Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Antennaria microphylla


SPECIES: Antennaria microphylla
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1993. Antennaria microphylla. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : ANTMIC SYNONYMS : Antennaria rosea Rydb. [12,13,16,28] Antennaria arida Nels. [13,14] Antennaria nitida Greene [30] Antennaria bracteosa Rydb. [30] Antennaria solstitialis Lunell [30] SCS PLANT CODE : ANMI3 COMMON NAMES : littleleaf pussytoes dwarf everlasting pink pussytoes rosy pussytoes small pussytoes TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for littleleaf pussytoes is Antennaria microphylla Rydb. [13,14,16,28]. Antennaria is a taxonomically complex genus due to a high degree of apomixis, polyploidy, and hybridization. Antennaria microphylla is a highly variable species and many segregates have been named, although none appear to warrant taxonomic recognition [12]. Littleleaf pussytoes is often confused with A. rosea Greene because of frequent hybridization. These two species have been treated as the same entity by some authorities, but it has recently been determined that they are taxonomically distinct [30]. Littleleaf pussytoes also frequently hybridizes with umbrinella pussytoes (A. umbrinella) [16,30] and alpine pussytoes (A. alpina) [16]. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Antennaria microphylla
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Littleleaf pussytoes is distributed from Alaska east to Ontario and south to California, New Mexico, Colorado, and Nebraska [1,12,13,16,28]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES36 Mountain grasslands FRES37 Mountain meadows FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES44 Alpine STATES : AK AZ CA CO ID MN MT NE NV NM ND OR SD UT WA WY AB BC MB ON SK YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K016 Eastern ponderosa forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest K019 Arizona pine forest K020 Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest K021 Southwestern spruce - fir forest K022 Great Basin pine forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K024 Juniper steppe woodland K038 Great Basin sagebrush K050 Fescue - wheatgrass K051 Wheatgrass - bluegrass K052 Alpine meadows and barren K055 Sagebrush steppe K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe K063 Foothills prairie K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass K065 Grama - buffalograss K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass K068 Wheatgrass - grama - buffalograss SAF COVER TYPES : 16 Aspen 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 210 Interior Douglas-fir 213 Grand fir 217 Aspen 218 Lodgepole pine 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 237 Interior ponderosa pine 238 Western juniper SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Some species associated with littleleaf pussytoes in sagebrush or grassland habitats include Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis), rough fescue (Festuca scabrella), needle-and-thread grass (Stipa comata), bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), prairie junegrass (Koeleria cristata), cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia), lupine (Lupinus spp.), western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), buckwheat (Eriogonum spp.), phlox (Phlox spp.), and fleabane (Erigeron spp.) [3,8,25,26].


SPECIES: Antennaria microphylla
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Littleleaf pussytoes is eaten by Columbia ground squirrels [17], but is generally of low forage value [3]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Littleleaf pussytoes does not survive mechanical scarification but can colonize bare scarified soil. Herbaceous layers dominated by rosy pussytoes in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)/pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens) habitat types in central Idaho occur on scarified, cool, dry sites where the herbaceous layer is depauperate. Littleleaf pussytoes in this habitat type has the following responses to different silvicultural practices: a minor increase in vegetative growth after clearcutting with no subsequent site preparation; a major decrease in canopy cover after shelterwood cuts followed by mechanical scarification; a major decrease in canopy cover and a minor increase in seedling establishment after clearcutting followed by mechanical scarification; and a minor decrease in canopy cover after wildfire and after clearcutting followed by broadcast burning [22]. Littleleaf pussytoes is often present in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands heavily grazed by cattle and deer in Wyoming [6]. Under light to moderate grazing in central Idaho, it dominates the herbaceous layer of Douglas-fir/ pinegrass habitat types [22]. Pussytoes (Antennaria spp.) generally increase in response to grazing [26]. The herbicide 2,4-D caused light damage (1-33% kill) to littleleaf pussytoes when it was sprayed on nearby sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) [4].


SPECIES: Antennaria microphylla
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Littleleaf pussytoes is a stoloniferous, mat-forming, perennial forb. Stems are generally 1.6 to 12 inches (4-30 cm) tall. Leaves are spoon-shaped or narrowly oblong and simple, alternate, and mostly basal. Cauline leaves are reduced upwards. The inflorescence is a congested to open cyme with 2 to 13 heads. The fruit is an achene 0.03 to 0.05 inch (0.08-0.12 cm) long [12,16,28]. Stolons are usually 0.4 to 2 inches (1-5 cm) long [1]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Littleleaf pussytoes reproduces from seed or spreads vegetatively through stolons. Seeds are light and wind dispersed. They are generally not stored in soil seedbanks [22]. Littleleaf pussytoes is dioecious [1,16]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Littleleaf pussytoes is found in dry, open habitats including plains, hills, open woods, and dry meadows [9,12,13]. It is found at elevations of 6,000 to 11,400 feet (1,830-3,450 m) in Utah and 5,000 to 11,000 feet (1,500-3,300 m) in Colorado [13,28]. In west-central Montana, rosy pussytoes is found from the valley floor to alpine zones [16]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Littleleaf pussytoes is found in disturbed areas as well as stable climax communities. It was present on thin mud and tephra in the first 2 years following the volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington [29]. It invades heavily grazed sagebrush-grassland communities in Nevada [25]. In central Idaho littleleaf pussytoes is a major early seral species in subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)/beargrass (Xerophyllum tenax) habitat types [21] and a prominent mid-seral species in Douglas-fir/pinegrass habitat types, where it persists beneath a partial canopy [22]. It also occurs in seral and climax trembling aspen communities in Utah [18]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Littleleaf pussytoes flowers from the end of May to July [5,12].


