Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Arnica cordifolia

Introductory

SPECIES: Arnica cordifolia
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Reed, William R. 1993. Arnica cordifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : ARNCOR SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : ARCO9 COMMON NAMES : heartleaf arnica heart-leaved arnica TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of heartleaf arnica is Arnica cordifolia Hook. [15,34]. It is a member of the Asteraceae family. Recognized varieties are [21,29]: Arnica cordifolia var. cordifolia A. cordifolia var. pumila (Rydb.) Maquire LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Arnica cordifolia
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Heartleaf arnica is found from Alaska east to Saskatchewan and south to northern Mexico and Nebraska [34,44].  A disjunct population occurs on the Keweenaw Peninsula of northern Michigan [18]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES11  Spruce - fir    FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood    FRES19  Aspen - birch    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES22  Western white pine    FRES23  Fir - spruce    FRES25  Larch    FRES26  Lodgepole pine    FRES28  Western hardwoods    FRES29  Sagebrush    FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub    FRES35  Pinyon - juniper    FRES36  Mountain grasslands    FRES38  Plains grasslands    FRES44  Alpine STATES :      AL  AZ  CA  CO  ID  MI  MT  NE  NM  ND      OR  SD  UT  WA  WY  AB  BC  SK  YT  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     1  Northern Pacific Border     2  Cascade Mountains     3  Southern Pacific Border     4  Sierra Mountains     5  Columbia Plateau     6  Upper Basin and Range     7  Lower Basin and Range     8  Northern Rocky Mountains     9  Middle Rocky Mountains    10  Wyoming Basin    11  Southern Rocky Mountains    12  Colorado Plateau    13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont    14  Great Plains    15  Black Hills Uplift    16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K007  Red fir forest    K008  Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest    K011  Western ponderosa forest    K012  Douglas-fir forest    K013  Cedar - hemlock - pine forest    K015  Western spruce - fir forest    K016  Eastern ponderosa forest    K017  Black Hills pine forest    K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest    K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest    K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland    K029  California mixed evergreen forest    K037  Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub    K052  Alpine meadows and barren    K055  Sagebrush steppe    K098  Northern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES :    201  White spruce    204  Black spruce    205  Mountain hemlock    206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir    207  Red fir    208  Whitebark pine    209  Bristlecone pine    256  California mixed subalpine    210  Interior Douglas-fir    211  White fir    212  Western larch    213  Grand fir    215  Western white pine    216  Blue spruce    217  Aspen    218  Lodgepole pine    219  Limber pine    224  Western hemlock    228  Western redcedar    237  Interior ponderosa pine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Heartleaf arnica is a dominant ground cover in many forest communities of the West.  Publications listing heartleaf arnica as a dominant or indicator species are: Classification of the forest vegetation of Wyoming [1] Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of central Idaho [10] Forest vegetation of the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests in    central Colorado:  a habitat type classification [20] Forest vegetation of Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming: a habitat type    classification [22] Plant associations of the Fremont National Forest [23] Forest vegetation of the Gunnison and parts of the Uncompahgre National    Forests:  a preliminary habitat type classification [26] Common plant associates of heartleaf arnica include huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.), sweetscented bedstraw (Galium triflorum), queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), pussytoes (Antennaria spp.), timber milkvetch (Astragalus miser), elk sedge (Carex geyeri), and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata).

