Balsamorhiza hookeri



INTRODUCTORY


 

 

Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Munger, Gregory T. 2006. Balsamorhiza hookeri. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

FEIS ABBREVIATION:
BALHOO

SYNONYMS:
Balsamorhiza hirsuta Nutt.
    =Balsamorhiza hookeri var. hirsuta (Nutt.) Nelson [9,24,25]
Balsamorhiza hirsuta var. lagocephala Sharp
    =Balsamorhiza hookeri var. lagocephala (Sharp) Cronq. [22,24]
Balsamorhiza hirsuta var. neglecta Sharp
    =Balsamorhiza hookeri var. neglecta (Sharp) Cronq. [9,17,23,24,25,44]
Balsamorhiza hispidula Sharp
    =Balsamorhiza hookeri var. hispidula (Sharp) Cronq. [9,17,22,23,24,25,44]
Balsamorhiza hookeri var. lanata Sharp [21]
    =Balsamorhiza hookeri var. lagocephala (Sharp) Cronq. [22,24]
Balsamorhiza hookeri var. platylepis (Sharp) Cronq. [9]
    =Balsamorhiza macrolepis var. platylepis (Sharp) Ferris [24]

NRCS PLANT CODE [41]:
BAHO

COMMON NAMES:
Hooker's balsamroot
Hooker balsamroot

TAXONOMY:
The scientific name of Hooker's balsamroot is Balsamorhiza hookeri (Hook.) Nutt. (Asteraceae) [9,17,21,22,23,24,25,44]. Several varieties of Hooker's balsamroot are recognized throughout its range. These varieties may intergrade where their occurrence is proximate [9,22,25].

Balsamorhiza hookeri var. hirsuta (Nutt.) Nelson [9,24,25]
Balsamorhiza hookeri var. hispidula (Sharp) Cronq. [9,17,22,23,24,25,44]
Balsamorhiza hookeri var. hookeri [22,23,24]
Balsamorhiza hookeri var. idahoensis (Sharp) Cronq. [9,22,24]
Balsamorhiza hookeri var. lagocephala (Sharp) Cronq. [22,24]
Balsamorhiza hookeri var. neglecta (Sharp) Cronq. [9,17,23,24,25,44]
Balsamorhiza hookeri var. platylepis (Sharp) Cronq. [9]

Balsamorhiza hookeri var. neglecta may hybridize with arrowleaf balsamroot (B. sagittata) [17].

LIFE FORM:
Forb

FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status

OTHER STATUS:
Balsamorhiza hookeri var. hispidula is considered sensitive on BLM lands in Arizona, and is ranked S1 (very rare) by Arizona's Natural Heritage Program [1].

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Balsamorhiza hookeri
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
Hooker's balsamroot is found throughout much of the Intermountain West, from eastern and central Washington, south to the Cascade Range/Shasta Valley of northern California, west-central and southern Idaho, southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, much of Utah and Nevada, and the northwestern corner of Arizona [7,9,11,17,21,25,44]. Although Hitchcock and Cronquist [22] suggested that it does not occur in Oregon, Culver [10] indicated that Hooker's balsamroot may be found in southeastern Oregon. Plants Database provides a state distribution map of Hooker's balsamroot and its infrataxa.

Quinney [32] suggested that Hooker's balsamroot and arrowleaf balsamroot were both abundant in presettlement sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-grasslands of the Snake River Plain in southwestern Idaho. They have since become rare due to overgrazing, nonnative plant invasions, and altered fire regimes [32].

ECOSYSTEMS [15]:
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES36 Mountain grasslands

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES

AZ CA CO
ID NV OR
UT WA WY

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [6]:
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau

KUCHLER [27] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
K010 Ponderosa shrub forest
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K024 Juniper steppe woodland
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K039 Blackbrush
K050 Fescue-wheatgrass
K051 Wheatgrass-bluegrass
K055 Sagebrush steppe

SAF COVER TYPES [13]:
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
237 Interior ponderosa pine
238 Western juniper
239 Pinyon-juniper
245 Pacific ponderosa pine

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [36]:
104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
106 Bluegrass scabland
107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
109 Ponderosa pine shrubland
110 Ponderosa pine-grassland
212 Blackbush
314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue
322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass
324 Threetip sagebrush-Idaho fescue
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
404 Threetip sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush
406 Low sagebrush
407 Stiff sagebrush
408 Other sagebrush types
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
501 Saltbush-greasewood
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland

HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
There are no published accounts of habitat types or plant communities in which Hooker's balsamroot is named as a dominant species. It is most likely a minor component within the vegetation types listed above.

