Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Antennaria racemosa


SPECIES: Antennaria racemosa
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1993. Antennaria racemosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : ANTRAC SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : ANRA COMMON NAMES : raceme pussytoes TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of raceme pussytoes is Antennaria racemosa Hook. [6,8,13,15]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. Antennaria is a complex genus due to a high degree of apomixis, polyploidy, and hybridization [11]. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Antennaria racemosa
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Raceme pussytoes is distributed from British Columbia south to Oregon and east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming [13,15]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES23  Fir - spruce    FRES24  Hemlock - Sitka spruce    FRES25  Larch    FRES26  Lodgepole pine STATES :      ID  MT  OR  WA  WY  AB  BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     1  Northern Pacific Border     2  Cascade Mountains     5  Columbia Plateau     8  Northern Rocky Mountains     9  Middle Rocky Mountains    10  Wyoming Basin    16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K001  Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest    K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest    K004  Fir - hemlock forest    K012  Douglas-fir forest    K014  Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest    K015  Western spruce - fir forest SAF COVER TYPES :    205  Mountain hemlock    206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir    210  Interior Douglas-fir    212  Western larch    213  Grand fir    218  Lodgepole pine    224  Western hemlock    227  Western redcedar - western hemlock    228  Western redcedar    229  Pacific Douglas-fir    230  Douglas-fir - western hemlock SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Some species commonly associated with raceme pussytoes include bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), prince's pine (Chimaphila umbellata), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), grouse whortleberry (Vaccinium scoparium), heartleaf arnica (Arnica cordifolia), western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), fleabane (Erigeron spp.), showy aster (Aster conspicuus), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), scarlet paintbrush (Castilleja miniata), Virginia strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), and pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens) [3,12,16].


SPECIES: Antennaria racemosa
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Raceme pussytoes has moderate forage value for deer [21]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)/pinegrass habitats in central Idaho, raceme pussytoes cover decreased after clearcutting and shelterwood cutting followed by mechanical scarification; after clearcutting followed by broadcast burning; and after clearcutting with no subsequent site preparation [21].  It showed a similar response to the same silvicultural treatments in Douglas-fir/ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus) and Douglas-fir/globe huckleberry (Vaccinium globulare) habitat types in western Montana [2]. Raceme pussytoes is moderately resistant to trampling [5].  Pussytoes (Antennaria spp.) usually increase in response to grazing [25].


SPECIES: Antennaria racemosa
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Raceme pussytoes is a native, perennial forb with creeping, leafy stolons.  Stems are 4 to 24 inches (10-60 cm) tall.  The inflorescence is a generally open cyme, but flowers may be more crowded at higher elevations [13,15]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Raceme pussytoes reproduces from seed or spreads vegetatively through stolons.  Seeds are light and wind dispersed.  They are generally not stored in soil seed banks.  Raceme pussytoes seeds germinate on mineral soil in partial shade; germination and seedling establishment do not increase dramatically following disturbance.  Vegetative growth tends to increase following partial removal of the canopy [21]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Raceme pussytoes is found on moist, at least partially shaded sites in cool montane and subalpine forests [6,13,15].  In west-central Montana it is particularly abundant on north slopes, where it may be found along roads and in other disturbed places [15].  Raceme pussytoes is found at elevations of 5,600 to 11,500 feet (1,700-3,500 m) in Wyoming and 3,500 to 6,800 feet (1,050-2,050 m) in Montana [7]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Raceme pussytoes is shade tolerant but is often found on disturbed sites on north-facing slopes [15].  In central Idaho it is an early seral species in subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)/beargrass (Xerophyllum tenax) habitat types [19], but is considered late seral in Douglas-fir/ninebark and Douglas-fir/pinegrass habitat types [20,21]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Raceme pussytoes flowers from May through August [13].


