Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Thelypteris noveboracensis


Introductory

SPECIES: Thelypteris noveboracensis
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Snyder, S. A. 1993. Thelypteris noveboracensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : THENOV SYNONYMS : Dryopteris noveboracensis (L.) Gray Polypodium noveboracensis L. Aspidium noveboracensis Schrad. Aspidium conterminum strigosum Eaton Dryopteris contermina stigosa Underw. SCS PLANT CODE : THNO COMMON NAMES : New York fern TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of New York fern is Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl. in the Polypodiaceae family [14]. There are two forms: T. n. noveboracensis forma noveboracensis and T. n. forma fragrans (Peck) Burnham [8,24]. The most commonly used synonym in the literature is Dryopteris novebaracensis. LIFE FORM : Fern or Fern Ally FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Thelypteris noveboracensis
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : New York fern is distributed from Newfoundland west to Ontario and south to Arkansas and Georgia [8].  It occurs throughout the New England and Atlantic coastal states and has been noted in some parts of Florida [14,24,25].  It is also found in Hawaii and some midwestern states [21]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES10  White - red - jack pine    FRES15  Oak - hickory    FRES16  Oak - gum - cypress    FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood    FRES18  Maple - beech - birch    FRES14  Oak - pine STATES :      AL  AR  CT  FL  GA  HI  IL  IN  KY  ME      MD  MA  MI  MS  NH  NJ  NY  NC  OH  PA      RI  SC  TN  VT  VA  WV  NB  NF  NS  ON      PQ BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K098  Northern floodplain forest    K099  Maple - basswood forest    K100  Oak - hickory forest    K101  Elm - ash forest    K103  Mixed mesophytic forest    K104  Appalachian oak forest    K106  Northern hardwoods    K110  Northeastern oak - pine forest    K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest    K112  Southern mixed forest SAF COVER TYPES :     14  Northern pin oak     15  Red pine     20  White pine - northern red oak - red maple     21  Eastern white pine     22  White pine - hemlock     23  Eastern hemlock     25  Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch     27  Sugar maple     28  Black cherry - maple     39  Black ash - American elm - red maple     44  Chestnut oak     46  Eastern redcedar     52  White oak - black oak - northern red oak     53  White oak     55  Northern red oak     57  Yellow-poplar     58  Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock     59  Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak     64  Sassafras - persimmon    108  Red maple    110  Black oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : New York fern is an understory component of the yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)-sugar maple (Acer saccharum) association in Quebec [15]..

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Thelypteris noveboracensis
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In hardwood forests of the Northeast, New York fern can sometimes be an undesirable species because of its ability to outcompete seedlings of commercially important tree species [3,10,11,12].  It can form a dense ground cover, especially following clearcutting, preventing establishment of hardwood seedlings.  Treatment with glyphosate or sulfometuron before clearcutting is recommended to reduce New York fern cover [10,12]. White-tailed deer browsing of Allegheny hardwood seedlings, particularly black cherry (Prunus serotina), can cause increases of New York fern [11,26].  New York fern produces phenols which can kill black cherry seedlings [5]. Acid rain studies on Long Island, New York, showed that New York fern became a dominant understory species where pH levels declined to between 3.8 to 4.1 [9].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Thelypteris noveboracensis
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : New York fern is a deciduous fern with leaves about 18 inches (46 cm) long and 6 inches (15 cm) wide.  It grows in tufts along horizontal rhizomes which are somewhat scaly and widely creeping [2,25].  Spore clusters are submarginal, and spore covers are absent or minute and quickly shrivel [24,25].  The fronds of Thelypteris noveboracensis forma fragrans are glandular and aromatic [8,24]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :    Chamaephyte    Geophyte    Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual reproduction will occur on bare mineral soil, but New York fern reproduces mainly by a creeping rootstock that allows it to form dense ground cover [11].  The rhizomes grow faster in partially cut than in uncut stands.  New rhizomes form on the frond petiole [11].  The rhizomes can be pulled out of the ground like a mat of sod and transplanted [25]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : New York fern grows in moist woodlands and pastures, ravines, bogs, swamps, and field margins of Eastern deciduous forests [24,25,28].  It is rarely found in dry woodlands of Illinois [21].  In the Adirondack Mountains it grows on well-drained to "imperfectly-drained" sites from 100 feet (30 m) in elevation near Lake Champlain to 2,300 feet (701 m) in the MacIntyre Range [14].  It occurs up to 5,000 feet (1,524 m) elevation in the Blue Ridge Province [25].  It is found on marine sandy and glacial meltwater sites on well-drained slopes in disturbed forests southwest of Montreal, Quebec [20].  It grows on calcareous sites in the southern Blue Ridge escarpment.  Soils ther are Brevard phyllite, with a pH of 6.2 to 6.5 [6].  It can also grow on sites with a pH as low as 3.8 [9]. Some overstory species with which New York fern is associated are swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor), mazzard cherry (Prunus avium), mockernut hickory (Carya tomentosa), pignut hickory (C. glabra), shagbark hickory (C. ovata), white ash (Fraxinus americana), American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), and spicebush (Lindera benzoin) [19,29].  Some understory associates include hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula), short huskgrass (Bracheylytrum erectum), violet (Viola spp.), woodsorrel (Oxalis spp.), aster (Aster spp.), clubmoss (Lycopodium spp.), viburnum (Viburnum spp.), evergreen woodfern (Dryopteris intermedia), common greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia), circaea (Circaea quadrisulcata), ladyfern (Athyrium filex-femina), Indian jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), and wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense) [1,9,17,18]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species New York fern is shade tolerant, but will grow in canopy openings in hardwood forests [2,11,29].  SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : New York fern produces spores from May through August from Virginia south to Georgia [28], from late July through late September in New England [24], and from June through September in Illinois [21].  Leaves turn brown in autumn, usually before other wood ferns [25].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Thelypteris noveboracensis
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : New York fern has widely creeping rhizomes that allow it to regenerate following fire [11]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil    Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Thelypteris noveboracensis
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : NO-ENTRY DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : In general, rhizomatous species respond to fire by sprouting.  No specific effects of fire on New York fern were found in the literature.
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE :
The Research Project Summary Early postfire effects of a prescribed fire
in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina
provides information on
prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species,
including New York fern, that was not available when this species review
was originally written.
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : 
In Allegheny hardwood types, fire does not control undesirable species
like New York fern [12].







