Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Chamerion angustifolium

Introductory

SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Chamerion angustifolium. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. ABBREVIATION : CHAANG SYNONYMS : Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop. [231] Epilobium angustifolium L. E. a. ssp. angustifolium Mosq. E. a. ssp. circumvagum Mosq. E. a. var. canescens Wood E. a. f. albiflorum (Dum.) Haussk. E. a. f. spectabile (Simmons) Fern. [72,112,224,230] SCS PLANT CODE : CHAN9 COMMON NAMES : fireweed common fireweed perennial fireweed narrow-leaved fireweed great willow-herb rosebay willow-herb blooming Sally TAXONOMY : The currently accepted name of fireweed is Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub [112]; it is in the evening primrose family (Onagraceae). This is an extremely variable taxon with worldwide distribution [164]. Recognized subspecies are [112]: C. a. ssp. angustifolium C. a. ssp. circumvagum (Mosq.) Hotch LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Fireweed is a circumboreal native species and is found in all of the Canadian provinces [72,82,127,188].  It occurs throughout the United States except in the southeastern states and Texas [83,94,113,175,191]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES10  White - red - jack pine    FRES11  Spruce - fir    FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine    FRES14  Oak - pine    FRES18  Maple - beech - birch    FRES19  Aspen - birch    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES22  Western white pine    FRES23  Fir - spruce    FRES24  Hemlock - Sitka spruce    FRES25  Larch    FRES26  Lodgepole pine    FRES27  Redwood    FRES44  Alpine STATES :      AK  AZ  CA  CO  CT  DE  ID  IL  IN  IA      KS  ME  MD  MA  MI  MN  MT  NE  NV  NH      NJ  NM  NY  NC  ND  OH  OH  OR  PA  RI      SD  TN  UT  VT  VA  WA  WV  WI  WY  AB      BC  LB  MB  NB  NF  NT  NS  ON  PE  PQ      SK  YT  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     1  Northern Pacific Border     2  Cascade Mountains     3  Southern Pacific Border     4  Sierra Mountains     5  Columbia Plateau     6  Upper Basin and Range     7  Lower Basin and Range     8  Northern Rocky Mountains     9  Middle Rocky Mountains    10  Wyoming Basin    11  Southern Rocky Mountains    12  Colorado Plateau    13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont    14  Great Plains    15  Black Hills Uplift    16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K001  Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest    K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest    K003  Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest    K004  Fir - hemlock forest    K005  Mixed conifer forest    K006  Redwood forest    K008  Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest    K010  Ponderosa shrub forest    K011 Western ponderosa forest    K012 Douglas-fir forest    K013  Cedar - hemlock - pine forest    K014  Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest    K015  Western spruce - fir forest    K017  Black Hills pine forest    K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest    K019  Arizona pine forest    K020  Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest    K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest    K029  California mixed evergreen forest    K093  Great Lakes spruce - fir forest    K095  Great Lakes pine forest    K096  Northeastern spruce - fir forest    K110  Northeastern oak - pine forest    K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest    K112  Southern mixed forest SAF COVER TYPES :      1  Jack pine      5  Balsam fir     12  Black spruce     13  Black spruce - tamarack     16  Aspen     18  Paper birch     20  White pine - northern red oak - red maple     55  Northern red oak     76  Shortleaf pine - oak    102  Baldcypress - tupelo    108  Red maple    201  White spruce    202  White spruce - paper birch    203  Balsam poplar    204  Black spruce    205  Mountain hemlock    206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir    210  Interior Douglas-fir    212  Western larch    213  Grand fir    216  Blue spruce    217  Aspen    218  Lodgepole pine    223  Sitka spruce    224  Western hemlock    225  Western hemlock - Sitka spruce    227  Western redcedar - western hemlock    229  Pacific Douglas-fir    230  Douglas-fir - western hemlock    232  Redwood    243  Sierra Nevada mixed conifer    251  White spruce - aspen    252  Paper birch    253  Black spruce - white spruce    254  Black spruce -  paper birch    256  California mixed subalpine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Fireweed is a dominant species in many diverse riparian and upland seral community types.  It is not useful for vegetation classification in some areas because it is abundant in a wide variety of stands [128]. Fireweed is an indicator species in ruderal vegetation types in Minnesota, Alaska, British Columbia, and Quebec [56,88,120,122]. Fireweed is a dominant species and is used in the following classifications: (1)  Classification of the riparian vegetation of the montane and      subalpine zones in western Colorado [16] (2)  Phytogeographia Laurentiana. II. The principal plant associations      of the Saint Lawrence Valley [56] (3)  Vegetation of the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming, in relation to      substrate and climate [59] (4)  Montane zone vegetation of the Alsek River region, southwestern      Yukon [61] (5)  Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities      after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska [76] (6)  Subalpine forb community types of the Bridger-Teton National      Forest, Wyoming [85] (7)  Vegetation types in northwestern Alaska and comparisons with      communities in other Arctic regions [88] (8)  Vegetation relationships among some seral ecosystems in      southwestern British Columbia [122] (9)  Ecosystem classification and interpretation of the sub-boreal      spruce zone, Prince Rupert Forest Region, British Columbia [173]

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Fireweed is a preferred food for ungulates in British Columbia, Wyoming, and Oregon [29,58,91,184,205].  It is eaten by moose, caribou, muskrats, and hares in British Columbia [29].  In Alberta, fireweed is incidental forage for bighorn sheep [23].  Fireweed is consumed by woodland caribou in Minnesota and Ontario [49,186].  It is an important summer food for mountain goats in Alaska [95].  Small mammals, such as chipmunks and pikas, eat fireweed seeds [221].  Fireweed is a nectar source for hummingbirds [172,200].  Butterflies use both the nectar and pollen from fireweed [25]. In the Rocky Mountains, fireweed is an important food for elk in summer [106,126,129].  Elk sometimes feed exclusively on fireweed [180].  In one study, utilization of fireweed reflected its availability; an average of 4 percent of bites of forbs taken by elk on burned areas was fireweed, compared with less than 0.5 percent of bites on unburned areas [34].  In another study, elk utilized fireweed more in clearcuts than in grass-shrub communities [106]. Fireweed use by white-tailed deer was restricted to the months of January and May [114].  Foraging deer used fireweed 3 to 8 percent of the time during July and August in Minnesota [105]. In Oregon, black-tailed deer prefer fireweed [66,67].  Black-tailed deer use fireweed as forage from May to July in British Columbia and Alaska [47,167].  In Washington, black-tailed deer stomach content analyses showed that fireweed was a major food item, eaten with 14 percent frequency [30].  It was consumed throughout the entire growing season (May to October). Mule deer use fireweed moderately as forage during the summer in Wyoming and Colorado [57,220].  In Arizona, fireweed is rated as potentially valuable forage for mule deer and elk during the spring (March to May) [209]. Fireweed comprised 44 percent of summer and 18 percent of fall nonwoody forage eaten by moose in Idaho [179].  In Montana, moose used fireweed as food less than 2 percent during spring and winter [194].  Moose used fireweed as approximately 5 percent of summer forage in Wyoming [99]. Fireweed was preferred by moose in Minnesota during June and July and was eaten 7 to 17 percent of the time [105].  In Alaska, before it flowered, fireweed was a preferred major food item for moose during July [133].  Postflowering fireweed plants were rarely consumed. PALATABILITY : The palatability of fireweed for livestock and wildlife species has been rated as follows [60,104,200]:                          ID      MT      OR      UT      WA      WY Cattle                  ----    ----    good    ----    good    ---- Sheep                   good    ----    good    ----    good    ---- Pronghorn               ----    ----    ----    good    ----    poor Elk                     good    fair    ----    good    ----    good Mule deer               good    fair    ----    good    ----    good White-tailed deer       good    fair    ----    fair    ----    good Small mammals           ----    ----    ----    fair    ----    good Small nongame birds     ----    ----    ----    fair    ----    good Upland game birds       ----    ----    ----    ----    ----    poor Waterfowl               ----    ----    ----    poor    ----    poor NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Nutritional value of fireweed varies depending on season and site. Fireweed crude protein averaged 20 percent throughout the second summer following fire; dry matter digestibility was over 80 percent [58].  In another study, crude protein content was 13.7 percent, and protein digestibility (dry matter) was 13 percent [180].  Fireweed collected in July in Alaska had 11.9 percent protein, 62.2 percent dry matter digestibility for moose, and 64.7 percent dry matter digestibility for dairy cow [169].  Fireweed samples taken in July and August in Minnesota had crude protein of 4 to 9 percent and dry matter digestibility of 28 to 69 percent [186].  