chance that seeds are deposited in places with
moisture adequate for germination. Plumed seed has low rates (0.21 to
0.23 foot per second [0.065-0.069 m/s]) of fall in still air .
Using modified insect suction traps mounted on radio towers, Solbreck
and Andersson  found that 20 to 50 percent of the seeds sampled at
328 feet (100 m) in an air column above a burned forest in Sweden were
fireweed seeds. Since the seeds were commonly aloft for 10 hours per
day, they suggested that the seeds traveled 62.2 to 186.5 miles (100-300
km) during that time. Broderick  reported that the seed rain of
fireweed for all of northern Quebec was 3.7 seeds per square foot (40
SITE CHARACTERISTICS :
Fireweed tolerates a wide range of site and soil conditions, but it most
commonly occurs on disturbed ground. It is abundant in coniferous
forests, mixed forests, aspen parklands, grasslands, sylvotundra (i.e.,
area between treeless tundra and circumpolar coniferous forest), and
muskegs [54,134,144,163,210]. Fireweed grows on disturbed areas such as
cut-over or burned forests and swamps, avalanche areas, recently
deglaciated areas, and riverbars [22,101,153,208]. Additional disturbed
sites are highway and railroad rights-of-way, waste places, and old
In North America, fireweed occurs in maritime to strongly continental
climates with short, warm summers and long, cold winters [28,229].
Annual precipitation averages between 13 inches (330 mm) on the
north-central edge of its range and 134.7 inches (3,420 mm) on the west
coastal edge [4,28].
Fireweed occurs on soils that vary from thin layers above permafrost in
the subarctic regions to deep loams in the western United States .
Soil development ranges from clays and clayey loams to sandy loams to
unweathered parent material [4,73]. Organic matter may be low in
fireweed soils or very high and peaty . Low soil pH may affect
plant fertility. Fireweed grown in soil with pH 3.5 produced 80 percent
fewer seeds than plants grown in soil with pH 5.0 . Fireweed may
occur in neutral soils [48,208]. Northern soils in which fireweed
occurs may be frozen 4 to 5 months or longer .
Fireweed occurs on flat to rolling topography or moderate to steep
slopes . It is found from sea level to high alpine elevations
[89,185]. Mueggler  found no significant (p>0.05) effect of aspect
on the frequency of fireweed in burned areas in Idaho.
Fireweed has numerous common associates. Trees associated with fireweed
include Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa),
American hazel (Corylus americana), Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis
nootkatensis), and swamp black gum (Nyssa biflora) [22,53,69,153].
Common shrubs found with fireweed are snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus),
snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus), thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus),
salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis), prickly rose (Rosa acicularis), hoary
willow (Salix candida), black twinberry (Lonicera involucrata), and
common juniper (Juniperus communis) [123,130,134,136,178,229].
Other postdisturbance species associated with fireweed are bluejoint
reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), pinegrass (C. rubescens), purple
reedgrass (C. purpurascens), and Wyoming wildrye (Leymus flavescens)
[65,97,136,190,227]. In moister grasslands, fireweed occurs with sedges
(Carex spp.) and sailorcaps shootingstar (Dodecatheon conjugens) .
Pteridophyte associates are western swordfern (Polystichum minutum),
brackenfern (Pteridium aquilinum), and woodland horsetail (Equisetum
sylvaticum) [21,229]. Important liverwort and moss associates are
Marchantia polymorpha and Ceratodon purpureus . (Also see
Distribution and Association)
SUCCESSIONAL STATUS :
Fireweed is an important colonizer following vegetation disturbances in
temperate climates worldwide [46,157]. Although the role of fireweed as
an early seral species does not change, the length of time fireweed
populations are present varies among ecosystems. Fireweed enters a
disturbed community and rapidly becomes abundant. It may achieve a peak
in dominance within 2 to 3 years . It starts low in frequency and
density if it must seed in from off-site . Halpern  found that
after disturbance in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in
Oregon, fireweed cover peaked in year 7 and then slowly declined.
Fireweed populations can maintain themselves through vegetative
reproduction if conditions are not conducive to flowering. Depending
upon surrounding vegetation fireweed may create widely spaced colonies
with low stem densities . In Alaska, ground that was covered 30
years by debris from oil exploration was cleared or burned .
Fireweed vegetatively colonized these areas at low frequencies and
cover. In 20 study sites in Montana, Stickney  reported that
fireweed established with about 3 percent cover 1 year after
disturbance. By the second year, it peaked at about 30 percent cover
and stayed around this amount for the next 8 years.
Fireweed is one of the first plants to enter a community during the
seedling/herb stage [3,50]. This may last 1 to 15 years in the Yukon
Territory . Sometimes, it will persist into the pole stage .
Young forests differ in the range of microhabitats (i.e., variations in
light, nutrients, and moisture) available; fireweed will persist if a
stand is open .
Moore  stated that fireweed declined in successional communities
because soil conditions became unsuitable for growth as nutrients are
leached out. However, other studies suggest that fireweed declines due
to the effects of competing vegetation [149,207]. Progressive changes
from open to closed canopy in a forest result in decreasing abundance of
fireweed [3,40,207]. Several studies report that fireweed is shade
intolerant [81,115,124,157,182,217]. However, it can exist in partial
shade with a corresponding reduction in productivity . Shirley
 found that fireweed response to Norway pine (Pinus resinosa)
canopy cover was variable. At 5 percent of total sunlight, fireweed
occurred with 62 percent frequency; at 10 percent of total sunlight,
fireweed occurred with 100 percent frequency . Frequency of
fireweed plants declined to 50 percent at 45 percent of total sunlight
and then, increased to 100 percent frequency at 65 to 100 percent of
total sunlight. Mueggler  found a significant (p<0.05) decrease in
fireweed frequency when tree canopy cover exceeded 41 percent.
Fireweed colonizes recent alluvial deposits . It acts as a pioneer
species on glacial moraines, establishing with willows (Salix spp.) on
exposed gravel, sand, and silt bars [216,226]. In Glacier Bay, Alaska,
the pioneer stage with fireweed and willows lasts 1 to 5 years .
In succession on delta swamps in Michigan, the grass stage with
bluejoint reedgrass and fireweed follows the sedge-mat stage. The grass
stage is succeeded by a shrub stage .
Fireweed is an indicator of a mid-seral stage of succession in the herb
layer of the grand fir/Rocky mountain maple (Abies grandis/Acer glabrum)
habitat type in central Idaho . It is an indicator of early seral
stages in grand fir/blue huckleberry (Vaccinium globulare) habitat types
SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT :
The time ranges given here for the phenological stages of fireweed
reflect its widespread distribution, varying from region to region and
from habitat to habitat. Root growth can begin at 40 degrees Fahrenheit
(4.5 deg C), preceding stem emergence . Shoots emerge in spring
(late March to early June). Leaves are full grown approximately 1 month
after emergence . Maximum biomass occurs in summer (August) and may
be 0.12 to 0.19 pounds per square foot (0.6-0.9 kg/sq m) . Flowers
bloom June through September [83,111,164,188,191,224]. Fruits mature
approximately 1 month later . Seeds are released beginning in
August and continue to be shed after shoots have died from frost injury
[43,187]. Foliage will turn color with limited water availability in
the late summer and fall . Seeds germinate late summer or fall, and
seedlings overwinter as a rosette . The primary and secondary roots
of seedlings may develop buds which overwinter . Shoot buds form
in the fall on lateral roots and overwinter just below the soil surface
SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS :
Fireweed is a component of diverse ecosystems in boreal and temperate
regions with variable fire regimes. Fireweed is primarily adapted to
fire through its rhizomes and its prolific production of wind-dispersed
seed. Depending upon depth of rhizomes in the soil, fireweed is
moderately susceptible to resistant to fire [43,150,219]. The majority
of roots and rhizomes are in the top 2 inches (5 cm) of mineral soil and
can survive relatively intense fires [43,74,150].
