Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Asplenium adiantum-nigrum


Introductory

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Esser, Lora L. 1994. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : ASPADI SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : ASAD COMMON NAMES : black spleenwort fern TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of black spleenwort fern is Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. [5,12,15]. It is a member of the Aspleniaceae family. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum is derived from a cross between A. onopteris L. and A. cuneifolium Viv. [1,11,12]. Black spleenwort fern shows a wide range of morphological variation, completely overlapping with the typical forms of both parents [12]. LIFE FORM : Fern or Fern Ally FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Black spleenwort fern is an introduced species in the continental United States and only occurs in Arizona, Utah, and Colorado [5,7,15]. It is native to Hawaii, Eurasia, and Africa [6,12,15]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub STATES : AZ CO HI UT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : NO-ENTRY SAF COVER TYPES : 237 Interior ponderosa pine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Black spleenwort fern occurs in mountain brush and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) communities in southern Utah [15]. It occurs in mountainous or rocky areas throughout the state of Colorado [5]. In Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, black spleenwort fern occurs in Ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) communities [6].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Black spleenwort fern is perennial, with fronds tufted or few together, 0.33 to 0.99 feet (0.1-0.3 m) long. Blades are ovate-deltoid to elongate deltoid, 1.2 to 6 inches (3-15 cm) long and 1.0 to 3.0 inches (2.5-7.6 cm) wide, and bipinnate or ternate. The sori are short, but almost connected in a continous chain on the pinnae. Black spleenwort fern has short rhizomes with numerous roots [5,15]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Black spleenwort fern reproduces from spores and short rhizomes [5,15]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Black spleenwort fern occurs in rocky or mountainous areas [5,6,7,15]. In Utah, it is found on shaded, mesic cliffs of Navajo sandstone [15]. Black spleenwort fern occurs at elevations of 5,775 feet (1,750 m) in Utah, 5,500 feet (1,650 m) in Colorado, and 7,500 feet (2,250 m) in Arizona [5,7,15]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : NO-ENTRY SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : NO-ENTRY

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Black spleenwort fern grows on cliffs and ledges. These areas may protect it from most fires. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Black spleenwort fern is probably top-killed by fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Black spleenwort fern may sprout from rhizomes after fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
REFERENCES : 1. Bennert, H. Wilfried; Jager, Wolfgang; Theren, Gregor. 1982. Spore characters of taxa within the Asplenium adiantum-nigrum complex and their systematical significance. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. Bd. 95(2): 297-312. [23411] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 4. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 5. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 6. Hughes, Flint; Vitousek, Peter M.; Tunison, Timothy. 1991. Alien grass invasion and fire in the seasonal submontane zone of Hawai'i. Ecology. 72(2): 743-746. [15962] 7. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 8. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 9. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 10. Richardson, P. Mick; Lorenz-Liburnau, Eugenia. 1982. C-glycosylxanthones in the Asplenium adiantum-nigrum complex. American Fern Journal. 72(4): 103-106. [23336] 11. Richardson, P. M. 1983. Phenolic chemistry distinguishes Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. from A. cuneifolium VIV. Watsonia. 14(4): 414-415. [23335] 12. Sleep, Anne. 1980. On the reported occurrence of Asplenium cuneifolium and A. adiantum-nigrum in the British Isles. Fern Gazette. 12(2): 103-107. [23334] 13. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 14. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104] 15. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]


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