In Oregon, June fireweed foliage had 17.7 percent protein [66]. Fireweed flowers contain tannins that have a very high capacity to precipitate proteins, reducing the actual amount of protein available to an herbivore [180]. COVER VALUE : The degree to which fireweed provides cover during one or more seasons for wildlife species have been rated as follows [60]:                          MT      UT      WY Pronghorn               ----    poor    poor Elk                     ----    poor    poor Mule deer               ----    fair    poor White-tailed deer       poor    ----    ---- Small mammals           poor    fair    fair Small nongame birds     poor    ----    fair Upland game birds       ----    fair    fair Waterfowl               ----    poor    poor        VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Fireweed is used for revegetation of mined land.  In Alberta, fireweed successfully establishes on mine spoils in alpine and subalpine habitats [32,183].  Fireweed voluntarily seeded into plantings of commercial species on coal strip mines in Alaska [68].  Elliott and others [68] cautioned against fireweed invasion when using nonnative reclamation species.  Fireweed formed mycorrhizal associations on coal mine spoils [29]. When establishing on borrow pits of differing ages in northwestern Canada, fireweed had variable success but was present on all sites [117].  Kershaw and Kershaw [117] advocated the use of fireweed in revegetation programs in tundra regions. During a planting trial that tested the revegetation potential of species along disturbed roadsides in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, fireweed naturally seeded in with the planted grasses and forbs during the first year [145].  Fireweed is recommended for use as protective groundcover throughout British Columbia on disturbed sites, such as roadways and logged areas [221].  Planting guidelines for fireweed are detailed [221]. Revegetation of crude oil spills is a concern in tundra regions. Fireweed was 1 of 14 plants with cover greater than 2 percent on oil spill areas that were 35 years old [116].  In British Columbia, fireweed was able to survive diesel oil on its foliage; however, the plants died where the spill penetrated to the roots [221]. Planting fireweed rhizomes may speed colonization of a disturbed area [148].  Dormant rhizomes were collected and planted in simulated pipeline trenches and road rights-of-way in the Northwest Territories [148].  Fireweed plants established best with the addition of fertilizer. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Young shoots were collected by Nuxalk Indians in British Columbia for food [131].  Fireweed petals are made into jelly [98].  Mature leaves are dried and used as tea [90].  Roots are eaten raw by Siberian Eskimos [101]. Fireweed is grown as an ornamental; however, it can become an aggressive weed [94,221]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Although fireweed does not readily invade established vegetation, it may be a problem when establishing confer seedlings [43].  Fireweed overtops conifer seedlings and will persist for 10 years or more [15,29,43, 138,166].  It contributes to snow press damage of tree seedlings [87]. The thick rhizomes of fireweed may serve as occasional sources of rootrot (Armillaria ostoyae), a destructive disease in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) [121]. Fireweed is better adapted to subalpine habitats than are some introduced species used in roadside seedings.  Some managers regard fireweed as the most prominent weed of montane areas [77]. Biological Control:  A wide range of aphids and other insects have been reported as parasites or associates on fireweed [29].  In a fireweed population in northern Idaho, the smaller plants were dying of Aecidium infections [102]. Chemical Control:  Soil-acting compounds (e.g., bromacil) and foliar sprays (e.g., 2,4-D) give effective control of fireweed [29,43]. However, glyphosate only gives a short-term reduction in fireweed cover [43,171].  Other herbicides, such as pronamid or terbacil at rates of 2 pounds active ingredients per acre (2.2 kg ai/ha), do not control fireweed [201]. In a visual assessment of foliar susceptibility, fireweed was extensively damaged by sulphur dioxide released from a burning landfill [96]. Mechanical Control:  Fireweed is susceptible to damage from continual grazing, trampling, or mowing [29].  However, stembases are stimulated by cutting to produce more shoots and rhizomes [41].  Early spring grazing of fireweed stimulates shoot production; plants can be grazed again in the fall.  Since this grazing regime lowers fireweed vitality, grazing can be used for suppression [104].  Fireweed cover was reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent after 2 years of grazing by sheep [107].  By year 7, fireweed began to disappear.  Fireweed has low resistance to human trampling.  Less than 40 passes per year through a fireweed population reduced its frequency and cover [42], but it was able to recover between seasons of use. Various straw mulches were placed on a clearcut in Quebec to suppress herbaceous vegetation [109].  The mulch had no effect on the presence of fireweed. Disturbance to the forest floor may increase fireweed.  V-blade and brush rake site preparation methods after clearcutting increased the amount of fireweed; however, disking did not [108].  Unscalped areas supported more fireweed cover on both clearcut and shelterwood cut white spruce (Picea glauca) stands in Alaska [228].  Unscarified areas in clearcut sub-boreal forests had higher fireweed cover than blade-scarified areas; however, unscarified areas in clearcut boreal forests had lower fireweed cover than blade-scarified areas [27]. To enhance forage species, such as fireweed, subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) was clearcut in strips.  Fireweed significantly (p<0.05) increased in standing crop biomass on the cut areas [177].  Foliar cover and height of fireweed are able to account for 89 percent of the variation in biomass in a variety of cover types in Alaska [225].  This model can be used to predict the productivity of an area. Industry Considerations:  Fireweed is an important nectar producer for the honey industry throughout Canada [29].  Honey production from fireweed in the Soviet Union was reported as 892.2 pounds per acre (1,000 kg/ha) [29].  Ingram [104] noted that apiarists followed logging operations to ensure fireweed nectar sources.

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Fireweed is a robust native perennial forb.  It has fine roots and rhizomes that extend down vertically to 17.7 inches (45 cm) from the plant, with most growing between 0 and 5.9 inches (0-15 cm) deep [103,154,161].  The single stems are from 3 to 9 feet (1-2.7 m) tall and may be very leafy [72,104].  Leaves are 2.8 to 5.9 inches (7-15 cm) long [72].  One plant may have 15 or more flowers [29].  Each flower produces a capsule with 300 to 500 seeds [72,196].  Seeds have a tuft of long hairs on one end [196]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :    Geophyte    Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Fireweed regenerates sexually and asexually.  Airborne seeds allow fireweed to establish rapidly [93].  Hungerford [103] noted that an opening in a canopy was not enough to ensure fireweed establishment. Fireweed requires bare mineral soil in addition to high light for germination [137].  Moisture supply is more stable and more nutrients are available on a mineral soil seedbed [137].  Once established, it forms large colonies via rhizomes and produces large amounts of seed [41]. Vegetative Reproduction:  Vegetative reproduction is more prevalent than sexual reproduction [29].  Fireweed may not flower every year in the northern limits of its range or at alpine elevations in the southern limits [43,185]. Fireweed readily sprouts from rhizomes following disturbance.  Fireweed was a residual survivor on Mount St. Helens, Washington, following the 1980 volcanic eruption [143,152].  Shoots sprouting from rhizomes are capable of very rapid growth; they may bloom within 1 month [195]. Fragmentation of rhizomes stimulates shoot production [41].  A 4-year-old rhizome was excavated and found to be 20 feet (6.1 m) long; it had 56 perennating buds.  Rhizome length depends on soil fertility and amount of competing vegetation present [104]. Sexual Reproduction:  Fireweed flowers can self-cross or outcross [29]. They are principally pollinated by insects [29].  Fireweed is a prolific seed producer [41].  One plant may produce about 80,000 seeds per year [196].  In seed traps placed on a burn in Saskatchewan, fireweed represented 63 percent of all germinated seeds [11].  One year after the Mount St. Helens explosion, 81 percent of seed collected in seed traps were fireweed seeds [55].  Fireweed was one of the most abundant colonizers on Mount St. Helens [143,152,158]. Seeds are nondormant and germinate over a variety of temperatures.  One hundred percent of newly collected fireweed seeds germinated within 10 days [29].  Fireweed does not create a long-lived seed bank [10,110,146]. Most seeds lose viability after 18 to 24 months [29,43,87].  Optimum germinating conditions are warm, well-lighted, and humid [29].  Seed collected from subalpine (9,285 feet [2,830 m]) meadows in the Sierra Nevada, California, gave 55 to 68 percent germination under day/night temperature regimes of 62/55 degrees Fahrenheit (17/13 deg C) and 81/73 degrees Fahrenheit (27/23 deg C), respectively.  The lowest percent germination (12 percent) was at 53.6/46.4 degrees Fahrenheit (12/8 deg C) [37].  Broderick [29] reported similar germination rates; however, he saw 86 percent germination at 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 deg C). Fireweed seed hairs or plumes respond to humidity.  Increased humidity causes a decreased plume diameter which results in reduced loft [55]. This increases the chance that seeds are deposited in places with moisture adequate for germination.  Plumed seed has low rates (0.21 to 0.23 foot per second [0.065-0.069 m/s]) of fall in still air [196]. Using modified insect suction traps mounted on radio towers, Solbreck and Andersson [196] found that 20 to 50 percent of the seeds sampled at 328 feet (100 m) in an air column above a burned forest in Sweden were fireweed seeds.  Since the seeds were commonly aloft for 10 hours per day, they suggested that the seeds traveled 62.2 to 186.5 miles (100-300 km) during that time.  