Index of Species Information

WILDLIFE SPECIES:  Picoides borealis

Introductory

WILDLIFE SPECIES: Picoides borealis
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Tesky, Julie L. 1994. Picoides borealis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : PIBO COMMON NAMES : red-cockaded woodpecker TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for the red-cockaded woodpecker is Picoides borealis (Vieillot). It is in the family Picidae [2]. There are two recognized subspecies [56]: Picoides borealis borealis Picoided borealis hylonomus (Wetmore) ORDER : Piciformes CLASS : Bird FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : Endangered [60] OTHER STATUS : Information on state- and province-level protection status of animals in the United States and Canada is available at NatureServe, although recent changes in status may not be included.


WILDLIFE DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

WILDLIFE SPECIES: Picoides borealis
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : The current range of the red-cockaded woodpecker extends from eastern Texas and southeastern Oklahoma eastward through the Gulf Coast states, south to the Big Cypress preserve of southern Florida, and north as far as Tennessee, south-central Kentucky, and eastern Virginia and Maryland [2,22]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak-pine FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress STATES :
AL AR FL GA KY LA MD MS NC OK
SC TN TX VA
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K091 Cypress savanna K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest K115 Sand pine scrub K116 Subtropical pine forest SAF COVER TYPES : 45 Pitch pine 69 Sand pine 70 Longleaf pine 71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak 73 Southern redcedar 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine - oak 78 Virginia pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 84 Slash pine 85 Slash pine - hardwood 98 Pond pine 100 Pondcypress SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY PLANT COMMUNITIES : Red-cockaded woodpeckers are commonly associated with mature, open stands of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), loblolly pine (P. taeda), shortleaf pine (P. echinata), and slash pine (P. elliottii) [20,21,25,26,45]. They also occupy stands of pitch pine (P. rigida), pond pine (P. serotina), pondcypress (Taxodium distichum), and mixed pine-hardwood stands [21,44]. The largest populations of red-cockaded woodpeckers are found in longleaf pine-dominated stands [11,28]. In central Florida, DeLotelle and others [13] found that red-cockaded woodpeckers foraged primarily in longleaf pine and pondcypress stands with dense ground cover of broomsedge bluestem (Andropogon virginicus).