REFERENCES

SPECIES: Thelypteris noveboracensis
REFERENCES :  1.  Baird, John W. 1980. The selection and use of fruit by birds in an        eastern forest. Wilson Bulletin. 92(1): 63-73.  [10004]  2.  Cobb, Broughton. 1956. A field guide to the ferns. Boston: Houghton        Mifflin Company. 281 p.  [21691]  3.  Drew, Allan P. 1988. Interference of black cherry by ground flora of the        Allegheny uplands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 18: 652-656.        [8729]  4.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905]  5.  Fisher, Richard F. 1980. Allelopathy: a potential cause of regeneration        failure. Journal of Forestry. 78: 1980.  [9049]  6.  Gaddy, L. L. 1990. Glade Fern Ravine, a rich fern site in the Blue Ridge        province of South Carolina. Castanea. 55(4): 282-285.  [21692]  7.  Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].        1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range        ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  [998]  8.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p.        (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny        Series; vol. 2).  [14935]  9.  Greller, Andrew M.; Locke, David C.; Kilanowski, Victoria; Lotowycz, G.        Elizabeth. 1990. Changes in vegetation composition and soil acidity        between 1922 and 1985 at a site on the north shore of Long Island, New        York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 117(4): 450-458.  [19192] 10.  Horsley, Stephen B. 1982. Development of reproduction in Allegheny        hardwood stands after herbicide-clearcuts and herbicide-shelterwood        cuts. NE-308. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 4 p.  [12575] 11.  Horsley, Stephen B. 1988. How vegetation can influence regeneration. In:        Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E., Jr, eds. Guidelines        for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988        May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. Society of American Foresters Publ. 88-03.        Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 38-54.  [13544] 12.  Horsley, Stephen B. 1991. Using Roundup and Oust to control interfering        understories in Allegheny hardwood stands. In: McCormick, Larry H.;        Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings, 8th central hardwood forest        conference; 1991 March 4-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-148.        Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern        Forest Experiment Station: 281-290.  [15317] 13.  Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation        of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:        American Geographical Society. 77 p.  [1384] 14.  Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological        perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p.  [19376] 15.  Lemieux, G. J. 1963. Soil-vegetation relationships in northern hardwoods        of Quebec. In: Forest-soil relationships in North America. Corvallis,        OR: Oregon State University Press: 163-176.  [8874] 16.  Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern        Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire        Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p.  [20090] 17.  Mackun, I. R.; Brach, A. R.; Smallidge, P. J.; [and others]. 1990.        Upland vegetation responses to watershed liming studied. Restoration &        Management Notes. 8(1): 36-37.  [13551] 18.  Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh.  black cherry. In: Burns,        Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of        North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604.  [13972] 19.  McNab, W. Henry. 1991. Land classification in the Blue Ridge province:        state-of-the-science report. In: Mengel, Dennis L.; Tew, D. Thompson,        eds. Ecological land classification: applications to identify the        productive potential of southern forests: Proc. of a symp; 1991 January        7-9; Charlotte, NC. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-68. Asheville, NC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest        Experiment Station: 37-47.  [15708] 20.  Meilleur, A.; Bouchard, A.; Bergeron, Y. 1992. The use of understory        spp. as indicators of landform ecosystem type in heavily disturb.        forest: an evaluat. in the Haut-Saint-Laurent, Quebec. Vegetatio. 102:        13-32.  [20101] 21.  Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular        flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.        507 p.  [17383] 22.  Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant        geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  [2843] 23.  Ross, S. Rachel. 1978. The effects of prescribed burning on ground cover        vegetation of white pine and mixed hardwood forests in southeastern New        Hampshire. Durham, NH: University of New Hamshire. 151 p. Thesis.        [20674] 24.  Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed.        Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L.        Moldenke. 611 p.  [7604] 25.  Small, John Kunkel. 1964. Ferns of the southeastern states. New York:        Hafner Publishing Company. 517 p.  [21690] 26.  Tilghman, Nancy G. 1989. Impacts of white-tailed deer on forest        regeneration in northwestern Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife        Management. 53(3): 524-532.  [8914] 27.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.        National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.        SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p.  [11573] 28.  Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue        Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p.  [12908] 29.  Yahner, R. H.; Storm, G. L.; Melton, R. E.; Vecellio, G. M.; Cottam, D.        F. 1991. Floral inventory and vegetative cover type mapping of        Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site.        Tech. Rep. NPS/MAR/NRTR - 91/050. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of        the Interior, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Region. 149 p.        [17988]


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