Broderick [29] reported that the seed rain of fireweed for all of northern Quebec was 3.7 seeds per square foot (40 seeds/sq m). SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Fireweed tolerates a wide range of site and soil conditions, but it most commonly occurs on disturbed ground.  It is abundant in coniferous forests, mixed forests, aspen parklands, grasslands, sylvotundra (i.e., area between treeless tundra and circumpolar coniferous forest), and muskegs [54,134,144,163,210].  Fireweed grows on disturbed areas such as cut-over or burned forests and swamps, avalanche areas, recently deglaciated areas, and riverbars [22,101,153,208].  Additional disturbed sites are highway and railroad rights-of-way, waste places, and old fields [94,188]. In North America, fireweed occurs in maritime to strongly continental climates with short, warm summers and long, cold winters [28,229]. Annual precipitation averages between 13 inches (330 mm) on the north-central edge of its range and 134.7 inches (3,420 mm) on the west coastal edge [4,28]. Fireweed occurs on soils that vary from thin layers above permafrost in the subarctic regions to deep loams in the western United States [136]. Soil development ranges from clays and clayey loams to sandy loams to unweathered parent material [4,73].  Organic matter may be low in fireweed soils or very high and peaty [227].  Low soil pH may affect plant fertility.  Fireweed grown in soil with pH 3.5 produced 80 percent fewer seeds than plants grown in soil with pH 5.0 [29].  Fireweed may occur in neutral soils [48,208].  Northern soils in which fireweed occurs may be frozen 4 to 5 months or longer [29]. Fireweed occurs on flat to rolling topography or moderate to steep slopes [12].  It is found from sea level to high alpine elevations [89,185].  Mueggler [162] found no significant (p>0.05) effect of aspect on the frequency of fireweed in burned areas in Idaho. Fireweed has numerous common associates.  Trees associated with fireweed include Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa), American hazel (Corylus americana), Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and swamp black gum (Nyssa biflora) [22,53,69,153]. Common shrubs found with fireweed are snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus), snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus), thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis), prickly rose (Rosa acicularis), hoary willow (Salix candida), black twinberry (Lonicera involucrata), and common juniper (Juniperus communis) [123,130,134,136,178,229]. Other postdisturbance species associated with fireweed are bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), pinegrass (C. rubescens), purple reedgrass (C. purpurascens), and Wyoming wildrye (Leymus flavescens) [65,97,136,190,227].  In moister grasslands, fireweed occurs with sedges (Carex spp.) and sailorcaps shootingstar (Dodecatheon conjugens) [210]. Pteridophyte associates are western swordfern (Polystichum minutum), brackenfern (Pteridium aquilinum), and woodland horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum) [21,229].  Important liverwort and moss associates are Marchantia polymorpha and Ceratodon purpureus [226]. (Also see Distribution and Association) SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Fireweed is an important colonizer following vegetation disturbances in temperate climates worldwide [46,157].  Although the role of fireweed as an early seral species does not change, the length of time fireweed populations are present varies among ecosystems.  Fireweed enters a disturbed community and rapidly becomes abundant.  It may achieve a peak in dominance within 2 to 3 years [43].  It starts low in frequency and density if it must seed in from off-site [118].  Halpern [86] found that after disturbance in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in Oregon, fireweed cover peaked in year 7 and then slowly declined. Fireweed populations can maintain themselves through vegetative reproduction if conditions are not conducive to flowering.  Depending upon surrounding vegetation fireweed may create widely spaced colonies with low stem densities [29].  In Alaska, ground that was covered 30 years by debris from oil exploration was cleared or burned [64]. Fireweed vegetatively colonized these areas at low frequencies and cover.  In 20 study sites in Montana, Stickney [202] reported that fireweed established with about 3 percent cover 1 year after disturbance.  By the second year, it peaked at about 30 percent cover and stayed around this amount for the next 8 years. Fireweed is one of the first plants to enter a community during the seedling/herb stage [3,50].  This may last 1 to 15 years in the Yukon Territory [92].  Sometimes, it will persist into the pole stage [84]. Young forests differ in the range of microhabitats (i.e., variations in light, nutrients, and moisture) available; fireweed will persist if a stand is open [43]. Moore [157] stated that fireweed declined in successional communities because soil conditions became unsuitable for growth as nutrients are leached out.  However, other studies suggest that fireweed declines due to the effects of competing vegetation [149,207].  Progressive changes from open to closed canopy in a forest result in decreasing abundance of fireweed [3,40,207].  Several studies report that fireweed is shade intolerant [81,115,124,157,182,217].  However, it can exist in partial shade with a corresponding reduction in productivity [200].  Shirley [192] found that fireweed response to Norway pine (Pinus resinosa) canopy cover was variable.  At 5 percent of total sunlight, fireweed occurred with 62 percent frequency; at 10 percent of total sunlight, fireweed occurred with 100 percent frequency [192].  Frequency of fireweed plants declined to 50 percent at 45 percent of total sunlight and then, increased to 100 percent frequency at 65 to 100 percent of total sunlight.  Mueggler [162] found a significant (p<0.05) decrease in fireweed frequency when tree canopy cover exceeded 41 percent. Fireweed colonizes recent alluvial deposits [132].  It acts as a pioneer species on glacial moraines, establishing with willows (Salix spp.) on exposed gravel, sand, and silt bars [216,226].  In Glacier Bay, Alaska, the pioneer stage with fireweed and willows lasts 1 to 5 years [213]. In succession on delta swamps in Michigan, the grass stage with bluejoint reedgrass and fireweed follows the sedge-mat stage.  The grass stage is succeeded by a shrub stage [44]. Fireweed is an indicator of a mid-seral stage of succession in the herb layer of the grand fir/Rocky mountain maple (Abies grandis/Acer glabrum) habitat type in central Idaho [200].  It is an indicator of early seral stages in grand fir/blue huckleberry (Vaccinium globulare) habitat types [198]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : The time ranges given here for the phenological stages of fireweed reflect its widespread distribution, varying from region to region and from habitat to habitat.  Root growth can begin at 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4.5 deg C), preceding stem emergence [29].  Shoots emerge in spring (late March to early June).  Leaves are full grown approximately 1 month after emergence [43].  Maximum biomass occurs in summer (August) and may be 0.12 to 0.19 pounds per square foot (0.6-0.9 kg/sq m) [43].  Flowers bloom June through September [83,111,164,188,191,224].  Fruits mature approximately 1 month later [187].  Seeds are released beginning in August and continue to be shed after shoots have died from frost injury [43,187].  Foliage will turn color with limited water availability in the late summer and fall [62].  Seeds germinate late summer or fall, and seedlings overwinter as a rosette [43].  The primary and secondary roots of seedlings may develop buds which overwinter [195].  Shoot buds form in the fall on lateral roots and overwinter just below the soil surface [29].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Fireweed is a component of diverse ecosystems in boreal and temperate regions with variable fire regimes.  Fireweed is primarily adapted to fire through its rhizomes and its prolific production of wind-dispersed seed.  Depending upon depth of rhizomes in the soil, fireweed is moderately susceptible to resistant to fire [43,150,219].  The majority of roots and rhizomes are in the top 2 inches (5 cm) of mineral soil and can survive relatively intense fires [43,74,150]. Fireweed has high ash and high moisture content; it is not considered flammable [223].  A study that examined litter fall in aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands found that the dominant herbaceous species was fireweed, which contributed 334.6 pounds per acre (375 kg/ha) to litter [48].  However, fireweed litter rapidly decomposes.  Fireweed leaves lost more than 70 percent of their mass after 3 years in the field [206]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Geophyte, growing points deep in soil    Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)    Secondary colonizer - on-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire top-kills fireweed.  Seed in the surface organic layers is killed by fire [74].  Surviving fireweed rhizomes vigorously sprout after a fire [35,86].  Twenty to thirty days after fires in July and August fireweed sprouted from rhizomes [195,199]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Fireweed is an important off-site colonizer after fire [203,204]. Often, it is not present on a site before a fire but establishes during the first postfire year [8,9,38,215].  Seedlings are initially present in low amounts [155,174].  Colony growth continues via rhizome expansion; some seedlings continue to establish as mineral soil microsites open. Initial establishment of fireweed seedlings usually exceeds expectations of frequency based upon on-site prefire vegetation [141].  Following a fire in eastern Siberian taiga, fireweed regenerated, and 79.5 percent of fireweed individuals present sprouted from seed [212]. Fireweed is usually an increaser following fire [36,78,193,205].  Within 3 postfire months, fireweed was present at 3 percent frequency and 1 percent cover in central Alberta [7].  Fireweed slowly increases in abundance, often with 100 percent frequency and 30 percent or more cover, to peak on average postfire years 5 [18,39,51,63,80,155,170].  