BIOLOGICAL DATA AND HABITAT REQUIREMENTS

WILDLIFE SPECIES: Picoides borealis
TIMING OF MAJOR LIFE HISTORY EVENTS : The clan - Red-cockaded woodpeckers live in clans which consist of a mated pair, the current year's offspring, and immature males from previous years that aid the parents with incubation, feeding, and brooding duties [32,49]. The clan may have from two to nine birds, but there is never more than one breeding pair [19]. Young females leave the colony in late winter of their first year and wander until they are accepted into a clan that has lost its breeding female [22]. Breeding season - Red-cockaded woodpeckers nest from April to July [19]. Clutch size and incubation - Red-cockaded woodpeckers generally lay two to four eggs. The eggs are incubated for 10 to 12 days. The clan members take turns incubating the eggs during the day, but the breeding male incubates the eggs at night. Fledging - Red-cockaded woodpeckers fledge at about 26 days. The adults continue to feed the young after they leave the nest, but feeding decreases as the summer progresses [19]. Red-cockaded woodpeckers do not migrate; they maintain year-round territories near nesting and roosting trees [32]. PREFERRED HABITAT : Colony site - Most red-cockaded woodpecker colonies are found in relatively open (60-90 sq ft basal area/acre), parklike stands of pure pine with sparse hardwood midstories [28,32,44]. Active colonies can be found in pine stands with a wide range of overstory stocking, but the birds do not tolerate dense hardwood stocking in the midstory. Active red-cockadeed woodpecker colonies are seldom found or seldom persist where hardwood stocking reaches 34.8 square feet per acre [28]. Red-cockaded woodpeckers will abandon nest cavities when the understory reaches the height of the cavity entrance [23,32]. Colony sites encompass an average of 10 acres (4 ha) [44]. In most colonies all the cavity trees could be contained within a circle about 1,500 feet (457 m) in diameter [19]. Cavity trees - Living, old-growth southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.) trees that contain red heart rot (Fomes pini) are preferred for nest and roost cavity excavation [29,44]. No single cavity is made specifically for a nest site. A pair generally has several roost holes, one of which they choose for a nest hole [50]. Usually, each clan member has a cavity for roosting and only one bird roosts in a cavity [19]. Birds without cavities in live trees will roost in scars on pine trees, crotches between limbs, tree canopies, or cavities in dead trees [19,51]. Roosts located in the canopy are usually at the base of a limb or where there is a slight indentation or overhanging structure to give some protection [51]. Red-cockaded woodpecker show some preference for mature longleaf pine [32]; however, cavities have also been excavated in loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, pond pine, slash pine, pitch pine, Virginia pine (P. virginiana), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) [19]. Red-cockaded woodpeckers select trees with clear, straight trunks and high resin flow [44]. Cavities are generally excavated below the lowest branch [19,23]. The average age of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in which a new cavity has been excavated is about 95 years for longleaf pine and 75 years for loblolly and other southern pines [23]. It may take several years for red-cockaded woodpeckers to complete a cavity. Once completed, the cavity may be used for decades by the birds and their descendants. Some have been used for more than 50 years [23]. It is common to find a tree with several cavities, but the birds may not use all the cavities at a given time [19]. Some red-cockaded woodpeckers continue to use excavated cavities for 2 years or more after the tree has died [16,47]. Foraging habitat - Red-cockaded woodpeckers most commonly forage in pine or pine hardwood stands 30 years old or older [39]. Good foraging habitat consists of pine stands with trees 9 inches (22.9 cm) d.b.h. and larger. The hardwood midstory may be well developed. Red-cockaded woodpeckers also forage in pole-size stands (4 to 9 inches [10-23 cm] d.b.h.), but little use is made of sapling stands (< 4 inches [10 cm] d.b.h.) [5,19]. Clans regularly forage on pines scattered through hardwood stands, but pure hardwood stands are seldom used [18,19]. The size of foraging habitat needed by a clan varies with the quality of the habitat. While 100 acres (40.5 ha) of mature pine is sufficient for some clans, clans commonly forage over several hundred acres where habitat conditions are not ideal [19,23]. COVER REQUIREMENTS : NO-ENTRY FOOD HABITS : Red-cockaded woodpeckers scale the bark on trunks and limbs and excavate for spiders, ants, cockroaches, centipedes, and the eggs and larvae of various insects including corn earworms (Heliothis zea) [3,19,23]. They spend considerable time feeding on lightning-struck pines and dying trees that are heavily infested with insects [3,19]. Red-cockaded woodpeckers also feed on the fruit of black cherry (Prunus serotina), southern bayberry (Myrica cerifera), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), and pecan (Carya illinoensis). PREDATORS : Red-cockaded woodpeckers excavate small holes called resin wells above and below cavities. The resulting resin flow is a deterrent to climbing gray rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta spiloides), a predator of red-cockaded woodpecker eggs and nestlings [22]. Other possible predators of eggs and nestlings include other snakes, southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans), Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii), and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) [5,31]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : The range and population of the red-cockaded woodpecker has been drastically reduced through fragmentation and loss of habitat. A large portion of the southern pine forests have been harvested and cleared for agriculture or other uses [19,23]. Continued habitat loss and fragmentation will make the species more vulnerable to extinction as populations become increasingly smaller and more isolated [22]. A successful management plan for red-cockaded woodpeckers must do five things: (1) retain existing cavity trees, (2) provide trees for new cavities, (3) provide adequate foraging habitat, (4) control hardwoods in the colony site, and (5) provide future colony sites [19]. A high percentage of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities are found in pines infected with red heart rot. This fungus weakens the heartwood and makes cavity excavation easier. Some cavity trees apparently do not have red heart rot, but these trees may have softer than average heartwood. It is not certain if the red-cockaded woodpecker needs red heart rot in order to make a cavity in the average pine [19,29,44]. Artifical cavities can be inserted into chainsaw-excavated live trees for red-cockaded woodpeckers [52,53]. Of primary importance is the diameter of the tree at the height the cavity is to be constructed. Diameter at cavity height must be at least 15 inches (38 cm). Weakening of the tree as a result of excavating the cavity is a concern. Whenever possible, healthy trees with large crowns should be selected to help assure that the tree will outlast the cavity. Over 60 percent of the artifical cavities on the Francis Marion National Forest in South Carolina are now being used for nesting or roosting. Dispite a tornado and severe windstorms in the area, none of the trees have broken at cavity height [52]. The red-cockaded woodpecker recovery plan indicates that nesting habitat can be provided by lengthening rotations, leaving old-growth remnant trees scattered throughout younger stands, and perpetuating small patches of remnant old growth throughout the forest [42]. Colony sites should not be isolated from foraging areas [19]. Jackson [22] stated that "corridors of suitable habitat to link populations together through management of interstate highway rights-of-way is recommended. Colonies occur in interstate rights-of-way, and the birds will use such corridors" [22]. In general, the longer the rotation age, the greater the opportunity red-cockaded woodpeckers have to maintain existing colonies and create new ones. A minimum of 100-year rotations for longleaf pine and 80-year rotations for other pines is recommended [19]. If the decision to harvest has been made, shelterwood cuts instead of clear-cuts may preserve a supply of potential cavity trees if pines 80 to 120 years old are left as residuals. This method would also create the open pine savannah habitat preferred by red-cockaded woodpeckers, and would leave some foraging habitat while reducing the susceptibility of the residual stand to southern pine beetles (Dendroctonus frontalis) [9]. Control of hardwoods in the colony site is vital. Hardwoods should not exceed 15 feet (4.6 m) or so in height, especially within 50 feet (15.2 m) of cavity trees. Stands containing colony sites should also be thinned to 50 to 80 square feet of basal area per acre. Older trees should be left for future cavity trees [19]. According to Seagle and others [39], "because foraging habitat is less specialized than nesting habitat, a variety of strategies can be used to provide necessary foraging habitat within a suitable radius of the colony site." Hooper and others [19] suggested planting pines at a 10x10-foot or 12x12-foot (3x3-m or 3.7x3.7-m) spacing to aid rapid stand development. Regeneration areas of 10 to 30 acres (4-12 ha) have less impact on the birds than larger ones. Thinning sapling and pole stands may improve foraging habitat [19]. Unenlarged or not noticeably enlarged red-cockaded woodpecker cavities are later utilize by red-bellied (Melanerpes carloinus) and red-headed (M. erythrocephalus) woodpeckers, white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis), tufted titmouse (Parus bicolor), eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis), and southern flying squirrels. Those species that utilize enlarged red-cockaded woodpecker holes are red-bellied and red-headed woodpeckers, northern flickers (Colaptes auratus), pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus), tufted titmouse, great crested flycatchers (Myiarchus crinitus), eastern screech-owls (Otus asio), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), fox squirrels (Siurus niger), gray rat snakes, and honey bees. All of these species are known to nest in these cavities except pileated woodpeckers and northern flickers, which are only known to use the cavities as roosts [51]. Both red-bellied and red-headed woodpeckers may delay nesting to use red-cockaded woodpecker cavities [50].