SPECIES: Antennaria racemosa
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Raceme pussytoes colonizes bare mineral soil from light, wind-dispersed seed [19,21]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Antennaria racemosa
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Raceme pussytoes is probably killed by most fires. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Raceme pussytoes response to fire varies.  It decreased in cover in the first years following stand-replacing wildfires in Douglas-fir/pinegrass, Douglas-fir/ninebark, and Douglas-fir/globe huckleberry habitat types in central Idaho and western Montana [2,21]. However, it increased after fires in subalpine fir/beargrass habitats and was often found in the understory of open lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands, especially where one or more light surface fires had recently occurred [19].  Raceme pussytoes was present in increasing numbers in the first 10 years following the Pattee Canyon Fire in western Montana [24].  Raceme pussytoes was also present within 7 to 9 years following a broadcast burn in a western larch (Larix occidentalis)-Douglas-fir forest in Montana, although it was not a component of the prefire community [22].  Reese [18] stated that raceme pussytoes is sometimes present on recently burned sites in the Teton Wilderness, Wyoming. Anderson [1] reported that raceme pussytoes was present "via vegetative regrowth" in postfire year 1 following moderately severe fires in lodgepole pine stands in Yellowstone National Park.  No other information was found on the ability of raceme pussytoes to sprout after fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including raceme pussytoes, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Antennaria racemosa
REFERENCES :  1.  Anderson, Jay E.; Romme, William H. 1991. Initial floristics in        lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests following the 1988 Yellowstone        fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 1(2): 119-124.  [16008]  2.  Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1985. Forest        succession on four habitat types in western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep.        INT-177. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 74 p.  [349]  3.  Basile, Joseph V.; Jensen, Chester E. 1971. Grazing potential on        lodgepole pine clearcuts in Montana. Res. Pap. INT-98. Ogden, UT: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and        Range Experiment Station. 11 p.  [8280]  4.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]  5.  Cole, David N. 1988. Disturbance and recovery of trampled montane        grassland and forests in Montana. Res. Pap. INT-389. Ogden, UT: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research        Station. 37 p.  [3622]  6.  Cronquist, Arthur. 1955. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest: Part        5: Compositae. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 343 p.  [716]  7.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806]  8.  Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain        West Publishing. 340 p.  [6129]  9.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905] 10.  Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].        1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range        ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  [998] 11.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603] 12.  Hann, Wendel John. 1982. A taxonomy for classification of seral        vegetation of selected habitat types in western Montana. Moscow, ID:        University of Idaho. 235 p. Dissertation.  [1073] 13.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific        Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168] 14.  Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation        of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:        American Geographical Society. 77 p.  [1384] 15.  Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central        Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research        Station. 648 p.  [13798] 16.  La Roi, George H.; Hnatiuk, Roger J. 1980. The Pinus contorta forests of        Banff and Jasper National Parks: a study in comparative synecology and        syntaxonomy. Ecological Monographs. 50(1): 1-29.  [8347] 17.  Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant        geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  [2843] 18.  Reese, Jerry B.; Mohr, Francis R.; Dean, Ronald E.; Klabunde, Thomas.        1976. Teton Wilderness fire management plan. Part I: Ecological and        resource description of the Teton Wilderness. Jackson, WY: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Bridger-Teton National        Forest. 123 p.  [21064] 19.  Simpson, Michael L. 1990. The subalpine fir/beargrass habitat type:        Succession and management. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 134 p.        Thesis.  [13464] 20.  Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1989. The Douglas-fir/ninebark        habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech.        Rep. INT-252. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Intermountain Research Station. 65 p.  [8136] 21.  Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1993. The Douglas-fir/pinegrass        habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech.        Rep. INT-298. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Intermountain Research Station. 83 p.  [21512] 22.  Stickney, Peter F. 1980. Data base for post-fire succession, first 6 to        9 years, in Montana larch-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-62. Ogden,        UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station. 133 p.  [6583] 23.  Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern        Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire        Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p.  [20090] 24.  Toth, Barbara L. 1991. Factors affecting conifer regeneration and        community structure after a wildfire in western Montana. Corvallis, OR:        Oregon State University. 124 p. Thesis.  [14425] 25.  Tweit, Susan J.; Houston, Kent E. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat        types of the Shoshone National Forest. Cody, WY: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Shoshone National Forest. 143 p.  [2377] 26.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.        National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.        SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p.  [11573]