In the Cascade Range, fireweed had significantly (p<0.05) different amounts of cover at postfire years 3 to 5, but from years 11 to 16, there was no significant (p>0.05) change in cover between burned and unburned areas [160].  However, at 11 postfire years, fireweed was present at 91 percent frequency on upland sites in northwestern Oregon [165].  It was not in the surrounding Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) stand.  Fireweed was still one of the principal cover species 10 to 12 postfire years on severe fire sites in northern Idaho and western Montana [45,140,147,203].  In other studies, the highest frequency for fireweed was reached 17 to 20 years after fire [45,142,162]. Fireweed production may vary with severity of fire.  Severe fires remove organic soil layers, exposing mineral soil which is an excellent seedbed for fireweed.  Therefore, cover and density are greatest on severely burned areas because of good seedling establishment [13,17,19,20,43]. Three years following an August fire, fireweed production steadily increased from 423.8 air dried pounds per acre (475 kg/ha) on low-severity burns to 1,478.4 air dried pounds per acre (1,657 hg/ha) on high-severity burns [20].  However, fireweed was more dense 1 year after fire in Wyoming on moderate-severity burns compared to high-severity burns [6]. Initially, fireweed decreased after fire from prefire levels of cover (20 percent) in a Douglas-fir stand in south-central Idaho [139]. However, by postfire year 3, cover had doubled the amount present prefire.  Postfire years 5 to 8, fireweed cover peaked at 84 to 88 percent [139].  Fireweed was expected to decline over the next 20 years to prefire levels. Fireweed is one of the most abundant forbs on most burned areas of interior Alaska [138].  A series of severe fires in Alaska will convert any forest type into a semipermanent herbaceous or shrub community [33]. The herbaceous communities are usually fireweed and grasses, such as bluejoint reedgrass. Immediately following burning of a white spruce type, fireweed can form relatively stable communities with bluejoint reedgrass that may last 100 years in interior Alaska [137].  Following fire in black spruce (Picea mariana) in the Northwest Territories, fireweed is the most prominent plant and is one of several diagnostic species for the first stage of recovery [26].  This stage may last 1 to 20 years [26]. In Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir communities (Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa), fireweed was dominant on stands 1 to 10 postdisturbance years; it declined on stands 11 to 80 postdisturbance years [71,189]. Following fire in the western hemlock/Douglas-fir zone in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, fireweed was common for stands 2 postfire years [100].  However, it began to decline in frequency in stands 3 to 19 postfire years.  After about 30 years, fireweed had a low average frequency (4 to 10 percent) with about 1 percent cover in burned-over areas of different cover types, such as paper birch (Betula papyrifera), aspen, and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) [168].  This pattern was seen in Douglas-fir stands in the Cascade Range, Washington, aged 5 to 73 years following logging and burning [135].  Fonda [75] found that fireweed persisted under similar circumstances in stands 65 years or younger. Fireweed began to decline in frequency as the crown of different forest types closed in stands approximately 57 to 280 postfire years and was absent in stands aged 290 to 515 postfire years [40,100,207]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Lyon's Research Paper, Hamilton's Research Papers (Hamilton 2006a, Hamilton 2006b), and the following Research Project Summaries provide information on prescribed fire use and postfire responses of many plant species, including fireweed:
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : 
In white spruce-aspen stands in Alberta, prescribed fire was not
effective for conifer regeneration after logging [119].  Heavy postfire
sprouting by aspen and fireweed inhibited white spruce seedling
establishment.  Light surface fires stimulated fireweed growth to 100
pounds per acre (111.9 kg/ha) within 3 months.

Fireweed and other forbs produced heavy cover following a severe fire in
Minnesota that inhibited jack pine growth [1].  Jack pine seedlings were
thin, light colored, and stunted.  Despite detrimental effects of
shading tree seedlings, herbaceous cover may provide higher microsite
humidity and suppress shrubs [2,151].

Fireweed effectively uptakes and recycles large amounts of nutrients
from burned-over areas [166].  Fireweed foliage had significantly
(p<0.05) higher levels of nutrients (potassium, magnesium, manganese,
phosphates, and zinc) on burned areas compared to unburned controls
[197].

Fire protection managers should consider using fireweed when they
require a species with low flammability rating (for rating factors see
Fire Ecology or Adaptations) [223].  Fireweed is included in the
narrow-leaved forb class for establishing fuel weights [31].

Following logging, slash may be bulldozed into piles.  Bulldozing
scarifies the soil, and slash piles burn very hot; fireweed readily
established in these open spots [14,218,222].  Fireweed had
significantly (p<0.05) higher frequency of occurrence on logged and
broadcast burned areas than on unburned areas [162].  Dense fireweed
stands protected slash from sun and wind during the fifth year after
cutting, reducing the probable rate of fire spread compared to the first
summer after cutting [159].  However, fireweed increases the rate of
fire spread with dead leaves and stems.

Burning, mechanical (e.g., tree cutting), biological (e.g., intense
sheep grazing), and chemical controls were applied to enhance big
huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum) communities on Mount Adams,
Washington.  These treatments had no significant (p>0.05) effect on
fireweed abundance during postdisturbance years 1 and 2 [156].  Fireweed
was significantly more abundant on burned plots postdisturbance year 5.
No other treatments had a significant (p>0.05) effect on fireweed
abundance after 5 years.

In Alberta, forage species, such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and
crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum cv. Fairway) were seeded into
burned areas [5].  Fireweed successfully invaded the plantings and was
still present after five years.  Grasses aerially seeded on burns may
compete and displace fireweed.  In Montana, Pattee Canyon was aerially
seeded with commercial grasses following a fire.  Fireweed had low cover
values 10 years later [211].  Toth [211] suggested that orchardgrass
(Dactylis glomerata) had displaced fireweed.

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Chamerion angustifolium
1. Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1959. Some effects of fire on forest reproduction in northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Forestry. 57: 194-200. [208] 2. Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1970. Some effects of prescribed burning on jack pine reproduction in northeastern Minnesota. Misc. Rep. 94, Forestry Series 5-1970. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Agricultural Experiment Station. 14 p. [7285] 3. Alaback, Paul B. 1984. Plant succession following logging in the Sitka spruce-western hemlock forests of southeast Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-173. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p. [7849] 4. Alaback, Paul B.; Herman, F. R. 1988. Long-term response of understory vegetation to stand density in Picea-Tsuga forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 18: 1522-1530. [6227] 5. Anderson, C. H.; Elliott, C. R. 1957. Studies on the establishment of cultivated grasses and legumes on burned-over land in northern Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 37: 97-101. [12821] 6. Anderson, Jay E.; Romme, William H. 1991. Initial floristics in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests following the 1988 Yellowstone fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 1(2): 119-124. [16008] 7. Anderson, Murray L.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1979. Effect of fire on a Symphoricarpos occidentalis shrub community in central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 2820-2823. [2867] 8. Apfelbaum, Steven; Haney, Alan. 1981. Bird populations before and after wildfire in a Great Lakes pine forest. Condor. 83: 347-354. [8556] 9. Apfelbaum, Steven I.; Haney, Alan; Dole, R. Edward. 1984. Ascocarp formation by Morchella angusticeps after wildfire. Michigan Botanist. 23: 99-102. [8335] 10. Archibold, O. W. 1979. Buried viable propagules as a factor in postfire regeneration in northern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 54-58. [5934] 11. Archibold, O. W. 1980. Seed imput into a postfire forest site in northern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 10: 129-134. [4506] 12. Argus, George W. 1966. Botanical investigations in northeastern Saskatchewan: the subarctic Patterson-Hasbala Lakes region. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 80(3): 119-143. [8406] 13. Armour, Charles D.; Bunting, Stephen C.; Neuenschwander, Leon F. 1984. Fire intensity effects on the understory in ponderosa pine forests. Journal of Range Management. 37(1): 44-48. [6618] 14. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1985. Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-177. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 74 p. [349] 15. Arnott, J. T. 1989. Managing for aspen--a shared responsibility. Forestry Chronicle. Feb: 16-22. [6350] 16. Baker, William L. 1989. Classification of the riparian vegetation of the montane and subalpine zones in western Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist. 49(2): 214-228. [7985] 17. Barmore, William J., Jr.; Taylor, Dale; Hayden, Peter. 1976. Ecological effects and biotic succession following the 1974 Waterfalls Canyon Fire in Grand Teton National Park. Research Progress Report 1974-1975. Unpublished report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 99 p. [16109] 18. Barth, Richard C. 1970. Revegetation after a subalpine wildfire. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 142 p. Thesis. [12458] 19. Bartos, Dale L. 1979. Effects of burning on the aspen ecosystem. In: Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Wyoming shrublands: Proceedings of the 8th shrub ecology workshop; 1979 May 30-31; Jackson, WY. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Division of Range Management, Wyoming Shrub Ecology Workshop: 47-58. [400] 20. Bartos, D. L.; Mueggler, W. F. 1981. Early succession in aspen communities following fire in western Wyoming. Journal of Range Management. 34(4): 315-318. [5100] 21. Beasleigh, W. J.; Yarranton, G. A. 1974. Ecological strategy and tactics of Equisetum sylvaticum during a postfire succession. Canadian Journal of Botany. 52: 2299-2318. [9965] 22. Beaven, George Francis; Oosting, Henry J. 1939. Pocomoke Swamp: a study of a cypress swamp on the eastern shore of Maryland. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 66: 376-389. [14507] 23. Bentz, Jerry A.; Woodard, Paul M. 1988. Vegetation characteristics and bighorn sheep use on burned and unburned areas in Alberta. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 16(2): 186-193. [15276] 24. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 25. Bertsch, Andreas. 1983. Nectar prod. of Epilobium angustifolium L. at different air humidities; nectar sugar in individual flowers and the optimal foraging theory. Oecologia. 59: 40-48. [19636] 26. Black, R. A.; Bliss, L. C. 1978. Recovery sequence of Picea mariana - Vaccinium uliginosum forests after burning near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany. 56: 2020-2030. [7448] 27. Brand, David G. 1991. The establishment of boreal and sub-boreal conifer plantations: an integrated analysis of environmental conditions and seedling growth. Forest Science. 37(1): 68-100. [14408] 28. Breitung, August J. 1954. A botanical survey of the Cypress Hills. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 68: 55-92. [6262] 29. Broderick, D. H. 1990. The biology of Canadian weeds. 93. Epilobium angustifolium L. (Onagraceae). Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 70: 247-259. [11077] 30. Brown, Ellsworth R. 1961. The black-tailed deer of western Washington. Biological Bulletin No. 13. [Place of publication unknown]: Washington State Game Commission. 124 p. [8843] 31. Brown, James K.; Marsden, Michael A. 1976. Estimating fuel weights of grasses, forbs, and small woody plants. Res. Note INT-210. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest & Range Experiment Station. 11 p. [5030] 32. Brown, Ray W.; Johnston, Robert S.; Johnson, Douglas A. 1978. Rehabilitation of alpine tundra disturbances. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 33: 154-160. [14883] 33. Buckley, John L. 1958. Effects of fire on Alaskan wildlife. In: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters: 123-126. [16306] 34. Canon, S. K.; Urness, P. J.; DeByle, N. V. 1987. Habitat selection, foraging behavior, and dietary nutrition of elk in burned aspen forest. Journal of Range Management. 40(5): 443-438. [3453] 35. Carroll, S. B.; Bliss, L. C. 1982. Jack pine - lichen woodland on sandy soils in northern Saskatchewan and northeastern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 60: 2270-2282. [7283] 36. Cattelino, Peter J. 1980. A reference base for vegetative response and species reproductive strategies. Final Report. Supplement No. 10 to Master Memorandum between Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station and Gradient Modeling, Inc. Missoula, MT: Gradient Modeling, Inc. 30 p. [12085] 37. Chabot, Brian F.; Billings, W. D. 1972. Origins and ecology of the Sierran alpine flora and vegetation. Ecological Monographs. 42(2): 163-199. [11228] 38. Chrosciewicz, Z. 1970. Regeneration of jack pine by burning and seeding treatments on clear-cut sites in central Ontario. Inf. Rep. 0-X-138. Forest Research laboratory, Ontario Region, Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 13 p. [7241] 39. Chrosciewicz, Z. 1976. Burning for black spruce regeneration on a lowland cutover site in southeastern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 6(2): 179-186. [7280] 40. Clagg, Harry B. 1975. Fire ecology in high-elevation forests in Colorado. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 137 p. Thesis. [113] 41. Coates, D.; Haeussler, S. 1986. A preliminary guide to the response of major species of competing vegetation to silvicultural treatments. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Information Services Branch; Land Management Handbook Number 9. 88 p. [17453] 42. Cole, David N. 1988. Disturbance and recovery of trampled montane grassland and forests in Montana. Res. Pap. INT-389. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 37 p. [3622] 43. Comeau, Philip G.; Watts, Susan B.; Caza, Caroline L.; [and others]. 1989. Autecology, biology, competetive status and response to treatment of seven southern interior weed species. FRDA Report 093; ISSN 0835 0572. Victoria, BC: BC Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 46 p. [9471] 44. Cooper, William S. 1913. The climax forest of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, and its development. III. Botanical Gazette. 55(3): 189-235. [11539] 45. Cooper, William S. 1928. Seventeen years of successional change upon Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Ecology. 9(1): 1-5. [7297] 46. Cormack, R. G. H. 1953. A survey of coniferous forest succession in the eastern Rockies. Forestry Chronicle. 29: 218-232. [16458] 47. Cowan, Ian McTaggart. 1945. The ecological relationships of the food of the Columbian black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson), in the c. forest region southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ecological Monographs. 15(2): 110-139. [16006] 48. Cragg, J. B.; Carter, Alan; Leischner, Clara; [and others]. 1977. Litter fall and chemical cycling in an aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodland ecosystem in the Canadian Rockies. Pedobiologia. 17: 428-443. [8654] 49. Cringan, Alexander Thom. 1957. History, food habits and range requirements of the woodland caribou of continental North America. Transactions, North American Wildlife Conference. 22: 485-501. [15651] 50. Cromack, K.; Swanson, F. J.; Grier, C. C. 1979. A comparison of harvesting methods and their impact on soils and environment in the Pacific Northwest. In: Youngberg, Chester T., ed. Forest soils and land use--Proceedings, 5th North American forest soils conference; 1978 August 6-9; [Location of conference unknown]. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University: 449-476. [8420] 51. Croskery, P. R.; Lee, P. F. 1981. Preliminary investigations of regeneration patterns following wildfire in the boreal forest of northwestern Ontario. Alces. 17: 229-256. [7888] 52. Crow, T. R.; Mroz, G. D.; Gale, M. R. 1991. Regrowth and nutrient accumulations following whole-tree harvesting of a maple-oak forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1305-1315. [16600] 53. Crowther, Evan G.; Harper, K. T. 1965. Vegetational and edaphic characteristics associated with aspen "strips" in Big Cottonwood Canyon. Utah Academy Proceedings. 42(II): 222-230. [15663] 54. Curtis, Alan B. 1986. Camas Swale Research Natural Area. Supplement No. 21. In: Franklin, Jerry F.; Hall, Frederick C.; Dyrness, C. T.; Maser, Chris. Federal research natural areas in Oregon and Washington: A guidebook for scientists and educators. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest and Range Experiment Station. 18 p. [226] 55. Dale, Virginia H. 1989. Wind dispersed seeds and plant recovery on the Mount St. Helens debris avalanche. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67: 1434-1441. [12670] 56. Dansereau, Pierre. 1959. The principal plant associations of the Saint Lawrence Valley. No. 75. Montreal, Canada: Contrib. Inst. Bot. Univ. Montreal. 147 p. [8925] 57. Davis, Peter R. 1976. Response of vertebrate fauna forest fire and clearcutting in south central Wyoming. Final Report Cooperative Agreements Nos. 16-391-CA and 16-464-CA, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and University of Wyoming. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Department of Zoology and Physiology. 94 p. [318] 58. DeByle, Norbert V.; Urness, Philip J.; Blank, Deborah L. 1989. Forage quality in burned and unburned aspen communities. Res. Pap. INT-404. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 8 p. [6588] 59. Despain, Don G. 1973. Vegetation of the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming, in relation to substrate and climate. Ecological Monographs. 43(3): 329-355. [789] 60. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 61. Douglas, George W. 1974. Montane zone vegetation of the Alsek River region, southwestern Yukon. Canadian Journal of Botany. 52: 2505-2532. [17283] 62. Drew, Larry Albert. 1967. Comparative phenology of seral shrub communities in the cedar/hemlock zone. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 108 p. Thesis. [9654] 63. Dyrness, C. T. 1973. Early stages of plant succession following logging and burning in the western Cascades of Oregon. Ecology. 54(1): 57-69. [7345] 64. Ebersole, James J. 1987. Short-term vegetation recovery at an Alaskan arctic coastal plain site. Arctic and Alpine Research. 19(4): 442-450. [9476] 65. Edwards, M. E.; Armbruster, W. S. 1989. A tundra-steppe transition on Kathul Mountain, Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 21(3): 296-304. [9673] 66. Einarsen, Arthur S. 1946. Management of black-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management. 10(1): 54-59. [8727] 67. Einarsen, Arthur S. 1946. Crude protein determination of deer food as an applied management technique. Transactions, 11th North American Wildlife Conference. 11: 309-312. [17031] 68. Elliott, Charles L.; McKendrick, Jay D.; Helm, D. 1987. Plant biomass, cover, and survival of species used for stripmine reclamation in south-central Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 19(4): 572-577. [6116] 69. Ewing, J. 1924. Plant successions of the brush-prairie in north-western Minnesota. Journal of Ecology. 12: 238-266. [11122] 70. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 71. Fahnestock, George Reeder. 1977. Interactions of forest fire, flora, and fuels in two Cascade Range wilderness Areas. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 179 p. Thesis. [10431] 72. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 73. Foiles, Marvin W.; Curtis, James D. 1965. Natural regeneration of ponderosa pine on scarified group cuttings in central Idaho. Journal of Forestry. 