AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1993. Marchantia polymorpha. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ . ABBREVIATION : MARPOL SYNONYMS : Marchantia aquatica (Nees) Burgeff SCS PLANT CODE : NO-ENTRY COMMON NAMES : liverwort TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of this liverwort is Marchantia polymorpha L.; it is in the class Hepaticae [16,34]. The following varieties are recognized based on ecological and morphological characteristics [13,14]: Marchantia polymorpha L. var. polymorpha Marchantia polymorpha L. var. aquatica Nees --often submerged with the thallus erect or suberect Marchantia polymorpha L. var. alpestris Nees --most often in dense compact patches in alpine regions with prostrate thallus LIFE FORM : Bryophyte FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCESPECIES: Marchantia polymorpha
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Marchantia polymorpha is the most widely distributed hepatic in the world . It is a cosmopolitan species that occurs from tropical to arctic regions [6,14,42,47]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES22 Western white pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES25 Larch FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES31 Shinnery FRES32 Texas savanna FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES36 Mountain grasslands FRES37 Mountain meadows FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie FRES41 Wet grasslands FRES42 Annual grasslands FRES44 Alpine STATES : AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WI WY AB BC MB NB NF NT NS ON PE PQ SK YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : widely distributed, occurs in most types within its range SAF COVER TYPES : widely distributed, occurs in most types within its range SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Marchantia polymorpha is found in various habitats ranging from tropical forests to arctic tundra but is not a dominant or indicator species in published classification schemes. Commonly associated species in northern North America include postfire invaders or sprouters such as willows (Salix spp.), blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), sheathed cottonsedge (Eriophorum vaginatum), fire moss (Ceratodon purpurea), and other mosses (Funaria hygrometrica, Polytrichum commune, P. juniperum, P. piliferum).
MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONSSPECIES: Marchantia polymorpha
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Invasion and formation of M. polymorpha mats after fire helps to prevent soil erosion [43,44]. In southeastern British Columbia, M. polymorpha colonized mineral soil exposed by skid trails . Marchantia polymorpha has a high lead tolerance and may be an indicator of high lead concentrations . It also tolerates other heavy metals [14,30,32]. Gemmalings grow in lead concentrations to 400 parts per million (p/m) and zinc concentrations to 100 p/m. Copper suppresses growth but chelated copper complexed with ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid is tolerated at high levels . OTHER USES AND VALUES : Historically, M. polymorpha was thought to be an antidote for diseases of the liver and tuberculosis due to the fact that its form and texture resemble that of an animal liver . OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Dichlorophen kills M. polymorpha .
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICSSPECIES: Marchantia polymorpha
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Marchantia polymorpha has a flat, branching form. The thallus is generally 0.8 to 4 inches (2-10 cm) long and 0.3 to 0.8 inch (7-20 mm) broad. Thalli are dichotomously branched and exhibit apical growth. Numerous rhizoids attach the gametophyte (thallus) to the soil. Smooth rhizoids penetrate the soil, while tuberculate rhizoids run horizontally along the surface of the plant. Marchantia polymorpha is dioecious [5,8,9,34]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : NO-ENTRY REGENERATION PROCESSES : Marchantia polymorpha has two alternate forms in its life cycle: a gametophytic stage and a sporophytic stage. The gametophyte propagates itself vegetatively and also produces the gametes which give rise to the sporophyte [8,9,55]. In sexual reproduction, antheridia and archegonia develop on separate plant bodies and are borne on stalked antheridiophores and archegoniophores, respectively. Fertilization takes place prior to elongation of the stalk, and a sporophyte is formed. Spores with hygroscopic elaters (slender threads that twist and coil as they dry and propel spores into the air) subsequently develop and are released . As many as 7 million spores may be formed on each plant . Vegetative reproduction may occur as a result of fragmentation or gemma cup production. In fragmentation, new plants are formed when older plant parts die at the fork of a branch of a thallus. The two branches then become separate individuals . Gametophytes produce propagative structures called gemma cups. Each gemma gives rise to numerous gemmae that are released when the cup fills with water. Gemmae that are transported to favorable sites form a pair of young plants [9,27]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Marchantia polymorpha grows on a wide variety of sites within its range including cliffs, closed forests, alpine heathlands, peat bogs, minerotropic fens, springs, swamps, grasslands, and tundra [2,5,8,50]. It is most often found on moist or wet mineral soil, especially in recently burned areas [4,18,21]. Marchantia polymorpha grows best in subcalcareous soil conditions (pH 6.0) under full sunlight [42,46]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Initial Community Species In central Canada, M. polymorpha is a primary invader of marshes and edges of small ponds that are associated with fluctuating water tables . Marchantia polymorpha mats can interfere with the establishment of seedlings of other vegetation . SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Marchantia polymorpha gametophores appear and archegonia are ready for fertilization in early to late May . Sporogonia mature and spores are released in July [18,34]. Gemmae production ceases in late spring in Michigan .
