Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Asplenium adiantum-nigrum

Introductory

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Esser, Lora L. 1994. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/fern/aspadi/all.html/ []. ABBREVIATION : ASPADI SYNONYMS : Asplenium andrewsii NRCS PLANT CODE : ASAD COMMON NAMES : black spleenwort fern TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of black spleenwort fern is Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. [5,12,15]. It is a member of the Aspleniaceae family. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum is derived from a cross between A. onopteris L. and A. cuneifolium Viv. [1,11,12]. Black spleenwort fern shows a wide range of morphological variation, completely overlapping with the typical forms of both parents [12]. LIFE FORM : Fern FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Black spleenwort fern is an introduced species in the continental United States and only occurs in Arizona, Utah, and Colorado [5,7,15]. It is native to Hawaii, Eurasia, and Africa [6,12,15]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub STATES : AZ CO HI UT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : NO-ENTRY SAF COVER TYPES : 237 Interior ponderosa pine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Black spleenwort fern occurs in mountain brush and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) communities in southern Utah [15]. It occurs in mountainous or rocky areas throughout the state of Colorado [5]. In Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, black spleenwort fern occurs in Ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) communities [6].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Black spleenwort fern is perennial, with fronds tufted or few together, 0.33 to 0.99 feet (0.1-0.3 m) long. Blades are ovate-deltoid to elongate deltoid, 1.2 to 6 inches (3-15 cm) long and 1.0 to 3.0 inches (2.5-7.6 cm) wide, and bipinnate or ternate. The sori are short, but almost connected in a continuous chain on the pinnae. Black spleenwort fern has short rhizomes with numerous roots [5,15]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Black spleenwort fern reproduces from spores and short rhizomes [5,15]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Black spleenwort fern occurs in rocky or mountainous areas [5,6,7,15]. In Utah, it is found on shaded, mesic cliffs of Navajo sandstone [15]. Black spleenwort fern occurs at elevations of 5,775 feet (1,750 m) in Utah, 5,500 feet (1,650 m) in Colorado, and 7,500 feet (2,250 m) in Arizona [5,7,15]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : NO-ENTRY SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : NO-ENTRY

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Black spleenwort fern grows on cliffs and ledges. These areas may protect it from most fires. FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Black spleenwort fern is probably top-killed by fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Black spleenwort fern may sprout from rhizomes after fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
REFERENCES : 1. Bennert, H. Wilfried; Jager, Wolfgang; Theren, Gregor. 1982. Spore characters of taxa within the Asplenium adiantum-nigrum complex and their systematical significance. Berichte Der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft. 95(2): 297-312. [23411] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 4. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 5. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 6. Hughes, Flint; Vitousek, Peter M.; Tunison, Timothy. 1991. Alien grass invasion and fire in the seasonal submontane zone of Hawai'i. Ecology. 72(2): 743-746. [15962] 7. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 8. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 9. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 10. Richardson, P. Mick; Lorenz-Liburnau, Eugenia. 1982. C-glycosylxanthones in the Asplenium adiantum-nigrum complex. American Fern Journal. 72(4): 103-106. [23336] 11. Richardson, P. M. 1983. Phenolic chemistry distinguishes Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. from A. cuneifolium VIV. Watsonia. 14(4): 414-415. [23335] 12. Sleep, Anne. 1980. On the reported occurrence of Asplenium cuneifolium and A. adiantum-nigrum in the British Isles. Fern Gazette. 12(2): 103-107. [23334] 13. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 14. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104] 15. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]