63(7): 530-535. [15783] 74. Flinn, Marguerite A.; Wein, Ross W. 1977. Depth of underground plant organs and theoretical survival during fire. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55: 2550-2554. [6362] 75. Fonda, R. W. 1979. Fire resilient forests of Douglas-fir in Olympic National Park: a hypothesis. In: Linn, Robert M., ed. Proceedings, 1st conference on scientific research in the National Parks, Vol. 2; 1976 November 9-12; New Orleans, LA. NPS Transactions and Proceedings No. 5. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 1239-1242. [6698] 76. Foote, M. Joan. 1983. Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-307. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 108 p. [7080] 77. Forcella, Frank; Harvey, Stephen J. 1983. Eurasian weed infestation in western Montana in relation to vegetation and disturbance. Madrono. 30(2): 102-109. [7897] 78. Foster, David R. 1985. Vegetation development following fire in Picea mariana (black spruce) - Pleurozium forests of south-eastern Labrador, Canada. Journal of Ecology. 73: 517-534. [7222] 79. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 80. Gashwiler, Jay S. 1970. Plant and mammal changes on a clearcut in west-central Oregon. Ecology. 51(6): 1018-1026. [8523] 81. Gates, Frank C. 1942. The bogs of northern lower Michigan. Ecological Monographs. 12(3): 213-254. [10728] 82. Gleason, H. A.; Cronquist, A. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. 810 p. [7065] 83. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 84. Green, Pat; Jensen, Mark. 1991. Plant succession within managed grand fir forests of northern Idaho. In: Harvey, Alan E.; Neuenschwander, Leon F., compilers. Proceedings--management and productivity of western-montane forest soils; 1990 April 10-12; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-280. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 232-236. [15987] 85. Gregory, Shari. 1983. Subalpine forb community types of the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming. Final Report. U.S. Forest Service Cooperative Education Agreement: Contract OM 40-8555-3-115. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 100 p. [1040] 86. Halpern, C. B. 1989. Early successional patterns of forest species: interactions of life history traits and disturbance. Ecology. 70(3): 704-720. [6829] 87. Hamilton, Evelyn H.; Yearsley, H. Karen. 1988. Vegetation development after clearcutting and site preparation in the SBS zone. Economic and Regional Development Agreement: FRDA Report 018. Victoria, BC: Canadian Forestry Service, Pacific Forestry Centre; British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands. 66 p. [8760] 88. Hanson, Herbert C. 1953. Vegetation types in northwestern Alaska and comparisons with communities in other arctic regions. Ecology. 34(1): 111-140. [9781] 89. Harper, K. T.; Freeman, D. Carl; Ostler, W. Kent; Klikoff, Lionel G. 1978. The flora of Great Basin mountain ranges: diversity, sources, and dispersal ecology. In: Harper, Kimball T.; Reveal, F. L., eds. Intermountain biogeography: a symposium. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 2. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 81-103. [15100] 90. Harrington, H. D. 1976. Edible native plants of the Rocky Mountains. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 392 p. [12903] 91. Harshman, Edmund P.; Forsman, Richard. 1978. Measuring fireweed utilization. Journal of Range Management. 31(5): 393-396. [15676] 92. Hawkes, Brad C. 1982. Fire history and ecology of forest ecosystems in Kluane National Park. In: Wein, Ross W.; Riewe, Roderick R.; Methven, Ian R., eds. Resources and dynamics of the Boreal Zone; [Date of conference unknown]; Thunder Bay, ON. [Place of publication unknown]. Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies: 266-280. [7444] 93. Hendrickson, William H. [n.d.]. Perspective on fire and ecosystems in the United States. In: [Publication unknown]: 29-33. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [17276] 94. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 614 p. [1167] 95. Hjeljord, Olav. 1973. Mountain goat forage and habitat preference in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 37(3): 353-362. [16004] 96. Hocking, Drake. 1975. Effects on the forest of sulphur dioxide from a sulphur fire near Edson, Alberta. Information Report NOR-X-139. Edmonton, AB: Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Northern Forest Research Center. 8 p. [7610] 97. Hogg, E. H.; Lieffers, V. J. 1991. Seasonal changes in shoot regrowth potential in Calamagrostis canadensis. Oecologia. 85(4): 596-602. [14871] 98. Holloway, Patricia S.; Alexander, Ginny. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Fort Yukon region, Alaska. Economic Botany. 44(2): 214-225. [13625] 99. Houston, Douglas B. 1968. The Shiras Moose in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Tech. Bull. No. 1. [Place of publication unknown]: The Grand Teton Natural History Association. 110 p. [7824] 100. Huff, Mark Hamilton. 1984. Post-fire succession in the Olympic Mountains, Washington: forest vegetation, fuels, and avifauna. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 235 p. Dissertation. [9248] 101. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 102. Humphrey, Harry B.; Weaver, John Ernst. 1915. Natural reforestation in the mountains of northern Idaho. Plant World. 18: 31-49. [12448] 103. Hungerford, Roger D. 1986. Vegetation response to stand cultural operations on small stem lodgepole pine stands in Montana. In: Weed control for forest productivity in the interior West; 1985 February 5-7; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 63-71. [5896] 104. Ingram, Douglas C. 1931. Vegetative changes and grazing use on Douglas-fir cut-over land. Journal of Agricultural Research. 43(5): 387-417. [8877] 105. Irwin, Larry L. 1985. Foods of moose, Alces alces, and white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, on a burn in boreal forest. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 99(2): 240-245. [4513] 106. Irwin, Larry L.; Peek, James M. 1983. Elk, Cervus elaphus, foraging related to forest management and succession in Idaho. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 97(4): 443-447. [16524] 107. Isaac, Leo A. 1940. Vegetative succession following logging in the Douglas-fir region with special reference to fire. Journal of Forestry. 38: 716-721. [4964] 108. Jobidon, Robert. 1990. Short-term effect of 3 mechanical site preparation methods on species diversity. Tree Planters' Notes. 41(4): 39-42. [15005] 109. Jobidon, R.; Thibault, J. R.; Fortin, J. A. 1989. Phytotoxic effect of barley, oat, and wheat-straw mulches in eastern Quebec forest plantations 1. Effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). Forest Ecology and Management. 29: 277-294. [9899] 110. Johnson, E. A. 1975. Buried seed populations in the subarctic forest east of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories. Canadian Journal of Botany. 53: 2933-2941. [6466] 111. Jones, G. N.; Fuller, G. D. 1955. Vascular plants of Illinois. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. 593 p. [18964] 112. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715] 113. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 114. Keay, Jeffrey A. 1977. Relationship of habitat use patterns and forage preferences of white-tailed and mule deer to post-fire vegetation, Upper Selway River. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 76 p. Thesis. [1316] 115. Kellman, M. C. 1969. Plant species interrelationships in a secondary succession in coastal British Columbia. Syesis. 2: 201-212. [6589] 116. Kershaw, G. Peter; Kershaw, Linda J. 1986. Ecological characteristics of 35-year-old crude-oil spills in tundra plant communities of the Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T. Canadian Journal of Botany. 64: 2935-2947. [12972] 117. Kershaw, G. Peter; Kershaw, Linda J. 1987. Successful plant colonizers on disturbances in tundra areas of northwestern Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research. 19(4): 451-460. [6115] 118. Kienholz, Raymond. 1929. Revegetation after logging and burning in the Douglas-fir region of western Washington. Illinois State Academy of Science. 21: 94-108. [8764] 119. Kiil, A. D. 1970. Effects of spring burning on vegetation in old partially cut spruce-aspen stands in east-central Alberta. Information Report A-X-33. Edmonton, AB: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry, Forest Research Laboratory. 12 p. [12997] 120. Kittredge, Joseph, Jr. 1938. The interrelations of habitat, growth rate, and associated vegetation in the aspen community of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs. 8(2): 152-246. [10356] 121. Klein-Gebbinck, H. W.; Blenis, P. V.; Hiratsuka, Y. 1991. Spread of Armillaria ostoyae in juvenile lodgepole pine stands in west central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 20-24. [14663] 122. Klinka, K.; Scagel, A. M.; Courtin, P. J. 1985. Vegetation relationships among some seral ecosystems in southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forestry. 15: 561-569. [5985] 123. Krebill, R. G. 1972. Mortality of aspen on the Gros Ventre elk winter range. Res. Pap. INT-129. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 16 p. [16089] 124. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376] 125. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 126. Kufeld, Roland C. 1973. Foods eaten by the Rocky Mountain elk. Journal of Range Management. 26(2): 106-113. [1385] 127. Lakela, O. 1965. A flora of northeastern Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 541 p. [18142] 128. La Roi, George H. 1967. Ecological studies in the boreal spruce-fir forests of the North American taiga. I. Analysis of the vascular flora. Ecological Monographs. 37(3): 229-253. [8864] 129. Leege, Thomas A., compiler. 1984. Guidelines for evaluating and managing summer elk habitat in northern Idaho. [Wildlife Bull. No. 11]. Boise, ID: Idaho Fish and Game. 37 p. [A cooperative effort. Financial support provided by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Federal Aid Project W-160-R, U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Plum Creek Timber Company and Idaho Forest Industry Council]. [13681] 130. LePage, P.; Pollack, J. C.; Coates, K. D. 1991. Chemical and manual control of thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus) in northwestern British Columbia: a rate and timing trial. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 6(4): 99-102. [16224] 131. Lepofsky, Dana; Turner, Nancy J.; Kuhnlein, Harriet V. 1985. Determining the availability of traditional wild plant foods: an example of Nuxalk foods, Bella Coola, British Columbia. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 16: 223-241. [7002] 132. LeResche, R. E.; Bishop, R. H.; Coady, J. W. 1974. Distribution and habitats of moose in Alaska. Le Naturaliste Canadien. 101: 143-178. [15190] 133. LeResche, Robert E.; Davis, James L. 1973. Importance of nonbrowse foods to moose on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 37(3): 279-287. [13123] 134. Lewis, Francis J.; Dowding, E. S. 1926. The vegetation and retrogressive changes of peat areas ("muskegs") in central Alberta. Journal of Ecology. 14: 317-341. [12740] 135. Long, James N. 1977. Trends in plant species diversity associated with development in a series of Pseudotsuga menziesii/Gaultheria shallon stands. Northwest Science. 51(2): 119-130. [10152] 136. Lopushinsky, W.; Klock, G. O. 1990. Soil water use by Ceanothus velutinus and two grasses. Res. Note PNW-RN-496. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 9 p. [13087] 137. Lutz, H. J. 1953. The effects of forest fires on the vegetation of interior Alaska. Juneau, AK: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 36 p. [7076] 138. Lutz, H. J. 1956. Ecological effects of forest fires in the interior of Alaska. Tech. Bull. No. 1133. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 121 p. [7653] 139. Lyon, L. Jack. 1971. Vegetal development following prescribed burning of Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-105. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 30 p. [1495] 140. Lyon, L. Jack. 1976. Vegetal development on the Sleeping Child burn in western Montana, 1961 to 1973. Res. Pap. INT-184. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p. [138] 141. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 142. MacLean, David A.; Wein, Ross W. 1977. Changes in understory vegetation with increasing stand age in New Brunswick forests: species composition, cover, biomass, and nutrients. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55: 2818-2831. [10106] 143. MacMahon, James A. 1983. Nothing succeeds like succession: ecology and the human lot. 67th Faculty Honor Lecture, Utah State University, Logan Utah. Utah State University Press. 31 p. [7916] 144. Maini, J. S. 1966. Pytoecological study of sylvotundra at Small Tree Lake, N.W.T. Arctic. 19: 220-243. [8259] 145. Majerus, Mark E. 1991. Yellowstone National Park-Bridger Plant Marterials Center native plant program. In: Rangeland Technology Equipment Council, 1991 annual report. 9222-2808-MTDC. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Technology and Development Program: 17-22. [17082] 146. Major, J.; Pyott, W. T. 1966. Buried, viable seeds in two California bunchgrass sites and their bearing on the definition of a flora. Vegetatio. 13: 254-282. [6343] 147. Martin, J. Lynton. 1956. An ecological survey of burned-over forest land in southwestern Nova Scotia. Forestry Chronicle. 32: 313-336. [8932] 148. Maslen, Lynn; Kershaw, G. Peter. 1989. First year results of revegetation trials using selected native plant species on a simulated pipeline trench, Fort Norman, N.W.T., Canada. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Rep. No. RRTAC 89-2. Vol. 1. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 81-90. [14363] 149. McArdle, Richard E.; Isaac, Leo A. 1934. The ecological aspects of natural regeneration of Douglas fir in the Pacific North-west. Proceedings, 5th Pacific Science Congress. 5: 4009-4051. [15053] 150. McLean, Alastair. 1968. Fire resistance of forest species as influenced by root systems. Journal of Range Management. 22: 120-122. [1621] 151. McRae, D. J. 1979. Prescribed burning in jack pine logging slash: a review. Report 0-X-289. Sault Ste. Marie, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Great Lakes Forest Research Centre. 57 p. [7290] 152. Means, Joseph E.; McKee, W. Arthur; Moir, William H.; Franklin, Jerry F. 1982. Natural revegetation of the northeastern portion of the devestated area. In: Keller, S. A, C.; ed. Mount St. Helens: one year later: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 May 17-18; Cheney, WA. Cheney, WA: Eastern Washington University Press: 93-103. [5977] 153. Meehan, William R. 1974. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 4. Wildlife habitats. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-16. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 32 p. [13479] 154. Messier, Christian; Kimmins, James P. 1991. Above- & below-ground vegetation recovery in recently clearcut & burned sites dominated by Gaultheria shallon in coastal British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management. 46(3-4): 275-294. [17206] 155. Miller, Margaret M.; Miller, Joseph W. 1976. Succession after wildfire in the North Cascades National Park complex. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference: Pacific Northwest; 1974 October 16-17; Portland, OR. No. 15. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 71-83. [6574] 156. Minore, Don; Smart, Alan W.; Dubrasich, Michael E. 1979. Huckleberry ecology and management research in the Pacific Northwest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-93. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 50 p. [6336] 157. Moore, Peter D. 1982. Fire: catastrophic or creative force?. Impact of Science on Society. 32(1): 5-14. [15628] 158. Morris, William F.; Wood, David M. 1989. The role of lupine in succession on Mount St. Helens: facilitation or inhibition. Ecology. 70(3): 697-703. [9149] 159. Morris, William G. 1958. Influence of slash burning on regeneration, other plant cover, and fire hazard in the Douglas-fir region (A progress report). Res. Pap. PNW-29. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 49 p. [4803] 160. Morris, William G. 1970. Effects of slash burning in overmature stands of the Douglas-fir region. Forest Science. 16(3): 258-270. [4810] 161. Moss, E. H. 1936. The ecology of Epilobium angustifolium with particular reference to rings of periderm in the wood. American Journal of Botany. 23: 114-120. [12806] 162. Mueggler, W. F. 1961. Ecology of seral shrub communities in the cedar-hemlock zone of northern Idaho. Durham, NC: Duke University. 126 p. Thesis. [9981] 163. Mueggler, W. F. 1985. Vegetation associations. In: DeByle, Norbert V.; Winokur, Robert P., eds. Aspen: ecology and management in the western United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-119. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 45-55. [11907] 164. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 165. Neiland, Bonita J. 1958. Forest and adjacent burn in the Tillamook Burn area of northwestern Oregon. Ecology. 39(4): 660-671. [8879] 166. Newton, M.; Comeau, P. G. 1990. Control of competing vegetation. In: Lavender, D. P.; Parish, R.; Johnson, C. M.; [and others], eds. Regenerating British Columbia's Forests. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press: 256-265. [10719] 167. Nyberg, J. Brian; McNay R, Scott; Kirchoff, Matthew D.; [and others]. 1989. Integrated management of timber and deer: coastal forests of British Columbia and Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-226. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 65 p. [7468] 168. Ohmann, Lewis F.; Cushwa, Charles T.; Lake, Roger E.; [and others]. 1973. Wilderness ecology: the upland plant communities, woody browse production, and small mammals of two adj. 33-year-old wildfire areas in northeastern Minnesota. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-7. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 30 p. [6862] 169. Oldemeyer, J. L.; Franzmann, A. W.; Brundage, A. L.; [and others]. 1977. Browse quality and the Kenai moose population. Journal of Wildlife Management. 41(3): 533-542. [12805] 170. Oswald, E. T.; Brown, B. N. 1990. Vegetation establishment during 5 years following wildfire in northern British Columbia and southern Yukon Territory. Information Report BC-X-320. Victoria, BC: Forestry Canada, Pacific and Yukon Region, Pacific Forestry Centre. 46 p. [16934] 171. Otchere-Boateng, J.; Herring, L. J. 1990. Site preparation: chemical. In: Lavender, D. P.; Parish, R.; Johnson, C. M.; [and others], eds. Regenerating British Columbia's Forests. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press: 164-178. [10714] 172. Pojar, Jim. 1975. Hummingbird flowers of British Columbia. Syesis. 8: 25-28. [6537] 173. Pojar, J.; Trowbridge, R.; Coates, D. 1984. Ecosystem classification and interpretation of the sub-boreal spruce zone, Prince Rupert Forest Region, British Columbia. Land Management Report No. 17. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 319 p. [6929] 174. Racine, Charles H.; Johnson, Lawrence A.; Viereck, Leslie A. 1987. Patterns of vegetation recovery after tundra fires in northwestern Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 19(4): 461-469. [6114] 175. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 176. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 177. Regelin, Wayne L.; Wallmo, Olof C. 1978. Duration of deer forage benefits after clearcut logging of subalpine forest in Colorado. RM-356. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p. [4499] 178. Rejmanek, Marcel; Rosen, Ejvind. 1988. The eff. of colonizing shrubs (Juniperus communis &Potentilla fructicosa on species richness in the grasslands of Stora Alvaret, Oland (Sweden). Acta phytogeographica suecica. 76: 67-72. [9745] 179. Ritchie, Brent W. 1978. Ecology of moose in Fremont County, Idaho. Wildlife Bulletin No. 7. Boise, ID: Idaho Department of Fish and Game. 33 p. [4482] 180. Robbins, C. T.; Hanley, T. A.; Hagerman, A. E.; [and others]. 1987. Role of tannins in defending plants against ruminants: reduction in protein availability. Ecology. 68(1): 98-107. [5974] 181. Romme, William H.; Bohland, Laura; Persichetty, Cynthia; Caruso, Tanya. 1995. Germination ecology of some common forest herbs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 27(4): 407-412. [26049] 182. McCune, Bruce. 