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Balsamorhiza hookeri

 

  Margaret Williams @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g. [9,17,22,25,44]).

Hooker's balsamroot is a perennial forb [17,44]. It has a woody taproot [17,19,40], with a minimum rooting depth of 18 inches (46 cm) [41]. Leaves are 4 to 12 inches (10-30 cm) long and grow from a basal rosette [19,21,40,44]. Flower stalks are 4 to 12 inches (10-30 cm) long [21,40,41]. Fruits are achenes [40].

RAUNKIAER [34] LIFE FORM:
Hemicryptophyte

REGENERATION PROCESSES:
Balsamroots (Balsamorhiza spp.) are perennial herbs that regenerate in the spring from a caudex [12,43]. They also produce new plants by seeds [41]. As of this writing (2006) details concerning Hooker's balsamroot regeneration processes are sparse in the literature.

Pollination: No information is available on this topic.

Breeding system: No information is available on this topic.

Seed production: Plants Database [41] indicates "fruit/seed abundance" is "medium."

Seed dispersal: Plants Database [41] indicates seed spread rate is "slow."

Seed banking: No information is available on this topic.

Germination: No information is available on this topic.

Seedling establishment/growth: A review by Stevens and Monsen [37] suggests that initial establishment is difficult and seedling growth is slow, although once established, Hooker's balsamroot persistence is high. Plants Database [41] indicates seedling vigor is "medium."

Asexual regeneration: Hooker's balsamroot does not appear to spread vegetatively [41]; however, it probably sprouts from the caudex following top-kill.

SITE CHARACTERISTICS:
Biogeographic: Throughout its range of distribution in the Intermountain West, Hooker's balsamroot may be found within a variety of dry woodland, shrubland, and grassland habitats (see Distribution and Occurrence) [9,17,21,40]. Stevens and Monsen [37] suggested that it does not occur in dense patches, but is scattered and intermixed with other herbs, usually within a shrubby understory.

Climatic: According to Plants Database [41], annual precipitation requirements for Hooker's balsamroot are between 9 and 20 inches (230-510 mm), minimum temperature tolerated is -18 F (-28 C), and minimum frost-free days are 120.

Edaphic/physiographic: Physical descriptions of Hooker's balsamroot sites typically cite dry, open, and rocky or gravelly conditions, both on hillsides and flats [9,19,40]. Hooker's balsamroot occurs mainly in foothills and lowlands [9], but reported elevations range from 2,600 feet (800 m) in northern California [21] to 9,500 feet (2,900 m) on Wheeler Peak in Nevada [9]. According to Plants Database [41], Hooker's balsamroot is adapted to a wide range of soil textures; its drought tolerance, calcium carbonate tolerance, and salinity tolerance are all "medium"; its fertility requirement is "low"; and it grows on soils with a pH range of 6.6 to 9.0. A review by Stevens and Monsen [37] suggested it is not tolerant (1 on a scale of 1-5) of flooding.

SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
Information on successional status of Hooker's balsamroot is sparse. According to Plants Database [41] it is "intermediate" in shade tolerance, and a review by Stevens and Monsen [37] also suggested it is intermediate (3 on a scale of 1-5) in shade tolerance.

SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Hooker's balsamroot is often among the earliest plants to produce leaves and flowers in spring [40]. Flowering, fruiting, and seed production take place from mid-April into early summer [9,17,41]. Forage utilization literature suggests that active growth occurs from early spring until drought-induced senescence in summer [37,40].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Balsamorhiza hookeri
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
Fire adaptations: As of this writing (2006) there are no published accounts detailing Hooker's balsamroot fire adaptations.

Arrowleaf balsamroot sprouts from the caudex following fire damage, and it is likely that Hooker's balsamroot does the same. It is also possible that Hooker's balsamroot colonizes postfire habitats by seed. However, as of this writing (2006) there is not enough published information about Hooker's balsamroot seed biology to even speculate about postfire seedling establishment (see Regeneration Processes). More research is needed to help understand the fire adaptations of Hooker's balsamroot.

Fire regimes: As of this writing (2006), there is very little published information describing interactions between Hooker's balsamroot and specific fire regimes. Goodrich and Huber [16] noted that Hooker's balsamroot was frequently found within experimental plots in mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana) communities on lower slopes of the Uinta Mountains in Utah. While neither the extent of prescribed burning nor the preexisting fire history within the study area were described in detail, it was mentioned that fire frequency in these units was historically "rather high." Further, on one site that was burned 2 years prior to measurement, sampled Hooker's balsamroot frequency was 89% [16]. More research is needed to provide a clearer understanding of the relationships between Hooker's balsamroot occurrence and various fire regime characteristics.

