Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Echinocereus triglochidiatus

Introductory

SPECIES: Echinocereus triglochidiatus
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Echinocereus triglochidiatus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : ECHTRI SYNONYMS : E. t. var. gonacanthus (Engelm.) Boissevain = typical variety [23] SCS PLANT CODE : ECTR COMMON NAMES : kingcup hedgehog cactus red-flowered hedgehog cactus claretcup cactus strawberry cactus TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of kingcup hedgehog cactus is Echinocereus triglochidiatus Engelmann (Cactaceae) [3,10,11,14,20]. The species is composed of a complex group of local populations, and the appearance of extreme types differs substantially [3]. Hickman [10] stated that varietal designations are not acceptable. However, the following varieties are recognized by some authorities: E. triglochidiatus var. triglochidiatus [3,23,26] E. t. var. arizonicus (Rose) L. Benson [3,26], Arizona kingcup hedgehog cactus E. t. var. gurneyi L. Benson [3,26] E. t. var. inermis Rowley [3], spineless kingcup hedgehog cactus E. t. var. melanacanthus (Engelm.) L. Benson [3,9,11,14,20,26] E. t. var. mojavensis (Engelm. & Bigel.) L. Benson [3,9,11,14,20,23,26] E. t. var. neomexicanthus (Standl.) Standl. ex W. T. Marshall [3,9,26] E. t. var. paucispinus (Engelm.) Engelm. ex W. T. Marshall [3,9,26] The variety E. t. variety toroweapensis Fischer has been proposed [24]. A spineless form of E. t. variety mojavensis occurs in the mountains and mesas of western Colorado and eastern Utah [23]. Echinocereus coccineus was formerly considered a synomyn, but is now considered a distinct species [23,25]. LIFE FORM : Cactus FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : Arizona kingcup hedgehog cactus is Endangered [28]. OTHER STATUS : Arizona kingcup hedgehog cactus is protected from international trade by CITES (Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and is also protected by the Arizona Native Plant Law [2].

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Echinocereus triglochidiatus
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Kingcup hedgehog cactus is distributed from Nevada, Utah, and Colorado south to southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico [3,20]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES32 Texas savanna FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES40 Desert grasslands STATES : AZ CA CO NV NM TX UT MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest K019 Arizona pine forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K027 Mesquite bosque K031 Oak - juniper woodlands K032 Transition between K031 and K037 K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub K038 Great Basin sagebrush K039 Blackbrush K040 Saltbush - greasewood K041 Creosotebush K042 Creosotebush - bursage K043 Paloverde - cactus shrub K044 Creosotebush - tarbush K046 Desert: vegetation largely lacking K053 Grama - galleta steppe K054 Grama - tobosa prairie K057 Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna K060 Mesquite savanna K061 Mesquite - acacia savanna K062 Mesquite - live oak savanna K065 Grama - buffalograss K086 Juniper - oak savanna K087 Mesquite - oak savanna SAF COVER TYPES : 66 Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper 68 Mesquite 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 237 Interior ponderosa pine 239 Pinyon - juniper 241 Western live oak 242 Mesquite SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Hedgehog cactus is not listed as a dominant or codominant species in available publications. Habitats in which the varieties of kingcup hedgehog cactus are typically found follow [3,5,13,17,26]: Rocky Mountain montane forest--E. t. var. melanacanthus, E. t. var. mojavensis (lower elevations) Southwestern oak woodland--E. t. var. melanacanthus, E. t. var. neomexicanus, E. t. var. arizonicus Great Basin Desert--E. t. var. melanacanthus Desert grassland--E. t. var. melanacanthus, E. t. var. neomexicanthus, E. t. var. gurneyi Great Plains grassland--E. t. var. melanacanthus Northern pinyon-juniper woodland--E. t. var. mojavensis Southern pinyon-juniper woodland--E. t. var. neomexicanthus, E. t. var. triglochidiatus, E. t. var. melanacanthus California chaparral--E. t. var. mojavensis (desert edge) Southwestern chaparral--E. t. var. melanacanthus, E. t. var. arizonicus Mojave Desert--E. t. var. mojavensis Chihuahuan Desert--E. t. var. gurneyi, E. t. var. paucispinus