Fireweed has high ash and high moisture content; it is not considered
flammable . A study that examined litter fall in aspen (Populus
tremuloides) stands found that the dominant herbaceous species was
fireweed, which contributed 334.6 pounds per acre (375 kg/ha) to litter
. However, fireweed litter rapidly decomposes. Fireweed leaves
lost more than 70 percent of their mass after 3 years in the field
POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :
Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer - on-site seed
SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT :
Fire top-kills fireweed. Seed in the surface organic layers is killed
by fire . Surviving fireweed rhizomes vigorously sprout after a
fire [35,86]. Twenty to thirty days after fires in July and August
fireweed sprouted from rhizomes [195,199].
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT :
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE :
Fireweed is an important off-site colonizer after fire [203,204].
Often, it is not present on a site before a fire but establishes during
the first postfire year [8,9,38,215]. Seedlings are initially present
in low amounts [155,174]. Colony growth continues via rhizome
expansion; some seedlings continue to establish as mineral soil
Initial establishment of fireweed seedlings usually exceeds expectations
of frequency based upon on-site prefire vegetation . Following a
fire in eastern Siberian taiga, fireweed regenerated, and 79.5 percent
of fireweed individuals present sprouted from seed .
Fireweed is usually an increaser following fire [36,78,193,205]. Within
3 postfire months, fireweed was present at 3 percent frequency and 1
percent cover in central Alberta . Fireweed slowly increases in
abundance, often with 100 percent frequency and 30 percent or more
cover, to peak on average postfire years 5 [18,39,51,63,80,155,170]. In
the Cascade Range, fireweed had significantly (p<0.05) different amounts
of cover at postfire years 3 to 5, but from years 11 to 16, there was no
significant (p>0.05) change in cover between burned and unburned areas
. However, at 11 postfire years, fireweed was present at 91
percent frequency on upland sites in northwestern Oregon . It was
not in the surrounding Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla)
stand. Fireweed was still one of the principal cover species 10 to 12
postfire years on severe fire sites in northern Idaho and western
Montana [45,140,147,203]. In other studies, the highest frequency for
fireweed was reached 17 to 20 years after fire [45,142,162].
Fireweed production may vary with severity of fire. Severe fires remove
organic soil layers, exposing mineral soil which is an excellent seedbed
for fireweed. Therefore, cover and density are greatest on severely
burned areas because of good seedling establishment [13,17,19,20,43].
Three years following an August fire, fireweed production steadily
increased from 423.8 air dried pounds per acre (475 kg/ha) on
low-severity burns to 1,478.4 air dried pounds per acre (1,657 hg/ha) on
high-severity burns . However, fireweed was more dense 1 year after
fire in Wyoming on moderate-severity burns compared to high-severity
Initially, fireweed decreased after fire from prefire levels of cover
(20 percent) in a Douglas-fir stand in south-central Idaho .
However, by postfire year 3, cover had doubled the amount present
prefire. Postfire years 5 to 8, fireweed cover peaked at 84 to 88
percent . Fireweed was expected to decline over the next 20 years
to prefire levels.
Fireweed is one of the most abundant forbs on most burned areas of
interior Alaska . A series of severe fires in Alaska will convert
any forest type into a semipermanent herbaceous or shrub community .
The herbaceous communities are usually fireweed and grasses, such as
Immediately following burning of a white spruce type, fireweed can form
relatively stable communities with bluejoint reedgrass that may last 100
years in interior Alaska . Following fire in black spruce (Picea
mariana) in the Northwest Territories, fireweed is the most prominent
plant and is one of several diagnostic species for the first stage of
recovery . This stage may last 1 to 20 years .
In Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir communities (Picea engelmannii-Abies
lasiocarpa), fireweed was dominant on stands 1 to 10 postdisturbance
years; it declined on stands 11 to 80 postdisturbance years [71,189].
Following fire in the western hemlock/Douglas-fir zone in the Olympic
Mountains, Washington, fireweed was common for stands 2 postfire years
. However, it began to decline in frequency in stands 3 to 19
postfire years. After about 30 years, fireweed had a low average
frequency (4 to 10 percent) with about 1 percent cover in burned-over
areas of different cover types, such as paper birch (Betula papyrifera),
aspen, and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) . This pattern was seen in
Douglas-fir stands in the Cascade Range, Washington, aged 5 to 73 years
following logging and burning . Fonda  found that fireweed
persisted under similar circumstances in stands 65 years or younger.
Fireweed began to decline in frequency as the crown of different forest
types closed in stands approximately 57 to 280 postfire years and was
absent in stands aged 290 to 515 postfire years [40,100,207].
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE :
Lyon's Research Paper, Hamilton's Research Papers (Hamilton 2006a,
Hamilton 2006b), and the following Research Project Summaries provide
information on prescribed fire use and postfire responses of many
plant species, including fireweed:
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
In white spruce-aspen stands in Alberta, prescribed fire was not
effective for conifer regeneration after logging . Heavy postfire
sprouting by aspen and fireweed inhibited white spruce seedling
establishment. Light surface fires stimulated fireweed growth to 100
pounds per acre (111.9 kg/ha) within 3 months.
Fireweed and other forbs produced heavy cover following a severe fire in
Minnesota that inhibited jack pine growth . Jack pine seedlings were
thin, light colored, and stunted. Despite detrimental effects of
shading tree seedlings, herbaceous cover may provide higher microsite
humidity and suppress shrubs [2,151].
Fireweed effectively uptakes and recycles large amounts of nutrients
from burned-over areas . Fireweed foliage had significantly
(p<0.05) higher levels of nutrients (potassium, magnesium, manganese,
phosphates, and zinc) on burned areas compared to unburned controls
Fire protection managers should consider using fireweed when they
require a species with low flammability rating (for rating factors see
Fire Ecology or Adaptations) . Fireweed is included in the
narrow-leaved forb class for establishing fuel weights .
Following logging, slash may be bulldozed into piles. Bulldozing
scarifies the soil, and slash piles burn very hot; fireweed readily
established in these open spots [14,218,222]. Fireweed had
significantly (p<0.05) higher frequency of occurrence on logged and
broadcast burned areas than on unburned areas . Dense fireweed
stands protected slash from sun and wind during the fifth year after
cutting, reducing the probable rate of fire spread compared to the first
summer after cutting . However, fireweed increases the rate of
fire spread with dead leaves and stems.