1982. Site, history and forest dynamics in the Bitterroot canyons, Montana. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin. 166 p. Thesis. [7232] 183. Russell, W. B. 1985. Vascular flora of abandoned coal-mined land, Rocky Mountain Foothills, Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 99(4): 503-516. [10461] 184. Sampson, Arthur W. 1914. Natural revegetation of range lands based upon growth requirements and life history of the vegetation. Journal of Agricultural Research. 3(2): 93-147. [4146] 185. Schaack, Clark G. 1983. The alpine vascular flora of Arizona. Madrono. 30(4): 79-88. [2069] 186. Schaefer, James A.; Pruitt, William O., Jr. 1991. Fire and woodland caribou in southeastern Manitoba. Wildlife Monograph No. 116. Washington, DC: The Wildlife Society, Inc. 39 p. [15247] 187. Schmidt, Wyman C.; Lotan, James E. 1980. Phenology of common forest flora of the northern Rockies--1928 to 1937. Res. Pap. INT-259. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. [2082] 188. Scoggan, H. J. 1978. The flora of Canada. Ottawa, Canada: National Museums of Canada. (4 volumes). [18143] 189. Scrivner, Jerry H.; Smith, H. Duane. 1981. Pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) in successional stages of spruce-fir forest in Idaho. Great Basin Naturalist. 41(3): 362-367. [7900] 190. Seip, Dale R.; Bunnell, Fred L. 1985. Species composition and herbage production of mountain rangelands in northern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany. 63: 2077-2080. [2104] 191. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604] 192. Shirley, Hardy L. 1932. Light intensity in relation to plant growth in a virgin Norway pine forest. Journal of Agricultural Research. 44: 227-244. [10360] 193. Simpson, Michael L. 1990. The subalpine fir/beargrass habitat type: Succession and management. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 134 p. Thesis. [13464] 194. Singer, Francis J. 1979. Habitat partitioning and wildfire relationships of cervids in Glacier National Park, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 43(2): 437-444. [4074] 195. Skutch, Alexander F. 1929. Early stages of plant succession following forest fires. Ecology. 10(2): 177-190. [21349] 196. Solbreck, Crister; Andersson, David. 1987. Vertical distribution of fireweed, Epilobium augustifolium, seeds in the air. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65: 2177-2178. [6619] 197. Stark, Nellie M. 1977. Fire and nutrient cycling in a Douglas-fir/larch forest. Ecology. 58: 16-30. [8618] 198. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1987. The grand fir/blue huckleberry habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-228. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 66 p. [8133] 199. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1991. Monitoring the effects of postfire grass seeding on the Lowman Burn. Unpublished first year progress report. 4 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [17154] 200. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1992. The grand fir/mountain maple habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-284. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 90 p. [17791] 201. Stewart, R. E.; Beebe, T. 1974. Survival of ponderosa pine seedlings followingcontrol of competing grasses. Western Society Weed Science Proceedings. 27: 55-58. [7184] 202. Stickney, Peter F. 1980. Data base for post-fire succession, first 6 to 9 years, in Montana larch-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-62. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 133 p. [6583] 203. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance Forest Fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 26 p. [2255] 204. Stickney, Peter F. 1990. Early development of vegetation following holocaustic fire in Northern Rocky Mountains. Northwest Science. 64(5): 243-246. [12715] 205. Strang, Roy M. 1989. Impacts of fire on herbaceous vegetation. In: Baumgartner, David M.; Breuer, David W.; Zamora, Benjamin A.; [and others], compilers. Prescribed fire in the Intermountain region: Symposium proceedings; 1986 March 3-5; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 111-112. [11256] 206. Taylor, B. R.; Prescott, C. E.; Parsons, W. J. F.; Parkinson, D. 1991. Substrate control of litter decomposition in four Rocky Mountain coniferous forests. Canadian Journal of Botany. 69: 2242-2250. [17444] 207. Taylor, Dale L. 1969. Biotic succession of lodgepole pine forests of fire origin in Yellowstone National Park. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming. 320 p. M.S. thesis. [9481] 208. Taylor, R. F. 1932. The successional trend and its relation to second-growth forests in southeastern Alaska. Ecology. 13(4): 381-391. [10007] 209. Thill, Ronald E.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Patton, David R. 1983. Deer and elk forage production in Arizona mixed conifer forests. Res. Pap. RM-248. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p. [14381] 210. Thompson, Larry S.; Kuijt, Job. 1976. Montane and subalpine plants of the Sweetgrass Hills, Montana and their relation to early postglacial environments on the northern Great Plains. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 90(4): 432-448. [7894] 211. Toth, Barbara L. 1991. Factors affecting conifer regeneration and community structure after a wildfire in western Montana. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 124 p. Thesis. [14425] 212. Uemura, Shigeru; Tsuda, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Sakae. 1990. Effects of fire on the vegetation of Siberian taiga predominated by Larix dahurica. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research. 20: 547-553. [11808] 213. Ugolini, F. C. 1968. Soil development and alder invasion in a recently deglaciated area of Glacier Bay, Alaska. In: Trappe, J. M.; Franklin, J. F.; Tarrant, R. F.; Hansen, G. M., eds. Biology of alder: Proceedings of a symposium; 1967 April 14-15; Pullman, WA. Portland, OR: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 115-140. [6211] 214. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 215. Van Cleve, K.; Viereck, L.A.; Dyrness, C.T. 1988. Vegetation productivity and soil fertility in post-fire secondary succession in Interior Alaska. In: Slaughter, Charles W.; Gasbarro, Tony. Proceedings of the Alaska forest soil productivity workshop; 1987 April 28-30; Anchorage, AK. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-219. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Station; Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management: 101-102. [5582] 216. Viereck, Leslie A. 1970. Forest succession and soil development adjacent to the Chena River in interior Alaska. Arctic and Alpine Research. 2(1): 1-26. [12466] 217. Vogl, Richard J. 1964. The effects of fire on a muskeg in northern Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Management. 28(2): 317-329. [12170] 218. Vogl, Richard J.; Ryder, Calvin. 1969. Effects of slash burning on conifer reproduction in Montana's Mission Range. Northwest Science. 43(3): 135-147. [8546] 219. Volland, Leonard A.; Dell, John D. 1981. Fire effects on Pacific Northwest forest and range vegetation. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Range Management and Aviation and Fire Management. 23 p. [2434] 220. Wallmo, Olof C.; Regelin, Wayne L.; Reichert, Donald W. 1972. Forage use by mule deer relative to logging in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management. 36: 1025-1033. [4486] 221. Watson, L. E.; Parker, R. W.; Polster, D. F. 1980. Manual of plant species suitablity for reclamation in Alberta. Vol. 2. Forbs, shrubs and trees. Edmonton, AB: Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. 537 p. [8855] 222. Weaver, Harold. 1951. Observed effects of prescribed burning on perennial grasses in the ponderosa pine forests. Journal of Forestry. 49(4): 267-271. [4618] 223. Wein, Ross W. 1975. Arctic tundra fires--ecological consequences. In: Proceedings, circumpolar conference on northern ecology; [Date unknown]; [Location unknown]. [Place of publication unknown]: Canadian Resource Council, National Science Committee, Committee on Problems of the Environment: I-167 to I-174. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [12999] 224. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 225. Yarie, John; Mead, Bert R. 1988. Twig and foliar biomass estimation equations for major plant species in the Tanana River Basin of interior Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-401. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 20 p. [13487] 226. Yarie, J.; Viereck, L.; Van Cleve, K.; Dryness, C. T. 1988. The chronosequence as an aid to understanding the long-term conse- quences of management activities. In: Dyck, W. J.; Mees, C. A, eds. Research Strategies for Long-term Productivity. Proceedings, IEA/BE A3 Workshop; [Date of conference unknown]; Seattle, WA. IEA/BE A3 Report No. 8. Rotorua, New Zeland, --: Forest Research Institute: 25-38. [17745] 227. Zasada, J. 1986. Natural regeneration of trees and tall shrubs on forest sites in interior Alaska. In: Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III; Flanagan, P. W.; [and others], eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaska taiga: A synthesis of structure and function. New York: Springer-Verlag: 44-73. [2291] 228. Zasada, John C.; Grigal, David F. 1978. The effects of silvicultural system and seed bed preparation on natural regeneration of white spruce and associated species in Interior Alaska. In: Hollis, Charles A.; Squillace, Anthony E., eds. Proceedings: Fifth North American Forest Biology Workshop; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. [Place of publication unknown]. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: 213-220. [7246] 229. Zinke, Paul J. 1977. The redwood forest and associated north coast forests. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 679-698. [7212] 230. Mosquin, Theodore. 1966. A new taxonomy for Epilobium angustifolium L. (Onagraceae). Brittonia. 18(2): 167-188. [61446] 231. The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. 2006. Flora Europaea, [Online]. Edinburgh, Scotland: The Royal Botanic Garden (Producer). Available: http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html. [41088]


FEIS Home Page