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Arnica cordifolia
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : In northern Utah heartleaf arnica is an important constituent of summer diets of mule deer and elk [9].  Deschamps and Urness [12] found it comprised 24 percent of summer deer diets in mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in Utah. PALATABILITY : In Colorado, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming, the palatability of heartleaf arnica is rated poor to fair for cattle, fair to good for sheep, and poor for horses [13]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Heartleaf arnica is rated fair in nutritional value for pronghorn, upland game birds, small mammals, and small nongame mammals.  It is rated fair to good in nutritional value for elk and deer [13]. COVER VALUE : Heartleaf arnica provides poor cover for wildlife [13]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Heartleaf arnica has low resistance to repeated human trampling [8,37]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Heartleaf arnica showed a substantial increase after heavy thinning of lodgepole pine stands in Utah.  Production increased from 6.05 pounds per acre (1.1 kg/ha) before treatment to 83.6 pounds per acre (15.2 kg/ha) 4 years after treatment [2]. Heartleaf arnica cover increased from 0.3 percent to 5.0 percent following clearcutting in a subalpine forest in central Colorado [11].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Arnica cordifolia
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Heartleaf arnica is a native, perennial herb 6 to 24 inches (15-60 cm) tall, with upright stems arising singly from long, slender, creeping rhizomes [18].  Rhizomes grow laterally 0.4 to 0.8 inches (1-2 cm) below the soil surface [7].  Root depths of 24 inches (60.9 cm) have been recorded in Montana [35]. The life span of heartleaf arnica is estimated at 12 years [6]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual:  Heartleaf arnica reproduces by wind-dispersed seed [6,7].  In central Idaho, Kramer and Johnson [27] found 25 percent of heartleaf arnica seed was in the upper 2 inches (5 cm) of soil, while 75 percent was 2 to 5 inches (5-10 cm) below the soil surface. Asexual:  Heartleaf arnica sprouts from rhizomes [7,24,32]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Heartleaf arnica occurs in boreal and cool temperate climates.  It is commonly found in open-canopy coniferous forests on high elevation water-shedding sites.  It often inhabits exposed, moderately dry mineral soils, but occurs on a variety of soil types [25].  In California it is found from 3,500 to 10,000 feet (1,050-3,000 m), in dry to moist open or wooded places [33].  In Utah it is found from 5,000 to 11,000 feet (1,525-3,355 m) [44].  Occurrence increases with elevation.  In the Madison Range of Montana it is the primary ground cover in subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests above 9,000 feet (2,723 m) [36]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Heartleaf arnica is tolerant of both sun and shade, and may be present from initial to late seres [42,47].  Geier-Hayes found it increased the first 2 years following logging in a Douglas-fir/white spiraea (Pseudotsuga menziesii/Spiraea betulifolia) habitat type in central Idaho [17].  This was probably due to mass flowering, which occurs 1 to 2 years after disturbance [41].  Heartleaf arnica importance apparently decreases within a few years after disturbance-induced mass flowering and increases again in later seres, possibly through vegetative reproduction.  Steele and Geier-Hayes [46] found it reached highest coverage in late seral stages of the grand fir/globe huckleberry (Abies grandis/Vaccinium globulare) habitat type of central Idaho.  It is a near-climax indicator of that habitat type. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Heartleaf arnica flowers from May through August in California [33] and May through September in Colorado [13].  In Montana, flowering begins in early June, fruits ripen in mid-July, and seeds are dispersed at the end of July [40].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Arnica cordifolia
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Heartleaf arnica is moderately fire resistant [31,37], typically sprouting from surviving rhizomes after fire [7,24,32].  It also regenerates from wind-dispersed seed [7,45], and from seed resulting from mass flowering at postfire year 1 or 2 [42]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil    Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)    Secondary colonizer - on-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Arnica cordifolia
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Heartleaf arnica is top-killed by fire.  Rhizomes often survive.  It is rated as susceptible [7,31] to intermediate [24] in resistance to fire damage.  This probably varies according to how far below the soil surface rhizomes are buried. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Heartleaf arnica is apparently reduced by "high intensity" fires [24,30], but responds to "less intense" fires through rapid initial vegetative regrowth accompanied by heavy flowering and seedling establishment [24,42].  This is typically followed by a decline in cover and frequency within a few years [17].  Heartleaf arnica had the highest frequency and cover of all forbs 2 years following a severe fire (greater than 90 percent mortality of all trees) in a spruce-fir (Picea-Abies) ecosystem in Wyoming [3].  Frequency and cover values increased for 2 years following logging and broadcast burning in a Douglas-fir habitat type in Idaho.  This trend was followed by a decline to 0 percent cover by postfire year 10 [17]. According to Barth [4], light, moisture, and soil depth are important factors determining the postfire density of heartleaf arnica. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : On ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir communities in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon, heartleaf arnica cover and frequency were higher on sites that had been thinned 6 years previously than on prescribed burned, thinned-and-burned, or control sites.  Heartleaf arnica was determined to be an indicator species for thinned sites (P0.05).  For further information on the effects of thinning and burning treatments on heartleaf arnica and 48 other species, see the Research Project Summary of Youngblood and others' [50] study. The Research Paper and Research Project Summary of Hamilton's [48,49] studies, and Lyon's Research Paper also provide information on prescribed fire and postfire response of many plant species, including heartleaf arnica. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