Burning, mechanical (e.g., tree cutting), biological (e.g., intense
sheep grazing), and chemical controls were applied to enhance big
huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum) communities on Mount Adams,
Washington. These treatments had no significant (p>0.05) effect on
fireweed abundance during postdisturbance years 1 and 2 . Fireweed
was significantly more abundant on burned plots postdisturbance year 5.
No other treatments had a significant (p>0.05) effect on fireweed
abundance after 5 years.
In Alberta, forage species, such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and
crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum cv. Fairway) were seeded into
burned areas . Fireweed successfully invaded the plantings and was
still present after five years. Grasses aerially seeded on burns may
compete and displace fireweed. In Montana, Pattee Canyon was aerially
seeded with commercial grasses following a fire. Fireweed had low cover
values 10 years later . Toth  suggested that orchardgrass
(Dactylis glomerata) had displaced fireweed.
SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
1. Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1959. Some effects of fire on forest reproduction
in northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Forestry. 57: 194-200. 
2. Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1970. Some effects of prescribed burning on jack
pine reproduction in northeastern Minnesota. Misc. Rep. 94, Forestry
Series 5-1970. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Agricultural
Experiment Station. 14 p. 
3. Alaback, Paul B. 1984. Plant succession following logging in the Sitka
spruce-western hemlock forests of southeast Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep.
PNW-173. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p. 
4. Alaback, Paul B.; Herman, F. R. 1988. Long-term response of understory
vegetation to stand density in Picea-Tsuga forests. Canadian Journal of
Forest Research. 18: 1522-1530. 
5. Anderson, C. H.; Elliott, C. R. 1957. Studies on the establishment of
cultivated grasses and legumes on burned-over land in northern Canada.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 37: 97-101. 
6. Anderson, Jay E.; Romme, William H. 1991. Initial floristics in
lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests following the 1988 Yellowstone
fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 1(2): 119-124. 
7. Anderson, Murray L.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1979. Effect of fire on a
Symphoricarpos occidentalis shrub community in central Alberta. Canadian
Journal of Botany. 57: 2820-2823. 
8. Apfelbaum, Steven; Haney, Alan. 1981. Bird populations before and after
wildfire in a Great Lakes pine forest. Condor. 83: 347-354. 
9. Apfelbaum, Steven I.; Haney, Alan; Dole, R. Edward. 1984. Ascocarp
formation by Morchella angusticeps after wildfire. Michigan Botanist.
23: 99-102. 
10. Archibold, O. W. 1979. Buried viable propagules as a factor in postfire
regeneration in northern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57:
11. Archibold, O. W. 1980. Seed imput into a postfire forest site in
northern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 10: 129-134.
12. Argus, George W. 1966. Botanical investigations in northeastern
Saskatchewan: the subarctic Patterson-Hasbala Lakes region. Canadian
Field-Naturalist. 80(3): 119-143. 
13. Armour, Charles D.; Bunting, Stephen C.; Neuenschwander, Leon F. 1984.
Fire intensity effects on the understory in ponderosa pine forests.
Journal of Range Management. 37(1): 44-48. 
14. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1985. Forest
succession on four habitat types in western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep.
INT-177. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 74 p. 
15. Arnott, J. T. 1989. Managing for aspen--a shared responsibility.
Forestry Chronicle. Feb: 16-22. 
16. Baker, William L. 1989. Classification of the riparian vegetation of the
montane and subalpine zones in western Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist.
49(2): 214-228. 
17. Barmore, William J., Jr.; Taylor, Dale; Hayden, Peter. 1976. Ecological
effects and biotic succession following the 1974 Waterfalls Canyon Fire
in Grand Teton National Park. Research Progress Report 1974-1975.
Unpublished report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 99 p.
18. Barth, Richard C. 1970. Revegetation after a subalpine wildfire. Fort
Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 142 p. Thesis. 
19. Bartos, Dale L. 1979. Effects of burning on the aspen ecosystem. In:
Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Wyoming shrublands: Proceedings of the 8th
shrub ecology workshop; 1979 May 30-31; Jackson, WY. Laramie, WY:
University of Wyoming, Division of Range Management, Wyoming Shrub
Ecology Workshop: 47-58. 
20. Bartos, D. L.; Mueggler, W. F. 1981. Early succession in aspen
communities following fire in western Wyoming. Journal of Range
Management. 34(4): 315-318. 
21. Beasleigh, W. J.; Yarranton, G. A. 1974. Ecological strategy and tactics
of Equisetum sylvaticum during a postfire succession. Canadian Journal
of Botany. 52: 2299-2318. 
22. Beaven, George Francis; Oosting, Henry J. 1939. Pocomoke Swamp: a study
of a cypress swamp on the eastern shore of Maryland. Bulletin of the
Torrey Botanical Club. 66: 376-389. 
23. Bentz, Jerry A.; Woodard, Paul M. 1988. Vegetation characteristics and
bighorn sheep use on burned and unburned areas in Alberta. Wildlife
Society Bulletin. 16(2): 186-193. 
24. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,
reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's
associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.
25. Bertsch, Andreas. 1983. Nectar prod. of Epilobium angustifolium L. at
different air humidities; nectar sugar in individual flowers and the
optimal foraging theory. Oecologia. 59: 40-48. 
26. Black, R. A.; Bliss, L. C. 1978. Recovery sequence of Picea mariana -
Vaccinium uliginosum forests after burning near Inuvik, Northwest
Territories, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany. 56: 2020-2030. 
27. Brand, David G. 1991. The establishment of boreal and sub-boreal conifer
plantations: an integrated analysis of environmental conditions and
seedling growth. Forest Science. 37(1): 68-100. 
28. Breitung, August J. 1954. A botanical survey of the Cypress Hills.
Canadian Field-Naturalist. 68: 55-92. 
29. Broderick, D. H. 1990. The biology of Canadian weeds. 93. Epilobium
angustifolium L. (Onagraceae). Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 70:
30. Brown, Ellsworth R. 1961. The black-tailed deer of western Washington.
Biological Bulletin No. 13. [Place of publication unknown]: Washington
State Game Commission. 124 p. 
31. Brown, James K.; Marsden, Michael A. 1976. Estimating fuel weights of
grasses, forbs, and small woody plants. Res. Note INT-210. Ogden, UT:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest &
Range Experiment Station. 11 p. 
32. Brown, Ray W.; Johnston, Robert S.; Johnson, Douglas A. 1978.
Rehabilitation of alpine tundra disturbances. Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation. 33: 154-160. 
33. Buckley, John L. 1958. Effects of fire on Alaskan wildlife. In:
Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters: 123-126. 
34. Canon, S. K.; Urness, P. J.; DeByle, N. V. 1987. Habitat selection,
foraging behavior, and dietary nutrition of elk in burned aspen forest.
Journal of Range Management. 40(5): 443-438. 
35. Carroll, S. B.; Bliss, L. C. 1982. Jack pine - lichen woodland on sandy
soils in northern Saskatchewan and northeastern Alberta. Canadian
Journal of Botany. 60: 2270-2282. 
36. Cattelino, Peter J. 1980. A reference base for vegetative response and
species reproductive strategies. Final Report. Supplement No. 10 to
Master Memorandum between Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment
Station and Gradient Modeling, Inc. Missoula, MT: Gradient Modeling,
Inc. 30 p. 