FIRE EFFECTS AND USE

WILDLIFE SPECIES: Picoides borealis
DIRECT FIRE EFFECTS ON ANIMALS : Adult red-cockaded woodpeckers can probably easily escape fire. However, fire at night may trap some birds in cavities [5]. Cavity trees are very vulnerable to fire because of the highly flammmable resin that flows from the resin wells [8]. Wildfires in areas with heavy understory fuels could kill cavity trees used for nesting and roosting [33]. Cavities in large pines are frequently abandoned following enlargement by fire [16]. Artifical cavities placed 20 to 30 feet (6-9 m) above the ground may be better protected from fire than lower ones [53]. HABITAT RELATED FIRE EFFECTS : Despite the vulnerability of cavity trees, fire plays an integral role in maintaining habitat both for colony sites and foraging [22,41]. Virtually all southern pine ecosystems evolved under a regime of frequent fires. Longleaf pine habitats of the past were likely maintained by "periodic hot summer fires." In areas with less frequent fire, red-cockaded woodpeckers habitat occurred on steep slopes. There, hardwoods did not reach the lower branches of some pines, and pine regeneration could occur [23]. Without fire, pines are replaced by fire intolerant hardwoods [10,23]. Fire helps to reclaim or maintain the open woodlands preferred by red-cockaded woodpeckers for both foraging and nesting [41]. Fire helps to maintain low midstories [22,33]. Elimination or extensive suppression of fire from red-cockaded woodpecker habitat could result in habitat abandonment by red-cockaded woodpeckers [23]. FIRE USE : Prescribed fire is an important tool in manageing southern pine ecosystems for red-cockaded woodpeckers [10,41,43,46,]. Periodic prescribed fire may be the only practical tool for preventing hardwoods from growing into the midstory and allowing red-cockaded woodpecker colonies can persist for several generations [22,43]. The maintenance of an open pine forest generally requires prescribed burning at 3-year intervals [24], although fire may be needed less frequently in areas away from coastal plains [23]. Southern pine beetles have caused extensive tree mortality in red-cockaded woodpecker habitat. Problems with beetles can be greatly reduced if fire is restored because trees are more vigorous and more widely spaced [23]. Mortality from southern pine beetles increases with stand density [55]. Summer headfires have long flames that may take out most of the pine understory but have the potential to ignite the overstory crowns. This type of prescribed fire can be used to eradicate the pine understory for red-cockaded woodpecker habitat improvement [54]. Conner and Locke [7] made the following recommendations for prescribed burning in colony sites: (1) plow a fireline 197 feet (60 m) from the edges of colony sites and burn colony sites separately, (2) rake fuel at least 10 feet (3 m) away from the bases of trees with abundant resin, (3) keep fire suppression equipment available, (4) burn colony sites with backfires at least every 3 years to prevent excessive fuel accumulations. When burning in longleaf pine-turkey oak (Quercus laevis)/wiregrass (Aristida stricta) communities during the breeding season, Stamps and others [41] gave the following precautions: (1) burn early in the day while ambient temperatures are relatively low, (2) burn only in sites with light fuel accumulations, (3) backfire 33 feet (10 m) to the windward side of cavity trees before allowing headfire to approach, (4) burn in colony sites only after nests have been identified, and (5) remove woody vegetation from around cavity trees. They also stated that when burning in plant communities with potential for severe fire, it may be necessary to use additional protective measures recommended by Conner and Locke [7].