SPECIES: Antennaria microphylla
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Littleleaf pussytoes colonizes bare mineral soil from light, wind-dispersed seed [21,22]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Antennaria microphylla
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Littleleaf pussytoes is probably killed by moderate or severe fires. However, no marked littleleaf pussytoes plants were killed by low-severity spring or fall prescribed fires in mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana)/rough fescue (Festuca scabrella), mountain big sagebrush/Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratense), or Douglas-fir/mountain big sagebrush vegetation types in the Helena National Forest, Montana [20]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : The response of littleleaf pussytoes to fire probably depends on site characteristics and fire severity. It is a major early seral species following fires in subalpine fir/beargrass habitat types in central Idaho [21]. Littleleaf pussytoes was first observed in postfire year 3 following the severe Sundance Forest Fire in northern Idaho [23]. In Douglas-fir stands in the Deerlodge National Forest, Montana, rosy pussytoes decreased 22.5 percent in the first 2 postfire years after spring fires [7]. In sagebrush habitats in Idaho littleleaf pussytoes decreased the first years following September prescribed fires, but then increased and regained much of its original cover. Production was greater on lightly burned or moderately burned sites than on either unburned or severely burned sites 15 years after the fires [3]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Antennaria microphylla
REFERENCES : 1. Bayer, Randall J. 1993. A taxonomic revision of the genus Antennaria (Asteraceae: Inuleae: Gnaphaliinae) of Alaska & Yukon Territory, northwestern North America. Arctic and Alpine Research. 25(2): 150-159. [21664] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Blaisdell, James P. 1953. Ecological effects of planned burning of sagebrush-grass range on the upper Snake River Plains. Tech. Bull. 1975. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 39 p. [462] 4. Blaisdell, James P.; Mueggler, Walter F. 1956. Effect of 2,4-D on forbs and shrubs associated with big sagebrush. Journal of Range Management. 9: 38-40. [465] 5. Budd, A. C.; Campbell, J. B. 1959. Flowering sequence of a local flora. Journal of Range Management. 12: 127-132. [552] 6. Burke, Ingrid C.; Reiners, William A.; Olson, Richard K. 1989. Topographic control of vegetation in a mountain big sagebrush steppe. Vegetatio. 84(2): 77-86. [11178] 7. Bushey, Charles L. 1985. Summary of results from the Galena Gulch 1982 spring burns (Units 1b). Missoula, MT: Systems for Environmental Management. 9 p. [567] 8. Coupland, Robert T. 1961. A reconsideration of grassland classification in the northern Great Plains of North America. Journal of Ecology. 49: 135-167. [12588] 9. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129] 10. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 11. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 12. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 13. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 14. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 15. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 16. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798] 17. Lambeth, Ron; Hironaka M. 1982. Columbia ground squirrel in sublapine forest openings in central Idaho. Journal of Range Management. 35(4): 493-497. [8269] 18. Mueggler, Walter F.; Campbell, Robert B., Jr. 1986. Aspen community types of Utah. Res. Pap. INT-362. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 69 p. [1714] 19. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 20. Schwecke, Deitrich A.; Hann, Wendell. 1989. Fire behavior and vegetation response to spring and fall burning on the Helena National Forest. In: Baumgartner, David M.; Breuer, David W.; Zamora, Benjamin A.; [and others], compilers. Prescribed fire in the Intermountain region: Symposium proceedings; 1986 March 3-5; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 135-142. [11260] 21. Simpson, Michael L. 1990. The subalpine fir/beargrass habitat type: Succession and management. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 134 p. Thesis. [13464] 22. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1993. The Douglas-fir/pinegrass habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-298. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 83 p. [21512] 23. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance Forest Fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 26 p. [2255] 24. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 25. Tueller, P. T.; Platou, K. A. 1991. A plant succession gradient in a big sagebrush/grass ecosystem. Vegetatio. 94(1): 57-68. [16576] 26. Tweit, Susan J.; Houston, Kent E. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of the Shoshone National Forest. Cody, WY: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Shoshone National Forest. 143 p. [2377] 27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 28. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 29. del Moral, Roger. 1983. Initial recovery of subalpine vegetation on Mount St. Helens, Washington. American Midland Naturalist. 109(1): 72-80. [5987] 30. Chmielewski, J. G.; Chinnappa, C. C.; Semple, J. C. 1990. The genus Antennaria (Asteraceae: Inuleae) in western North America: morphometric analysis of Antennaria alborosea, A. corymbosa, A. marginata, A. microphylla, A. parvifolia, A. rosea, and A. umbrinella. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 169: 151-175. [22102]

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