37. Chabot, Brian F.; Billings, W. D. 1972. Origins and ecology of the
Sierran alpine flora and vegetation. Ecological Monographs. 42(2):
38. Chrosciewicz, Z. 1970. Regeneration of jack pine by burning and seeding
treatments on clear-cut sites in central Ontario. Inf. Rep. 0-X-138.
Forest Research laboratory, Ontario Region, Canadian Forestry Service,
Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 13 p. 
39. Chrosciewicz, Z. 1976. Burning for black spruce regeneration on a
lowland cutover site in southeastern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of
Forest Research. 6(2): 179-186. 
40. Clagg, Harry B. 1975. Fire ecology in high-elevation forests in
Colorado. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 137 p. Thesis.
41. Coates, D.; Haeussler, S. 1986. A preliminary guide to the response of
major species of competing vegetation to silvicultural treatments.
Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Information Services Branch; Land
Management Handbook Number 9. 88 p. 
42. Cole, David N. 1988. Disturbance and recovery of trampled montane
grassland and forests in Montana. Res. Pap. INT-389. Ogden, UT: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research
Station. 37 p. 
43. Comeau, Philip G.; Watts, Susan B.; Caza, Caroline L.; [and others].
1989. Autecology, biology, competetive status and response to treatment
of seven southern interior weed species. FRDA Report 093; ISSN 0835
0572. Victoria, BC: BC Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 46 p.
44. Cooper, William S. 1913. The climax forest of Isle Royale, Lake
Superior, and its development. III. Botanical Gazette. 55(3): 189-235.
45. Cooper, William S. 1928. Seventeen years of successional change upon
Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Ecology. 9(1): 1-5. 
46. Cormack, R. G. H. 1953. A survey of coniferous forest succession in the
eastern Rockies. Forestry Chronicle. 29: 218-232. 
47. Cowan, Ian McTaggart. 1945. The ecological relationships of the food of
the Columbian black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
(Richardson), in the c. forest region southern Vancouver Island, British
Columbia. Ecological Monographs. 15(2): 110-139. 
48. Cragg, J. B.; Carter, Alan; Leischner, Clara; [and others]. 1977. Litter
fall and chemical cycling in an aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodland
ecosystem in the Canadian Rockies. Pedobiologia. 17: 428-443. 
49. Cringan, Alexander Thom. 1957. History, food habits and range
requirements of the woodland caribou of continental North America.
Transactions, North American Wildlife Conference. 22: 485-501. 
50. Cromack, K.; Swanson, F. J.; Grier, C. C. 1979. A comparison of
harvesting methods and their impact on soils and environment in the
Pacific Northwest. In: Youngberg, Chester T., ed. Forest soils and land
use--Proceedings, 5th North American forest soils conference; 1978
August 6-9; [Location of conference unknown]. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado
State University: 449-476. 
51. Croskery, P. R.; Lee, P. F. 1981. Preliminary investigations of
regeneration patterns following wildfire in the boreal forest of
northwestern Ontario. Alces. 17: 229-256. 
52. Crow, T. R.; Mroz, G. D.; Gale, M. R. 1991. Regrowth and nutrient
accumulations following whole-tree harvesting of a maple-oak forest.
Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1305-1315. 
53. Crowther, Evan G.; Harper, K. T. 1965. Vegetational and edaphic
characteristics associated with aspen "strips" in Big Cottonwood Canyon.
Utah Academy Proceedings. 42(II): 222-230. 
54. Curtis, Alan B. 1986. Camas Swale Research Natural Area. Supplement No.
21. In: Franklin, Jerry F.; Hall, Frederick C.; Dyrness, C. T.; Maser,
Chris. Federal research natural areas in Oregon and Washington: A
guidebook for scientists and educators. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest and Range Experiment Station. 18 p. 
55. Dale, Virginia H. 1989. Wind dispersed seeds and plant recovery on the
Mount St. Helens debris avalanche. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67:
56. Dansereau, Pierre. 1959. The principal plant associations of the Saint
Lawrence Valley. No. 75. Montreal, Canada: Contrib. Inst. Bot. Univ.
Montreal. 147 p. 
57. Davis, Peter R. 1976. Response of vertebrate fauna forest fire and
clearcutting in south central Wyoming. Final Report Cooperative
Agreements Nos. 16-391-CA and 16-464-CA, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service and University of Wyoming. Laramie, WY: University of
Wyoming, Department of Zoology and Physiology. 94 p. 
58. DeByle, Norbert V.; Urness, Philip J.; Blank, Deborah L. 1989. Forage
quality in burned and unburned aspen communities. Res. Pap. INT-404.
Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain
Research Station. 8 p. 
59. Despain, Don G. 1973. Vegetation of the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming, in
relation to substrate and climate. Ecological Monographs. 43(3):
60. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information
network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and
Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,
Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. 
61. Douglas, George W. 1974. Montane zone vegetation of the Alsek River
region, southwestern Yukon. Canadian Journal of Botany. 52: 2505-2532.
62. Drew, Larry Albert. 1967. Comparative phenology of seral shrub
communities in the cedar/hemlock zone. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho.
108 p. Thesis. 
63. Dyrness, C. T. 1973. Early stages of plant succession following logging
and burning in the western Cascades of Oregon. Ecology. 54(1): 57-69.
64. Ebersole, James J. 1987. Short-term vegetation recovery at an Alaskan
arctic coastal plain site. Arctic and Alpine Research. 19(4): 442-450.
65. Edwards, M. E.; Armbruster, W. S. 1989. A tundra-steppe transition on
Kathul Mountain, Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 21(3):
66. Einarsen, Arthur S. 1946. Management of black-tailed deer. Journal of
Wildlife Management. 10(1): 54-59. 
67. Einarsen, Arthur S. 1946. Crude protein determination of deer food as an
applied management technique. Transactions, 11th North American Wildlife
Conference. 11: 309-312. 
68. Elliott, Charles L.; McKendrick, Jay D.; Helm, D. 1987. Plant biomass,
cover, and survival of species used for stripmine reclamation in
south-central Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 19(4): 572-577.
69. Ewing, J. 1924. Plant successions of the brush-prairie in north-western
Minnesota. Journal of Ecology. 12: 238-266. 
70. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and
Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
71. Fahnestock, George Reeder. 1977. Interactions of forest fire, flora, and
fuels in two Cascade Range wilderness Areas. Seattle, WA: University of
Washington. 179 p. Thesis. 
72. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections
supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p.
(Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny
Series; vol. 2). 
73. Foiles, Marvin W.; Curtis, James D. 1965. Natural regeneration of
ponderosa pine on scarified group cuttings in central Idaho. Journal of
Forestry. 63(7): 530-535. 
74. Flinn, Marguerite A.; Wein, Ross W. 1977. Depth of underground plant
organs and theoretical survival during fire. Canadian Journal of Botany.
55: 2550-2554. 
75. Fonda, R. W. 1979. Fire resilient forests of Douglas-fir in Olympic
National Park: a hypothesis. In: Linn, Robert M., ed. Proceedings, 1st
conference on scientific research in the National Parks, Vol. 2; 1976
November 9-12; New Orleans, LA. NPS Transactions and Proceedings No. 5.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service:
76. Foote, M. Joan. 1983. Classification, description, and dynamics of plant
communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. Res. Pap.