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Echinocereus triglochidiatus
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : The fruit of kingcup hedgehog cactus is edible at maturity [3]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Arizona kingcup hedgehog cactus is threatened by disturbances such as mining, off-road vehicle use, illegal collecting, and road and utility line construction [2]. Kingcup hedgehog cactus was not present in Grand Canyon National Park in 1984 or 1989 on desert campsites that received high use by backpackers. However, its frequency was 2 percent and 3 percent in those years, respectively, on nearby control sites [6].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Echinocereus triglochidiatus
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Kingcup hedgehog cactus is a native stem succulent with stems occurring singly or in dense clusters or mounds with up to 500 stems. Mounds may reach 12 inches (30 cm) in height and 12 to 48 inches (30-120 cm) in diameter. Individual cylindrical stems have one joint, are 2 to 12 inches (5-30 cm) tall and 1 to 6 inches (2.5-15 cm) in diameter. Kingcup hedgehog cactus has eight to twelve spines per areole, with central spines being difficult to distinguish from radial spines. Plants may vary from densely spiny to no spines at all. Spines less than 1 year old are generally puberulent. The scarlet flowers are diurnal, remaining open for 2 or 3 days. The fruit is red and juicy at maturity and has deciduous spines [3,10,11,14,20]. Yeaton [21] stated that kingcup hedgehog cactus has permanent apical pubescence that may act to insulate the plant against cold temperatures that may occur in the juniper-pinyon (Juniperus-Pinus) zone. In addition, the closed canopy of dense mounds of kingcup hedgehog cactus maintains surface and internal stem temperatures within the mound below ambient temperatures during daylight hours. Temperatures within the mound then increase gradually for several hours after the sun sets, allowing kingcup hedgehog cactus to survive low night temperatures. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Stem succulent REGENERATION PROCESSES : Kingcup hedgehog cactus is pollinated by hummingbirds [23]. No other regeneration information was found in the literature. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Kingcup hedgehog cactus is found on a variety of sites and within a wide elevational range. In juniper-pinyon woodlands of the Mojave Desert, kingcup hedgehog cactus is found on north- and south-facing rocky slopes and in washes [21]. General site characteristics for different varieties follow [3,26]: E. t. var. arizonicus--often growing among granitic boulders in mountainous woodlands and chaparral. Elevation ranges from about 3,500 to 4,700 feet (1,050-1,410 m). E. t. var. gurneyi-- on rocky hillsides in granitic or limestone soils in deserts. Elevation ranges from 4,000 to 5,000 feet (1,200-1,500 m). E. t. var. melanacanthus--on rocky or grassy hillsides, ledges, and canyons; mostly on igneous rock. Elevation ranges from 3,500 to 9,000 feet (1,050-2,900 m). E. t. var. mojavensis-- on rocky hillsides and canyons in deserts and in woodlands above. Elevation ranges from 3,500 to 10,000 feet (1,050-3,000 m). E. t. var. neomexicanus--on soils of igneous origin in woodlands and grasslands. Elevation ranges from 4,500 to 7,000 feet (1,350-2100 m). E. t. var. paucispinus--on rocky igneous or limestone soils in deserts or grasslands. Elevation ranges from 500 to 1,000 feet (150-300 m). E. t. var. triglochidiatus--on rocky or gravelly soils on ridges, hills, and canyons in woodlands. Elevation ranges 4,350 to 6,900 feet (1,300-2,070 m). SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Kingcup hedgehog cactus grows in shade [21,22]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Flowering time differs between varieties of kingcup hedgehog cactus and is also dependent on latitude. Kingcup hedgehog cactus generally flowers from April to June [2,3,11,14].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Echinocereus triglochidiatus
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Specific information concerning adaptations that kingcup hedgehog cactus may have for survival following fire is not available in the literature. Single-stemmed individuals are probably susceptible to fire due to their relatively small size. When kingcup hedgehog cactus forms compact mounds, interior stems may be protected by outer stems, enabling them to survive fire. Cacti may escape fire in refugia or in areas with fuels too sparse to carry a fire [16]. Since kingcup hedgehog cactus usually grows under shade, it is less likely to escape fire than species that grow on open sites with little surrounding vegetation. Cacti do not appear to store seed in soil seedbanks [16]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : NO-ENTRY