The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where Hooker's balsamroot might occur. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.

Community or ecosystem Dominant species Fire return interval range (years)
silver sagebrush steppe Artemisia cana 5-45 [20,33,47]
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [30]
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [35]
mountain big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana 15-40 [4,8,29]
Wyoming big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 ( x=40) [42,48]
saltbush-greasewood Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus <35 to >100 [30,49]
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum <10 [31,45]
blackbrush Coleogyne ramosissima <35 to <100 [30]
western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70 [30]
Rocky Mountain juniper Juniperus scopulorum <35 [30]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii <5-47+ [30,33,47]
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. <35 [30]
Colorado pinyon Pinus edulis 10-400+ [14,18,26,30]
Pacific ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa 1-47 [3]
interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [3,5,28]
mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 ( x=10) [2,3]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [38]:
Caudex/herbaceous root crown, growing points in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Balsamorhiza hookeri
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
As of this writing (2006) there is no published research describing the immediate effects of fire on Hooker's balsamroot. According to Plants Database [41] it is not "fire resistant," but its "fire tolerance" is "medium."

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT:
No additional information is available on this topic.

PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
As of this writing (2006) information concerning the response of Hooker's balsamroot to fire is limited and conflicting. Goodrich and Huber [16] provided limited evidence suggesting it may have some capacity to recover following fire (see Fire regimes). However, evidence from a postfire vegetation survey by Stucker and Peek [39] on the 1979 Ship Island Burn in the Middle Fork Salmon River drainage, central Idaho, suggests that Hooker's balsamroot postfire response may be slower than is suggested above. It was among the few perennial forbs to show a decrease in canopy coverage on burned sites. Three years after the fire Hooker's balsamroot cover was still significantly (p<0.05) reduced in burned plots compared with paired unburned plots [39].

Arrowleaf balsamroot sprouts from the caudex following fire damage, and it is likely that Hooker's balsamroot does the same. More research is needed to help understand the immediate effects on, as well as postfire responses of, Hooker's balsamroot.

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
No additional information is available on this topic.

FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Because so little information is available about interactions between fire and Hooker's balsamroot, it is difficult to determine how various aspects of fire management might affect Hooker's balsamroot, and vice versa. Research is needed to help guide fire management where this species is present.

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Balsamorhiza hookeri
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Hooker's balsamroot has some forage value for livestock, at least seasonally. Hermann [19] suggested it "provides good livestock forage." Stevens and Monsen [37] rated Hooker's balsamroot grazing tolerance and forage yield both as "good." The U.S. Department of Agriculture Range Handbook [40] indicates that cattle, horses, and domestic sheep graze the foliage "lightly and often eat the flowers." Forage value diminishes by summer due to senescence [40].

As of this writing (2006) there is no information concerning the importance of Hooker's balsamroot for wildlife.

Palatability/nutritional value: A review by Stevens and Monsen [37] indicates that Hooker's balsamroot palatability is excellent in early spring, but poor by summer.

The following table provides data on average mineral composition of dried aboveground Hooker's balsamroot tissue sampled in late June and July from 25 study sites in central and northern Utah [46].

K (%) Na (%) Ca (%) Mg (%) Cu (ppm)  Zn (ppm)
5.10 0.10 0.47 0.62 13 28

Cover value: No information is available on this topic.

VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
No information is available on this topic.

OTHER USES:
No information is available on this topic.