PNW-307. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 108 p. 
77. Forcella, Frank; Harvey, Stephen J. 1983. Eurasian weed infestation in
western Montana in relation to vegetation and disturbance. Madrono.
30(2): 102-109. 
78. Foster, David R. 1985. Vegetation development following fire in Picea
mariana (black spruce) - Pleurozium forests of south-eastern Labrador,
Canada. Journal of Ecology. 73: 517-534. 
79. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].
1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range
ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
80. Gashwiler, Jay S. 1970. Plant and mammal changes on a clearcut in
west-central Oregon. Ecology. 51(6): 1018-1026. 
81. Gates, Frank C. 1942. The bogs of northern lower Michigan. Ecological
Monographs. 12(3): 213-254. 
82. Gleason, H. A.; Cronquist, A. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of
northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Princeton, NJ: D. Van
Nostrand Company, Inc. 810 p. 
83. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.
Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. 
84. Green, Pat; Jensen, Mark. 1991. Plant succession within managed grand
fir forests of northern Idaho. In: Harvey, Alan E.; Neuenschwander, Leon
F., compilers. Proceedings--management and productivity of
western-montane forest soils; 1990 April 10-12; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech.
Rep. INT-280. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Intermountain Research Station: 232-236. 
85. Gregory, Shari. 1983. Subalpine forb community types of the
Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming. Final Report. U.S. Forest
Service Cooperative Education Agreement: Contract OM 40-8555-3-115.
Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain
Region. 100 p. 
86. Halpern, C. B. 1989. Early successional patterns of forest species:
interactions of life history traits and disturbance. Ecology. 70(3):
87. Hamilton, Evelyn H.; Yearsley, H. Karen. 1988. Vegetation development
after clearcutting and site preparation in the SBS zone. Economic and
Regional Development Agreement: FRDA Report 018. Victoria, BC: Canadian
Forestry Service, Pacific Forestry Centre; British Columbia Ministry of
Forests and Lands. 66 p. 
88. Hanson, Herbert C. 1953. Vegetation types in northwestern Alaska and
comparisons with communities in other arctic regions. Ecology. 34(1):
89. Harper, K. T.; Freeman, D. Carl; Ostler, W. Kent; Klikoff, Lionel G.
1978. The flora of Great Basin mountain ranges: diversity, sources, and
dispersal ecology. In: Harper, Kimball T.; Reveal, F. L., eds.
Intermountain biogeography: a symposium. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs
No. 2. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 81-103. 
90. Harrington, H. D. 1976. Edible native plants of the Rocky Mountains.
Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 392 p. 
91. Harshman, Edmund P.; Forsman, Richard. 1978. Measuring fireweed
utilization. Journal of Range Management. 31(5): 393-396. 
92. Hawkes, Brad C. 1982. Fire history and ecology of forest ecosystems in
Kluane National Park. In: Wein, Ross W.; Riewe, Roderick R.; Methven,
Ian R., eds. Resources and dynamics of the Boreal Zone; [Date of
conference unknown]; Thunder Bay, ON. [Place of publication unknown].
Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies: 266-280.
93. Hendrickson, William H. [n.d.]. Perspective on fire and ecosystems in
the United States. In: [Publication unknown]: 29-33. On file with: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research
Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
94. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the
Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA:
University of Washington Press. 614 p. 
95. Hjeljord, Olav. 1973. Mountain goat forage and habitat preference in
Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 37(3): 353-362. 
96. Hocking, Drake. 1975. Effects on the forest of sulphur dioxide from a
sulphur fire near Edson, Alberta. Information Report NOR-X-139.
Edmonton, AB: Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Northern
Forest Research Center. 8 p. 
97. Hogg, E. H.; Lieffers, V. J. 1991. Seasonal changes in shoot regrowth
potential in Calamagrostis canadensis. Oecologia. 85(4): 596-602.
98. Holloway, Patricia S.; Alexander, Ginny. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Fort
Yukon region, Alaska. Economic Botany. 44(2): 214-225. 
99. Houston, Douglas B. 1968. The Shiras Moose in Jackson Hole, Wyoming.
Tech. Bull. No. 1. [Place of publication unknown]: The Grand Teton
Natural History Association. 110 p. 
100. Huff, Mark Hamilton. 1984. Post-fire succession in the Olympic
Mountains, Washington: forest vegetation, fuels, and avifauna. Seattle,
WA: University of Washington. 235 p. Dissertation. 
101. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories.
Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. 
102. Humphrey, Harry B.; Weaver, John Ernst. 1915. Natural reforestation in
the mountains of northern Idaho. Plant World. 18: 31-49. 
103. Hungerford, Roger D. 1986. Vegetation response to stand cultural
operations on small stem lodgepole pine stands in Montana. In: Weed
control for forest productivity in the interior West; 1985 February 5-7;
Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative
Extension: 63-71. 
104. Ingram, Douglas C. 1931. Vegetative changes and grazing use on
Douglas-fir cut-over land. Journal of Agricultural Research. 43(5):
105. Irwin, Larry L. 1985. Foods of moose, Alces alces, and white-tailed
deer, Odocoileus virginianus, on a burn in boreal forest. Canadian
Field-Naturalist. 99(2): 240-245. 
106. Irwin, Larry L.; Peek, James M. 1983. Elk, Cervus elaphus, foraging
related to forest management and succession in Idaho. Canadian
Field-Naturalist. 97(4): 443-447. 
107. Isaac, Leo A. 1940. Vegetative succession following logging in the
Douglas-fir region with special reference to fire. Journal of Forestry.
38: 716-721. 
108. Jobidon, Robert. 1990. Short-term effect of 3 mechanical site
preparation methods on species diversity. Tree Planters' Notes. 41(4):
109. Jobidon, R.; Thibault, J. R.; Fortin, J. A. 1989. Phytotoxic effect of
barley, oat, and wheat-straw mulches in eastern Quebec forest
plantations 1. Effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). Forest Ecology
and Management. 29: 277-294. 
110. Johnson, E. A. 1975. Buried seed populations in the subarctic forest
east of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories. Canadian Journal of
Botany. 53: 2933-2941. 
111. Jones, G. N.; Fuller, G. D. 1955. Vascular plants of Illinois. Urbana,
IL: University of Illinois Press. 593 p. 
112. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North
American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina
Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources
Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
113. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,
Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press. 1085 p. 
114. Keay, Jeffrey A. 1977. Relationship of habitat use patterns and forage
preferences of white-tailed and mule deer to post-fire vegetation, Upper
Selway River. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 76 p. Thesis. 
115. Kellman, M. C. 1969. Plant species interrelationships in a secondary
succession in coastal British Columbia. Syesis. 2: 201-212. 
116. Kershaw, G. Peter; Kershaw, Linda J. 1986. Ecological characteristics of
35-year-old crude-oil spills in tundra plant communities of the
Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T. Canadian Journal of Botany. 64: 2935-2947.
117. Kershaw, G. Peter; Kershaw, Linda J. 1987. Successful plant colonizers
on disturbances in tundra areas of northwestern Canada. Arctic and
Alpine Research. 19(4): 451-460. 
118. Kienholz, Raymond. 1929. Revegetation after logging and burning in the
Douglas-fir region of western Washington. Illinois State Academy of
Science. 21: 94-108. 