References for species: Picoides borealis


1. Allen, David H. 1991. An insert technique for constructing artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-72. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 31 p. [20676]
2. American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Checklist of North American birds. 6th ed. Lawrence, KS: Allen Press, Inc. 877 p. [21234]
3. Baker, W. Wilson. 1971. Observations on the food habits of the red-cockaded woodpecker. In: Thompson, Richard L., ed. The ecology and management of the red-cockaded woodpecker: Proceedings of a symposium; 1971 May 26-27; Folkston, GA. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 100-107. [18047]
4. Baker, W. Wilson. 1974. Longevity of lightning-struck trees and notes on wildlife use. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1973 March 22-23; Tallahassee, FL. No. 13. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 497-504. [19015]
5. Beckett, Ted. 1971. A summary of red-cockaded woodpecker observations in South Carolina. In: Thompson, Richard L., ed. The ecology and management of the red-cockaded woodpecker: Proceedings of a symposium; 1971 May 26-27; Folkston, GA. Tallahassee, FL: Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife: 87-95. In cooperation with: Tall Timbers Research Station. [23134]
6. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
7. Conner, Richard N.; Locke, Brian A. 1979. Effects of a prescribed burn on cavity trees of red-cockaded woodpeckers. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 7(4): 291-293. [23136]
8. Conner, Richard N.; Rudolph, D. Craig; Kulhavy, David L.; Snow, Ann E. 1991. Causes of mortality of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees. Journal of Wildlife Management. 55(3): 531-537. [16319]
9. Conner, Richard N.; Snow, Anne E.; O'Halloran, Kathleen A. 1991. Red-cockaded woodpecker use of seed-tree/shelterwood cuts in eastern Texas. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 19(1): 67-73. [19228]
10. Crosby, Gilbert T. 1971. Home range characteristics of the red-cockaded woodpecker in north- central Florida. In: Thompson, Richard L., ed. The ecology and management of the red-cockaded woodpecker: Proceedings of a symposium; 1971 May 26-27; Folkston, GA. Tallahassee, FL: Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife; Tall Timbers Research Station: 60-73. [18044]
11. DeGraaf, Richard M.; Scott, Virgil E.; Hamre, R. H.; [and others]. 1991. Forest and rangeland birds of the United States: Natural history and habitat use. Agric. Handb. 688. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 625 p. [15856]
12. DeLotelle, Roy S.; Epting, Robert J.; Newman, James R. 1987. Habitat use and territory characteristics of red-cockaded woodpeckers in central Florida. Wilson Bulletin. 99(2): 202-217. [23127]
13. DeLotelle, Roy S.; Newman, J. R.; Jerauld, Ann E. 1983. Habitat use by red-cockaded woodpeckers in central Florida. In: Wood, Don A., ed. Red-cockaded woodpecker symposium II: Proceedings; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service: 59-67. [23132]
14. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
15. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
16. Hooper, Robert G. 1982. Use of dead cavity trees by red-cockaded woodpeckers. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 10(2): 163-164. [20549]
17. Hooper, Robert G.; Harlow, Richard F. 1986. Forest stands selected by foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers. Res. Pap. SE-259. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 10 p. [20551]
18. Hooper, Robert G.; Lennartz, Michael R. 1981. Foraging behavior of the red-cockaded woodpecker in South Carolina. Auk. 98: 321-334. [20547]
19. Hooper, Robert G.; Robinson, Andrew F., Jr.; Jackson, Jerome A. 1980. The red-cockaded woodpecker: notes on life history and management. General Report SA-GR-9. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 8 p. [20548]
20. Hopkins, Melvin L.; Lynn, Teddy E., Jr. 1971. Some characteristics of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees and management implications in South Carolina. In: Thompson, Richard L., ed. The ecology and management of the red-cockaded woodpecker: Proceedings of a symposium; 1971 May 26-27; Folkston, GA. Tallahassee, FL: Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife: 140-169. In cooperation with: Tall Timbers Research Station. [23135]
21. Jackson, Jerome A. 1971. The evolution, taxonomy, distribution, past populations and current status of the red-cockaded woodpecker. In: Thompson, Richard L., ed. The ecology and management of the red-cockaded woodpecker: Proceedings of a symposium; 1971 May 26-27; Folkston, GA. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 4-29. [17996]
22. Jackson, Jerome A. 1987. The red-cockaded woodpecker. In: Audubon wildlife report: [Place of publication unknown]: National Audubon Society: 479-493. [23125]
23. Jackson, Jerome A.; Conner, Richard N.; Jackson, Bette J. Schardien. 1986. The effects of wilderness on the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. In: Kulhavy, David L.; Conner, Richard N., eds. Wilderness and natural areas in the eastern United States: A management challenge: Proceedings; [Date unknown]; [Location unknown]. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 71-78. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [23130]
24. Jackson, Jerome A.; Lennartz, Michael R.; Hooper, Robert G. 1979. Tree age and cavity initiation by red-cockaded woodpeckers. Journal of Forestry. 77(2): 102-103. [20553]
25. Kalisz, Paul J.; Boettcher, Susan E. 1991. Active and abandoned red-cockaded woodpecker habitat in Kentucky. Journal of Wildlife Management. 55(1): 146-154. [13837]
26. Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Pletschet, Sandra M.; Leslie, David M., Jr. 1993. Habitat associations of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in an old-growth forest of Oklahoma. Journal of Wildlife Management. 57(1): 122-128. [20660]
27. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
28. Lennartz, Michael R. 1988. The red-cockaded woodpecker: old-growth species in a second-growth landscape. Natural Areas Journal. 8(3): 160-165. [8688]
29. Ligon, J. David. 1971. Some factors influencing numbers of the red-cockaded woodpecker. In: Thompson, Richard L., ed. The ecology and management of the red-cockaded woodpecker: Proceedings of a symposium; 1971 May 26-27; Folkston, GA. Tallahassee, FL: Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife; Tall Timbers Research Station: 30-43. [18042]
30. Loeb, Susan C. 1993. Use and selection of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels. Journal of Wildlife Management. 57(2): 329-335. [21165]