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Echinocereus triglochidiatus
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Specific information concerning the effect of fire on kingcup hedgehog cactus is not available in the literature. Kingcup hedgehog cactus is probably killed by most fires. Succulents in general rarely actually burn, but spines may ignite and carry flames to the apex. The cactus body may scorch and blister without pyrolysis, leaving undamaged parts of the plant alive. Mortality results from death of the photosynthetic tissue and underlying phloem and cambium. Cacti may appear completely scorched with no green tissue visible, yet may survive fire. However, fire can cause delayed mortality, which may not occur for months or even years. Removal of the spines may also increase subsequent herbivory. Survival of succulents depends primarily on protection of the apical meristem. If the apical meristem is undamaged, the cactus will resume growth [16]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : NO-ENTRY DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Echinocereus triglochidiatus
REFERENCES : 1. Anon. 1990. Endangered species of Utah. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. Pamphlet. [20831] 2. Anon. 1992. Handbook of Arizona's endangered, threatened, and candidate plants. Summer 1992. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]. 57 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20963] 3. Benson, Lyman. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1044 p. [1513] 4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 5. Butterwick, Mary; Parfitt, Bruce D.; Hillyard, Deborah. 1992. Vascular plants of the northern Hualapai Mountains, Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 24-25: 31-49. [18327] 6. Cole, David N.; Hall, Troy E. 1992. Trends in campsite condition: Eagle Cap Wilderness, Bob Marshall Wilderness, and Grand Canyon National Park. Res. Pap. INT-453. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 40 p. [17764] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 9. Bowles, Marlin; Flakne, Robyn; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel. 1993. Recovery planning and reintroduction of the federally threatened pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) in Illinois. Natural Areas Journal. 13(3): 164-176. [22355] 10. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992] 11. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 12. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 13. Lowe, Charles H. 1964. Arizona's natural environment: Landscapes and habitats. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press. 136 p. [20736] 14. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 15. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 16. Thomas, P. A. 1991. Response of succulents to fire: a review. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 1(1): 11-22. [14991] 17. Turner, Raymond M. 1982. Great Basin desertscrub. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 145-155. [2373] 18. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 19. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants. 50 CFR 17.11 and 17.12. Washington, DC. 40 p. [22398] 20. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 21. Yeaton, Richard I. 1982. Ecomorphology and habitat utilization of Echinocereus engelmannii and E. triglochidiatus (Cactaceae) in southeastern California. Great Basin Naturalist. 42(3): 353-359. [22566] 22. Arp, Gerald. 1973. Studies in the Colorado cacti V. The spineless hedgehog. Cactus & Succulent Journal. 45(3): 132-133. [22640] 23. Ferguson, David J. 1989. Revision of the U.S. members of the Echinocereus triglochidiatus group. Cactus & Succulent Journal. 61: 217-224. [22641] 24. Fischer, Pierre C. 1991. Echinocereus triglochidiatus variety toroweapensis: A new variety from the Grand Canyon. Cactus and Succulent Journal. 63(4): 194-195. [22639] 25. Hoffman, M. Timm. 1992. Functional dioecy in Echinocereus coccineus (Cactaceae): breeding system, sex ratios, and geographic range of floral dimorphism. American Journal of Botany. 79(12): 1382-1388. [20080] 26. Taylor, Nigel P. 1985. The genus Echinocereus. Kew Magazine Monograph. Middlesex, England: Collingridge Books. 160 p. In association with The Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. [22638] 27. The Network of Natural Heritage Programs and Conservation Data Centers and The Nature Conservancy. 1994. Federally listed vascular plants. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy, Central Conservation Databases. 11 p. [23106] 28. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Endangered Species Program, [Online]. Available: http://www.fws.gov/endangered/. [86564]


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