119. Kiil, A. D. 1970. Effects of spring burning on vegetation in old
partially cut spruce-aspen stands in east-central Alberta. Information
Report A-X-33. Edmonton, AB: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of
Fisheries and Forestry, Forest Research Laboratory. 12 p. 
120. Kittredge, Joseph, Jr. 1938. The interrelations of habitat, growth rate,
and associated vegetation in the aspen community of Minnesota and
Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs. 8(2): 152-246. 
121. Klein-Gebbinck, H. W.; Blenis, P. V.; Hiratsuka, Y. 1991. Spread of
Armillaria ostoyae in juvenile lodgepole pine stands in west central
Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 20-24. 
122. Klinka, K.; Scagel, A. M.; Courtin, P. J. 1985. Vegetation relationships
among some seral ecosystems in southwestern British Columbia. Canadian
Journal of Forestry. 15: 561-569. 
123. Krebill, R. G. 1972. Mortality of aspen on the Gros Ventre elk winter
range. Res. Pap. INT-129. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 16 p.
124. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological
perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. 
125. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation
of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:
American Geographical Society. 77 p. 
126. Kufeld, Roland C. 1973. Foods eaten by the Rocky Mountain elk. Journal
of Range Management. 26(2): 106-113. 
127. Lakela, O. 1965. A flora of northeastern Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN:
University of Minnesota Press. 541 p. 
128. La Roi, George H. 1967. Ecological studies in the boreal spruce-fir
forests of the North American taiga. I. Analysis of the vascular flora.
Ecological Monographs. 37(3): 229-253. 
129. Leege, Thomas A., compiler. 1984. Guidelines for evaluating and managing
summer elk habitat in northern Idaho. [Wildlife Bull. No. 11]. Boise,
ID: Idaho Fish and Game. 37 p. [A cooperative effort. Financial support
provided by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Federal Aid Project
W-160-R, U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Plum Creek
Timber Company and Idaho Forest Industry Council]. 
130. LePage, P.; Pollack, J. C.; Coates, K. D. 1991. Chemical and manual
control of thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus) in northwestern British
Columbia: a rate and timing trial. Western Journal of Applied Forestry.
6(4): 99-102. 
131. Lepofsky, Dana; Turner, Nancy J.; Kuhnlein, Harriet V. 1985. Determining
the availability of traditional wild plant foods: an example of Nuxalk
foods, Bella Coola, British Columbia. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 16:
132. LeResche, R. E.; Bishop, R. H.; Coady, J. W. 1974. Distribution and
habitats of moose in Alaska. Le Naturaliste Canadien. 101: 143-178.
133. LeResche, Robert E.; Davis, James L. 1973. Importance of nonbrowse foods
to moose on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management.
37(3): 279-287. 
134. Lewis, Francis J.; Dowding, E. S. 1926. The vegetation and retrogressive
changes of peat areas ("muskegs") in central Alberta. Journal of
Ecology. 14: 317-341. 
135. Long, James N. 1977. Trends in plant species diversity associated with
development in a series of Pseudotsuga menziesii/Gaultheria shallon
stands. Northwest Science. 51(2): 119-130. 
136. Lopushinsky, W.; Klock, G. O. 1990. Soil water use by Ceanothus
velutinus and two grasses. Res. Note PNW-RN-496. Portland, OR: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research
Station. 9 p. 
137. Lutz, H. J. 1953. The effects of forest fires on the vegetation of
interior Alaska. Juneau, AK: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 36 p.
138. Lutz, H. J. 1956. Ecological effects of forest fires in the interior of
Alaska. Tech. Bull. No. 1133. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service. 121 p. 
139. Lyon, L. Jack. 1971. Vegetal development following prescribed burning of
Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-105. Ogden, UT: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and
Range Experiment Station. 30 p. 
140. Lyon, L. Jack. 1976. Vegetal development on the Sleeping Child burn in
western Montana, 1961 to 1973. Res. Pap. INT-184. Ogden, UT: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range
Experiment Station. 24 p. 
141. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession
following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall
Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council
fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No.
14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. 
142. MacLean, David A.; Wein, Ross W. 1977. Changes in understory vegetation
with increasing stand age in New Brunswick forests: species composition,
cover, biomass, and nutrients. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55:
143. MacMahon, James A. 1983. Nothing succeeds like succession: ecology and
the human lot. 67th Faculty Honor Lecture, Utah State University, Logan
Utah. Utah State University Press. 31 p. 
144. Maini, J. S. 1966. Pytoecological study of sylvotundra at Small Tree
Lake, N.W.T. Arctic. 19: 220-243. 
145. Majerus, Mark E. 1991. Yellowstone National Park-Bridger Plant
Marterials Center native plant program. In: Rangeland Technology
Equipment Council, 1991 annual report. 9222-2808-MTDC. Washington, DC:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Technology and
Development Program: 17-22. 
146. Major, J.; Pyott, W. T. 1966. Buried, viable seeds in two California
bunchgrass sites and their bearing on the definition of a flora.
Vegetatio. 13: 254-282. 
147. Martin, J. Lynton. 1956. An ecological survey of burned-over forest land
in southwestern Nova Scotia. Forestry Chronicle. 32: 313-336. 
148. Maslen, Lynn; Kershaw, G. Peter. 1989. First year results of
revegetation trials using selected native plant species on a simulated
pipeline trench, Fort Norman, N.W.T., Canada. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter,
C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective:
Proceedings of the conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Rep. No.
RRTAC 89-2. Vol. 1. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and
Reclamation Council: 81-90. 
149. McArdle, Richard E.; Isaac, Leo A. 1934. The ecological aspects of
natural regeneration of Douglas fir in the Pacific North-west.
Proceedings, 5th Pacific Science Congress. 5: 4009-4051. 
150. McLean, Alastair. 1968. Fire resistance of forest species as influenced
by root systems. Journal of Range Management. 22: 120-122. 
151. McRae, D. J. 1979. Prescribed burning in jack pine logging slash: a
review. Report 0-X-289. Sault Ste. Marie, ON: Canadian Forestry Service,
Great Lakes Forest Research Centre. 57 p. 
152. Means, Joseph E.; McKee, W. Arthur; Moir, William H.; Franklin, Jerry F.
1982. Natural revegetation of the northeastern portion of the devestated
area. In: Keller, S. A, C.; ed. Mount St. Helens: one year later:
Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 May 17-18; Cheney, WA. Cheney, WA:
Eastern Washington University Press: 93-103. 
153. Meehan, William R. 1974. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 4.
Wildlife habitats. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-16. Portland, OR: U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station. 32 p. 
154. Messier, Christian; Kimmins, James P. 1991. Above- & below-ground
vegetation recovery in recently clearcut & burned sites dominated by
Gaultheria shallon in coastal British Columbia. Forest Ecology and
Management. 46(3-4): 275-294. 
155. Miller, Margaret M.; Miller, Joseph W. 1976. Succession after wildfire
in the North Cascades National Park complex. In: Proceedings, annual
Tall Timbers fire ecology conference: Pacific Northwest; 1974 October
16-17; Portland, OR. No. 15. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research
Station: 71-83. 