FIRE ECOLOGYSPECIES: Marchantia polymorpha
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Marchantia polymorpha rapidly invades burned areas by light wind-borne spores [19,39,45]. Exposed mineral soil and high lime concentrations present after a severe fire provide favorable conditions for gametophyte establishment [28,50,51,52]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
FIRE EFFECTSSPECIES: Marchantia polymorpha
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : NO-ENTRY DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Marchantia polymorpha is widely recognized as an initial or early invader of burned sites [7,17,24,36]. It exhibits dramatic growth following fire and in some cases attains 100 percent cover [25,29,33,37]. Marchantia polymorpha dominates the early moss-herb stage after a fire but does not persist through subsequent stages of succession [21,35,46,48]. In Alaska and Canada, M. polymorpha colonies are not present in prefire communities [40,41,53,54]. In northeastern Minnesota, cover of M. polymorpha on burned jack pine (Pinus banksiana)-black spruce (Picea mariana) sites increased until postfire year 3, but it was replaced by lichens (Peltigera spp.) by postfire year 5 . Marchantia polymorpha produced large spreading mats on thin mineral soil and charred humus after a severe fire in New Jersey. The mats persisted for 2 to 3 years, then were replaced by shrubs and forbs . In interior Alaska, M. polymorpha found in burned white spruce (Picea glauca) and mesic black spruce types had the following frequency and cover percentages : Years White spruce Black spruce Stage since fire frequency cover frequency cover ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. Newly burned 0-1 0 0 0 0 2. Moss-herb 1-5 15 1 6 8 3. Tall shrub- 3(5)-30 0 0 12 2 sapling 4. Dense tree 26-45 (WS) 0 0 30-55 (BS) 0 0 After the 1971 Wickersham Dome Fire near Fairbanks, Alaska, M. polymorpha was present in severely burned black spruce and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands but was not present in adjacent unburned control plots or in lightly burned stands. Marchantia polymorpha attained its highest frequency the third year after the fire when it reached 5 percent and 45 percent on black spruce and trembling aspen sites, respectively. Biomass production in grams per square meter was as follows : Black spruce Aspen ----------------------------- 1973 0.1 0.5 1974 0.8 69.6 In Alaska, M. polymorpha was more predominant on well-drained sites than poorly drained sites after fire due to the fact that exposed mineral soil provided a more favorable seedbed . DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Hamilton's Research Papers (Hamilton 2006a, Hamilton 2006b) provide information on prescribed fire and postfire response of many plant species, including M. polymorpha, that was not available when this species review was originally written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Marchantia polymorpha revegetates areas where mineral soil has been exposed. Colonies aid in the renewal of the humus and prepare the soil for the establishment of other vegetation .
FIRE CASE STUDIESSPECIES: Marchantia polymorpha
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION : Matthews, Robin F., compiler. 1993. The effects of experimental fires in an Alaskan black spruce forest on Marchantia polymorpha. In: Marchantia polymorpha. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ . REFERENCE : Dyrness, C. T.; Norum, Rodney A. 1983. The effects of experimental fires on black spruce forest floors in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 879-893. . SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION : Summer/light to severe fires STUDY LOCATION : The site lies within the W 1/2 sec. 12, and the NE 1/4 sec. 13, T4N, R2W, of the Fairbanks Meridian, Alaska. PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY : Before burning, the vegetation was an open black spruce (Picea mariana)/feather moss (Pleurozium schreberi) forest. The mature, open black spruce tree layer comprised a mosaic of two dominant age-classes of about 85 and 140 years. Some of the seven units burned included small groups of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and scattered paper birch (Betula papyrifera). The tall shrub layer was represented by scattered American green alder (Alnus viridis ssp. crispa), willows (Salix spp.), and prickly rose (Rosa acicularis). The most common low-growing shrubs were mountain cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), bog blueberry (V. uliginosum), crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), and bog Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum). The herbaceous layer was sparse but the entire forest floor was covered with feather mosses. TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE : NO-ENTRY SITE DESCRIPTION : The total burned area covered approximately 32 acres (13 ha). The elevation was 1,575 to 1,706 feet (480-520 m). The slope was 10 to 15 percent, and the aspect was generally southeast to south from a main ridge running southwest to northeast. The position of the fires was on the upper third of the slope. The soil in the experimental area was silty loam, somewhat poorly drained in shallow loess over schist bedrock. Before the fire, a forest floor layer 8 to 12 inches (20-30 cm) thick was present. The mineral soil was made up of a very dark-brown silty loam surface horizon underlain by a yellowish-brown, stony (30-50 percent by volume), silty loam subsoil. Bedrock was generally within 29 inches (75 cm) of the surface. FIRE DESCRIPTION : Seven units of approximately 5 acres (2 ha) each were burned between July 19 and August 8, 1978. The woody fuels on the forest floor were meager and scattered and therefore contributed little to fire behavior or subsequent fire effects. Fire behavior within the units ranged from slowly moving surface fires to rapidly advancing crown fires. The crown fires were passive, making the transition after hot surface fire had passed beneath the trees. Consequently, the surface fires determined the rate of spread, and the crown fires followed, with flames reaching 50 feet (15 m) or more. Most of the units were completely covered by fire and had burned down to glowing combustion within an hour after being ignited. Weather conditions during the fires were as follows: Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -------------------------------------------- Temperature (deg C) 23 21 24 21 22 21 26 Relative humidity 42 33 30 54 42 33 36 Wind (mph) 1-4 5-8 4-6 1-2 3-6 3-5 3-5 Wind direction SSW SW SW SW SSW SW SSW Rate of spread (ft/min) 1.5 3.7 3.8 1.0 4.0 -- 5.9 Flame length (ft) 1.9 2.5 3.5 0.5 2.2 3.0 2.2 FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES : M. polymorpha was not present in the prefire vegetation. In heavily burned areas, M. polymorpha, fire moss (Ceratodon purpureus), and fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) dominated the postfire community for the first 3 years. M. polymorpha maintained a biomass of about 15 to 20 grams per square meter throughout that period. FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS : M. polymorpha invades heavily burned areas by light, wind-borne spores. Competition from sprouters on lightly burned sites will prevent or limit M. polymorpha colonization. Sites must be severely burned if M. polymorpha establishment is desired in the postfire community.
REFERENCESSPECIES: Marchantia polymorpha
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