31. Loeb, Susan C.; Pepper, William D.; Doyle, Arlene T. 1992. Habitat characteristics of active and abandoned red-cockaded woodpecker colonies. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 16(3): 120-125. [19593]
32. Lowe, David W.; Matthews, John R.; Moseley, C. J., eds. 1990. The official World Wildlife Fund guide to endangered species of North America. Washington, DC: Beacham Publishing, Inc. 3 vol. [23096]
33. Mann, James F.; Fischer, William C. 1987. Wilderness fire review: Region 8, Kisatchie NF. Unpublished report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 6 p. [18120]
34. Morse, Douglass H. 1972. Habitat utilization of the red-cockaded woodpecker during the winter. Auk. 89(2): 429-435. [23126]
35. Nickens, Eddie. 1993. Woodpecker wars. American Forests. 99(1-2): 28-32. [20016]
36. Noss, Reed F. 1988. The longleaf pine landscape of the Southeast: almost gone and almost forgotten. Endangered Species UPDATE. 5(5): 1-5. [17077]
37. Richardson, David M.; Smith, David L. 1992. Hardwood removal in red-cockaded woodpecker colonies using a shear V-blade. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 20(4): 428-433. [21169]
38. Rudolph, D. Craig; Conner, Richard N.; Carrie, Dawn K.; Schaefer, Richard R. 1992. Experimental reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers. Auk. 109(4): 914-916. [21885]
39. Seagle, Steven W.; Lancia, Richard A.; Adams, David A.; [and others]. 1987. Integrating timber and red-cockaded woodpecker habitat management. Transactions, 52nd North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. 52: 11-52. [23128]
40. Snyder, James R. 1991. Fire regimes in subtropical south Florida. In: High-intensity fire in wildlands: management challenges and options: Proceedings, 17th annual meeting of the Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1991 May 18-21; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 303-319. [17068]
41. Stamps, Robert T.; Carter, J. H., III; Sharpe, Terry L.; [and others]. 1983. Effects of prescribed buring on red-cockaded woodpecker colonies durning the breeding season in North Carolina. In: Wood, Don A., ed. Red-cockaded woodpecker symposium II: Proceedings; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service: 78-80. [23133]
42. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1985. Red-cockaded woodpecker recovery plan. Atlanta, GA. [Total pages unknown]. [23138]
43. Van Lear, David H.; Waldrop, Thomas A. 1986. Current practices and recent advances in prescribed burning. In: Carpenter, Stanley B., ed. Proceedings, southern forestry symposium; 1985 November 19-21; Atlanta, GA. Stillwater, OK: Agricultural Conference Services: 69-83. [21170]
44. Walker, Jimmy S.; Escano, Ronald E. F. 1992. Longleaf pine ecosystem management for red-cockaded woodpeckers and other resources. In: Murphy, Dennis, compiler. Getting to the future through silviculture--workshop proceedings; 1991 May 6-9; Cedar City, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-291. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 77-83. [20309]
45. Wood, Don A. 1983. Foraging and colony habitat characteristics of the red-cockaded woodpecker in Oklahoma. In: Wood, Don A., ed. Proceedings of the red-cockaded woodpecker: Symposium II; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service: 51-58. [23131]
46. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]
47. Patterson, Gary A.; Robertson, William D., Jr. 1983. An instance of red-cockaded woodpecker nesting in a dead pine. In: Wood, D. A., ed. Red-cockaded woodpecker symposium II: Proceedings; [Date unknown]; [Location unknown]. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission; Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service: 99. [23137]
48. Weakley, Alan S.; Hall, Stephen P.; LeGrand, Harry E., Jr. 1990. Rare plant and animal species associated with longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in North Carolina. Occasional Report 1990-1 of the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program. [Place of publication unknown]: North Carolina Department of Environment, Division of Parks and Recreation, Health and Natural Resources. 16 p. [19252]
49. Lennartz, Michael R.; Harlow, Richard F. 1979. The role of parent and helper red-cockaded woodpeckers at the nest. Wilson Bulletin. 91(2): 331-335. [20546]
50. Beebe, Spencer B. 1979. Relationships between insectivorous hole-nesting birds and forest management. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]. 49 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20533]
51. Baker, W. Wilson. 1971. Progress report on life history studies of the red-cockaded woodpecker at Tall Timbers Research Station. In: Thompson, Richard L., ed. The ecology and management of the red-cockaded woodpecker: Proceedings of the symposium; 1971 May 26-27; Folkston, GA. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 44-59. [18043]
52. Allen, David H. 1991. An insert technique for constructing artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-72. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 31 p. [20676]
53. Taylor, William E.; Hooper, Robert G. 1991. A modification of Copeyon's drilling technique for making artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-72. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 31 p. [20675]
54. Wade, Dale D. 1993. Thinning young loblolly pine stands with fire. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 3(3): 169-178. [22120]
55. Komarek, E. V. 1974. Introduction to lightning ecology. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1973 March 22-23; Tallahassee, FL. No. 13. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 421-427. [19014]
56. American Ornithologists' Union. 1957. Checklist of North American birds. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: The Lord Baltimore Press, Inc. 691 p. [21235]
57. The Network of Natural Heritage Programs and Conservation Data Centers and The Nature Conservancy. 1994. Element distribution - North America, vertebrates. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy, Central Conservation Databases. 31 p. [23374]
58. Wood, Don A., compiler. 1994. Official lists of endangered & potentially endangered fauna and flora in Florida. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. 22 p. [24196]
59. Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation, Nongame Wildlife Program. [n.d.]. Oklahoma's endangered species. Oklahoma City, OK. [Pamphlet]. [24375]
60. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Listed animals. In: Environmental Conservation Online System, [Online]. In: Species reports. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/pub/listedAnimals.jsp. [86534]


FEIS Home