156. Minore, Don; Smart, Alan W.; Dubrasich, Michael E. 1979. Huckleberry
ecology and management research in the Pacific Northwest. Gen. Tech.
Rep. PNW-93. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 50 p.
157. Moore, Peter D. 1982. Fire: catastrophic or creative force?. Impact of
Science on Society. 32(1): 5-14. 
158. Morris, William F.; Wood, David M. 1989. The role of lupine in
succession on Mount St. Helens: facilitation or inhibition. Ecology.
70(3): 697-703. 
159. Morris, William G. 1958. Influence of slash burning on regeneration,
other plant cover, and fire hazard in the Douglas-fir region (A progress
report). Res. Pap. PNW-29. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
49 p. 
160. Morris, William G. 1970. Effects of slash burning in overmature stands
of the Douglas-fir region. Forest Science. 16(3): 258-270. 
161. Moss, E. H. 1936. The ecology of Epilobium angustifolium with particular
reference to rings of periderm in the wood. American Journal of Botany.
23: 114-120. 
162. Mueggler, W. F. 1961. Ecology of seral shrub communities in the
cedar-hemlock zone of northern Idaho. Durham, NC: Duke University. 126
p. Thesis. 
163. Mueggler, W. F. 1985. Vegetation associations. In: DeByle, Norbert V.;
Winokur, Robert P., eds. Aspen: ecology and management in the western
United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-119. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range
Experiment Station: 45-55. 
164. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA:
University of California Press. 1905 p. 
165. Neiland, Bonita J. 1958. Forest and adjacent burn in the Tillamook Burn
area of northwestern Oregon. Ecology. 39(4): 660-671. 
166. Newton, M.; Comeau, P. G. 1990. Control of competing vegetation. In:
Lavender, D. P.; Parish, R.; Johnson, C. M.; [and others], eds.
Regenerating British Columbia's Forests. Vancouver, BC: University of
British Columbia Press: 256-265. 
167. Nyberg, J. Brian; McNay R, Scott; Kirchoff, Matthew D.; [and others].
1989. Integrated management of timber and deer: coastal forests of
British Columbia and Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-226. Ogden, UT:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest
Research Station. 65 p. 
168. Ohmann, Lewis F.; Cushwa, Charles T.; Lake, Roger E.; [and others].
1973. Wilderness ecology: the upland plant communities, woody browse
production, and small mammals of two adj. 33-year-old wildfire areas in
northeastern Minnesota. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-7. St. Paul, MN: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest
Experiment Station. 30 p. 
169. Oldemeyer, J. L.; Franzmann, A. W.; Brundage, A. L.; [and others]. 1977.
Browse quality and the Kenai moose population. Journal of Wildlife
Management. 41(3): 533-542. 
170. Oswald, E. T.; Brown, B. N. 1990. Vegetation establishment during 5
years following wildfire in northern British Columbia and southern Yukon
Territory. Information Report BC-X-320. Victoria, BC: Forestry Canada,
Pacific and Yukon Region, Pacific Forestry Centre. 46 p. 
171. Otchere-Boateng, J.; Herring, L. J. 1990. Site preparation: chemical.
In: Lavender, D. P.; Parish, R.; Johnson, C. M.; [and others], eds.
Regenerating British Columbia's Forests. Vancouver, BC: University of
British Columbia Press: 164-178. 
172. Pojar, Jim. 1975. Hummingbird flowers of British Columbia. Syesis. 8:
173. Pojar, J.; Trowbridge, R.; Coates, D. 1984. Ecosystem classification and
interpretation of the sub-boreal spruce zone, Prince Rupert Forest
Region, British Columbia. Land Management Report No. 17. Victoria, BC:
Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 319 p. 
174. Racine, Charles H.; Johnson, Lawrence A.; Viereck, Leslie A. 1987.
Patterns of vegetation recovery after tundra fires in northwestern
Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 19(4): 461-469. 
175. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of
the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of
North Carolina Press. 1183 p. 
176. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant
geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
177. Regelin, Wayne L.; Wallmo, Olof C. 1978. Duration of deer forage
benefits after clearcut logging of subalpine forest in Colorado. RM-356.
Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky
Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p. 
178. Rejmanek, Marcel; Rosen, Ejvind. 1988. The eff. of colonizing shrubs
(Juniperus communis &Potentilla fructicosa on species richness in the
grasslands of Stora Alvaret, Oland (Sweden). Acta phytogeographica
suecica. 76: 67-72. 
179. Ritchie, Brent W. 1978. Ecology of moose in Fremont County, Idaho.
Wildlife Bulletin No. 7. Boise, ID: Idaho Department of Fish and Game.
33 p. 
180. Robbins, C. T.; Hanley, T. A.; Hagerman, A. E.; [and others]. 1987. Role
of tannins in defending plants against ruminants: reduction in protein
availability. Ecology. 68(1): 98-107. 
181. Romme, William H.; Bohland, Laura; Persichetty, Cynthia; Caruso, Tanya.
1995. Germination ecology of some common forest herbs in Yellowstone
National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 27(4):
182. McCune, Bruce. 1982. Site, history and forest dynamics in the Bitterroot
canyons, Montana. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin. 166 p. Thesis.
183. Russell, W. B. 1985. Vascular flora of abandoned coal-mined land, Rocky
Mountain Foothills, Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 99(4): 503-516.
184. Sampson, Arthur W. 1914. Natural revegetation of range lands based upon
growth requirements and life history of the vegetation. Journal of
Agricultural Research. 3(2): 93-147. 
185. Schaack, Clark G. 1983. The alpine vascular flora of Arizona. Madrono.
30(4): 79-88. 
186. Schaefer, James A.; Pruitt, William O., Jr. 1991. Fire and woodland
caribou in southeastern Manitoba. Wildlife Monograph No. 116.
Washington, DC: The Wildlife Society, Inc. 39 p. 
187. Schmidt, Wyman C.; Lotan, James E. 1980. Phenology of common forest
flora of the northern Rockies--1928 to 1937. Res. Pap. INT-259. Ogden,
UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest
and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. 
188. Scoggan, H. J. 1978. The flora of Canada. Ottawa, Canada: National
Museums of Canada. (4 volumes). 
189. Scrivner, Jerry H.; Smith, H. Duane. 1981. Pocket gophers (Thomomys
talpoides) in successional stages of spruce-fir forest in Idaho. Great
Basin Naturalist. 41(3): 362-367. 
190. Seip, Dale R.; Bunnell, Fred L. 1985. Species composition and herbage
production of mountain rangelands in northern British Columbia. Canadian
Journal of Botany. 63: 2077-2080. 
191. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed.
Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L.
Moldenke. 611 p. 
192. Shirley, Hardy L. 1932. Light intensity in relation to plant growth in a
virgin Norway pine forest. Journal of Agricultural Research. 44:
193. Simpson, Michael L. 1990. The subalpine fir/beargrass habitat type:
Succession and management. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 134 p.
194. Singer, Francis J. 1979. Habitat partitioning and wildfire relationships
of cervids in Glacier National Park, Montana. Journal of Wildlife
Management. 43(2): 437-444. 
195. Skutch, Alexander F. 1929. Early stages of plant succession following
forest fires. Ecology. 10(2): 177-190. 