Balsamorhiza hookeri: REFERENCES


1. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Natural Heritage Program. 2005. Special status species in the Arizona Heritage Data Management System, listed alphabetically by taxon and scientific name, [Online]. Available: http:www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/documents/sssbytaxon_scientificname_001.pdf [2005, April 5]. [40924]
2. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. [11990]
3. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]
4. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]
5. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986]
6. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
7. Bohm, Bruce A.; Choy, Jonathan B.; Lee, Angela Y. -M. 1989. Flavonoids of Balsamorhiza and Wyethia. Phytochemistry. 28(2): 501-503. [51959]
8. Burkhardt, Wayne J.; Tisdale, E. W. 1976. Causes of juniper invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology. 57: 472-484. [565]
9. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1994. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 5. Asterales. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 496 p. [28653]
10. Culver, Roger Norman. 1964. An ecological reconnaissance of the Artemisia steppe on the east central Owyhee uplands of Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 99 p. Thesis. [723]
11. Davis, Cleve. 2003. Plant species of the Deep Creek Mountains. Technical Bulletin No. 03-5. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office. 22 p. [45856]
12. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129]
13. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
14. Floyd, M. Lisa; Romme, William H.; Hanna, David D. 2000. Fire history and vegetation pattern in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecological Applications. 10(6): 1666-1680. [37590]
15. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
16. Goodrich, Sherel; Huber, Allen. 2001. Mountain big sagebrush communities on the Bishop Conglomerate in the eastern Uinta Mountains. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Fairbanks, Daniel J., compilers. Shrubland ecosystem genetics and biodiversity: proceedings; 2000 June 13-15; Provo, UT. Proc. RMRS-P-21. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 336-343. [41998]
17. Goodrich, Sherel; Neese, Elizabeth. 1986. Uinta Basin flora. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ashley National Forest; U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District. 320 p. [23307]
18. Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Chung-MacCoubrey, Alice L. 1995. Pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A., eds. Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-268. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-132. [26188]
19. Hermann, F. J. 1966. Notes on western range forbs: Cruciferae through Compositae. Agric. Handb. 293. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 365 p. [2852]
20. Heyerdahl, Emily K.; Berry, Dawn; Agee, James K. 1994. Fire history database of the western United States. Final report. Interagency agreement: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency DW12934530; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service PNW-93-0300; University of Washington 61-2239. Seattle, WA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Northwest Research Station; University of Washington, College of Forest Resources. 28 p. [+ appendices]. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [27979]
21. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
22. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
23. Holmgren, Arthur H.; Reveal, James L. 1966. Checklist of the vascular plants of the Intermountain Region. Res. Pap. INT-32. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 160 p. [1184]
24. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]
25. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
26. Keeley, Jon E. 1981. Reproductive cycles and fire regimes. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., tech. coords. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 231-277. [4395]
27. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
28. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. [7183]
29. Miller, Richard F.; Rose, Jeffery A. 1995. Historic expansion of Juniperus occidentalis (western juniper) in southeastern Oregon. The Great Basin Naturalist. 55(1): 37-45. [25666]
30. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
31. Peters, Erin F.; Bunting, Stephen C. 1994. Fire conditions pre- and postoccurrence of annual grasses on the Snake River Plain. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., compilers. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 31-36. [24249]
32. Quinney, Dana. 2000. Then and now: changes in vegetation and land use practices in southwestern Idaho sagebrush lands of the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area north of the Snake River. In: Entwistle, P. G.; DeBolt, A. M.; Kaltenecker, J. H.; Steenhof, K., compilers. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems symposium: Proceedings; 1999 June 21-23; Boise, ID. Publ. No. BLM/ID/PT-001001+1150. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Boise State Office: 91-97. [42726]
33. Quinnild, Clayton L.; Cosby, Hugh E. 1958. Relicts of climax vegetation on two mesas in western North Dakota. Ecology. 39(1): 29-32. [1925]
34. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
35. Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. [16579]
36. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]
37. Stevens, Richard; Monsen, Stephen B. 2004. Forbs for seeding range and wildlife habitats. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Stevens, Richard; Shaw, Nancy L., comps. Restoring western ranges and wildlands. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-136-vol-2. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 425-466. [52842]
38. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]
39. Stucker, Donald E.; Peek, James M. 1984. Response of bighorn sheep to the Ship Island Burn. Report submitted to the Northern Forest Fire Laboratory: Supplement No. INT-80-108CA. 33 p. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [17070]
40. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387]
41. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2006. PLANTS database (2006), [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]
42. Vincent, Dwain W. 1992. The sagebrush/grasslands of the upper Rio Puerco area, New Mexico. Rangelands. 14(5): 268-271. [19698]
43. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2d ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
44. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
45. Whisenant, Steven G. 1990. Postfire population dynamics of Bromus japonicus. The American Midland Naturalist. 123: 301-308. [11150]
46. Woodward, R. A.; Harper, K. T.; Tiedemann, A. R. 1984. An ecological consideration of the significance of cation-exchange capacity of roots of some Utah range plants. Plant and Soil. 79: 169-183. [108]
47. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]
48. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1981. Demography and fire history of a western juniper stand. Journal of Range Management. 34(6): 501-505. [2659]
49. Young, James A.; Tipton, Frosty. 1990. Invasion of cheatgrass into arid environments of the Lahontan Basin. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Romney, Evan M.; Smith, Stanley D.; Tueller, Paul T., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on cheatgrass invasion, shrub die-off, and other aspects of shrub biology and management; 1989 April 5-7; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-276. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 37-40. [12733]

FEIS Home Page