References for species: Arnica cordifolia


1. Alexander, Robert R. 1986. Classification of the forest vegetation of Wyoming. Res. Note RM-466. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10 p. [304]
2. Austin, D. D.; Urness, Philip J. 1982. Vegetal responses and big game values after thinning regenerating lodgepole pine. The Great Basin Naturalist. 42(4): 512-516. [8354]
3. Barmore, William J., Jr.; Taylor, Dale; Hayden, Peter. 1976. Ecological effects and biotic succession following the 1974 Waterfalls Canyon Fire in Grand Teton National Park. Research Progress Report 1974-1975. Unpublished report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 99 p. [16109]
4. Barth, Richard C. 1970. Revegetation after a subalpine wildfire. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 142 p. Thesis. [12458]
5. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
6. Bierzychudek, Paulette. 1982. Life histories and demography of shade-tolerant temperate forest herbs: a review. New Phytologist. 90: 757-776. [19197]
7. Bradley, Anne F.; Noste, Nonan V.; Fischer, William C. 1992. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands of Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-287. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. [18212]
8. Cole, David N. 1988. Disturbance and recovery of trampled montane grassland and forests in Montana. Res. Pap. INT-389. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 37 p. [3622]
9. Collins, William B.; Urness, Philip J. 1983. Feeding behavior and habitat selection of mule deer and elk on northern Utah summer range. Journal of Wildlife Management. 47(3): 646-663. [6915]
10. Crane, M. F.; Fischer, William C. 1986. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of central Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-218. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 85 p. [5297]
11. Crouch, Glenn L. 1985. Effects of clearcutting a subalpine forest in central Colorado on wildlife habitat. Res. Pap. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p. [8225]
12. Deschamp, Joseph A.; Urness, Philip J.; Austin, Dennis D. 1979. Summer diets of mule deer from lodgepole pine habitats. Journal of Wildlife Management. 43(1): 154-161. [4524]
13. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
14. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
15. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2) [14935]
16. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
17. Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1989. Vegetation response to helicopter logging and broadcast burning in Douglas-fir habitat types at Silver Creek, central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-405. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 24 p. [6810]
18. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
19. Hall, Frederick C. 1976. Fire and vegetation in the Blue Mountains: implications for land managers. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1974 October 16-17; Portland, Oregon. No. 15. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 155-170. [6272]
20. Hess, Karl; Alexander, Robert R. 1986. Forest vegetation of the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests in central Colorado: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-266. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. [1141]
21. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
22. Hoffman, George R.; Alexander, Robert R. 1976. Forest vegetation of the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-170. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 38 p. [1180]
23. Hopkins, William E. 1979. Plant associations of the Fremont National Forest. R6-ECOL-79-004. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 106 p. [7340]
24. Keown, Larry D. 1978. Fire management in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Moose Creek Ranger District, Nezperce National Forest. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Region. 163. [18633]
25. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
26. Komarkova, Vera; Alexander, Robert R.; Johnston, Barry C. 1988. Forest vegetation of the Gunnison and parts of the Uncompahgre National Forests: a preliminary habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-163. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 65 p. [5798]
27. Kramer, Neal B.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1987. Mature forest seed banks of three habitat types in central Idaho. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65: 1961-1966. [3961]
28. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
29. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
30. Lyon, L. Jack. 1971. Vegetal development following prescribed burning of Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-105. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 30 p. [1495]
31. McLean, Alastair. 1968. Fire resistance of forest species as influenced by root systems. Journal of Range Management. 22: 120-122. [1621]
32. Mitchell, Jerry M. 1984. Fire management action plan: Zion National Park, Utah. Record of Decision. 73 p. Report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [17278]
33. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
34. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
35. Nimlos, Thomas J.; Van Meter, Wayne P.; Daniels, Lewis A. 1968. Rooting patterns of forest understory species as determined by radioiodine absorption. Ecology. 49(6): 1145-1151. [4120]
36. Patten, D. T. 1963. Vegetational pattern in relation to environments in the Madison Range, Montana. Ecological Monographs. 33(4): 375-406. [1836]
37. Powell, David C. 1988. Aspen community types of the Pike and San Isabel National Forests in south-central Colorado. R2-ECOL-88-01. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 254 p. [15285]
38. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
39. Regelin, Wayne L.; Wallmo, Olof C. 1978. Duration of deer forage benefits after clearcut logging of subalpine forest in Colorado. RM-356. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p. [4499]
40. Schmidt, Wyman C.; Lotan, James E. 1980. Phenology of common forest flora of the northern Rockies--1928 to 1937. Res. Pap. INT-259. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. [2082]
41. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 10 p. [20090]
42. Stickney, Peter F. 1993. Effects of fire on upland forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT: 3 p. [21627]
43. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573]
44. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
45. Anderson, Jay E.; Romme, William H. 1991. Initial floristics in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests following the 1988 Yellowstone fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 1(2): 119-124. [16008]
46. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1987. The grand fir/blue huckleberry habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-228. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 66 p. [8133]
47. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1989. The Douglas-fir/ninebark habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-252. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 65 p. [8136]
48. Hamilton, E. 2006. Vegetation development and fire effects at the Walker Creek site: comparison of forest floor and mineral soil plots. Tech. Rep. No. 026. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Range, Forest Science Program. 28 p. [64621]
49. Hamilton, Evelyn; Peterson, Les. 2003. Response of vegetation to burning in a subalpine forest cutblock in central British Columbia: Otter Creek site. Research Report 23. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forestry, Research Branch. 60 p. [46111]
50. Youngblood, Andrew; Metlen, Kerry L.; Coe, Kent. 2006. Changes in stand structure and composition after restoration treatments in low elevation dry forests of northeastern Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management. 234(1-3): 143-163. [64992]


FEIS Home