196. Solbreck, Crister; Andersson, David. 1987. Vertical distribution of
fireweed, Epilobium augustifolium, seeds in the air. Canadian Journal of
Botany. 65: 2177-2178. 
197. Stark, Nellie M. 1977. Fire and nutrient cycling in a Douglas-fir/larch
forest. Ecology. 58: 16-30. 
198. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1987. The grand fir/blue
huckleberry habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management.
Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-228. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 66 p. 
199. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1991. Monitoring the effects of
postfire grass seeding on the Lowman Burn. Unpublished first year
progress report. 4 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences
Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
200. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1992. The grand fir/mountain
maple habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen.
Tech. Rep. INT-284. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Intermountain Research Station. 90 p. 
201. Stewart, R. E.; Beebe, T. 1974. Survival of ponderosa pine seedlings
followingcontrol of competing grasses. Western Society Weed Science
Proceedings. 27: 55-58. 
202. Stickney, Peter F. 1980. Data base for post-fire succession, first 6 to
9 years, in Montana larch-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-62. Ogden,
UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest
and Range Experiment Station. 133 p. 
203. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the
Sundance Forest Fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden,
UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain
Research Station. 26 p. 
204. Stickney, Peter F. 1990. Early development of vegetation following
holocaustic fire in Northern Rocky Mountains. Northwest Science. 64(5):
205. Strang, Roy M. 1989. Impacts of fire on herbaceous vegetation. In:
Baumgartner, David M.; Breuer, David W.; Zamora, Benjamin A.; [and
others], compilers. Prescribed fire in the Intermountain region:
Symposium proceedings; 1986 March 3-5; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA:
Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 111-112. 
206. Taylor, B. R.; Prescott, C. E.; Parsons, W. J. F.; Parkinson, D. 1991.
Substrate control of litter decomposition in four Rocky Mountain
coniferous forests. Canadian Journal of Botany. 69: 2242-2250. 
207. Taylor, Dale L. 1969. Biotic succession of lodgepole pine forests of
fire origin in Yellowstone National Park. Laramie, WY: University of
Wyoming. 320 p. M.S. thesis. 
208. Taylor, R. F. 1932. The successional trend and its relation to
second-growth forests in southeastern Alaska. Ecology. 13(4): 381-391.
209. Thill, Ronald E.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Patton, David R. 1983. Deer and
elk forage production in Arizona mixed conifer forests. Res. Pap.
RM-248. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p.
210. Thompson, Larry S.; Kuijt, Job. 1976. Montane and subalpine plants of
the Sweetgrass Hills, Montana and their relation to early postglacial
environments on the northern Great Plains. Canadian Field-Naturalist.
90(4): 432-448. 
211. Toth, Barbara L. 1991. Factors affecting conifer regeneration and
community structure after a wildfire in western Montana. Corvallis, OR:
Oregon State University. 124 p. Thesis. 
212. Uemura, Shigeru; Tsuda, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Sakae. 1990. Effects of fire
on the vegetation of Siberian taiga predominated by Larix dahurica.
Canadian Journal of Forestry Research. 20: 547-553. 
213. Ugolini, F. C. 1968. Soil development and alder invasion in a recently
deglaciated area of Glacier Bay, Alaska. In: Trappe, J. M.; Franklin, J.
F.; Tarrant, R. F.; Hansen, G. M., eds. Biology of alder: Proceedings of
a symposium; 1967 April 14-15; Pullman, WA. Portland, OR: U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and
Range Experiment Station: 115-140. 
214. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.
National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.
SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. 
215. Van Cleve, K.; Viereck, L.A.; Dyrness, C.T. 1988. Vegetation
productivity and soil fertility in post-fire secondary succession in
Interior Alaska. In: Slaughter, Charles W.; Gasbarro, Tony. Proceedings
of the Alaska forest soil productivity workshop; 1987 April 28-30;
Anchorage, AK. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-219. Portland, OR: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Station;
Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, School of Agriculture and Land
Resources Management: 101-102. 
216. Viereck, Leslie A. 1970. Forest succession and soil development adjacent
to the Chena River in interior Alaska. Arctic and Alpine Research. 2(1):
217. Vogl, Richard J. 1964. The effects of fire on a muskeg in northern
Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Management. 28(2): 317-329. 
218. Vogl, Richard J.; Ryder, Calvin. 1969. Effects of slash burning on
conifer reproduction in Montana's Mission Range. Northwest Science.
43(3): 135-147. 
219. Volland, Leonard A.; Dell, John D. 1981. Fire effects on Pacific
Northwest forest and range vegetation. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Range Management
and Aviation and Fire Management. 23 p. 
220. Wallmo, Olof C.; Regelin, Wayne L.; Reichert, Donald W. 1972. Forage use
by mule deer relative to logging in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife
Management. 36: 1025-1033. 
221. Watson, L. E.; Parker, R. W.; Polster, D. F. 1980. Manual of plant
species suitablity for reclamation in Alberta. Vol. 2. Forbs, shrubs and
trees. Edmonton, AB: Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. 537 p.
222. Weaver, Harold. 1951. Observed effects of prescribed burning on
perennial grasses in the ponderosa pine forests. Journal of Forestry.
49(4): 267-271. 
223. Wein, Ross W. 1975. Arctic tundra fires--ecological consequences. In:
Proceedings, circumpolar conference on northern ecology; [Date unknown];
[Location unknown]. [Place of publication unknown]: Canadian Resource
Council, National Science Committee, Committee on Problems of the
Environment: I-167 to I-174. On file with: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire
Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
224. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry
C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,
UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. 
225. Yarie, John; Mead, Bert R. 1988. Twig and foliar biomass estimation
equations for major plant species in the Tanana River Basin of interior
Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-401. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 20 p.
226. Yarie, J.; Viereck, L.; Van Cleve, K.; Dryness, C. T. 1988. The
chronosequence as an aid to understanding the long-term conse- quences
of management activities. In: Dyck, W. J.; Mees, C. A, eds. Research
Strategies for Long-term Productivity. Proceedings, IEA/BE A3 Workshop;
[Date of conference unknown]; Seattle, WA. IEA/BE A3 Report No. 8.
Rotorua, New Zeland, --: Forest Research Institute: 25-38. 
227. Zasada, J. 1986. Natural regeneration of trees and tall shrubs on forest
sites in interior Alaska. In: Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III;
Flanagan, P. W.; [and others], eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaska
taiga: A synthesis of structure and function. New York: Springer-Verlag:
228. Zasada, John C.; Grigal, David F. 1978. The effects of silvicultural
system and seed bed preparation on natural regeneration of white spruce
and associated species in Interior Alaska. In: Hollis, Charles A.;
Squillace, Anthony E., eds. Proceedings: Fifth North American Forest
Biology Workshop; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference
unknown]. [Place of publication unknown]. Forest Service, U.S.
Department of Agriculture: 213-220. 
229. Zinke, Paul J. 1977. The redwood forest and associated north coast
forests. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial
vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 679-698.
230. Mosquin, Theodore. 1966. A new taxonomy for Epilobium angustifolium L.
(Onagraceae). Brittonia. 18(2): 167-188. 
231. The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. 2006. Flora Europaea, [Online].
Edinburgh, Scotland: The Royal Botanic Garden (Producer). Available:
FEIS Home Page