Re-Framing Forest and Resource Management Strategies for a Climate Change Context

Contents of the ToolBox: Adaptation, Mitigation and the "5-R Strategies"

Fig. 1. Managing for resistance to change. Invasion by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a common response to warming 20th-21st century conditions in Sierra Nevadan meadows. At Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite National Park, CA, climate change and other historic land uses have interacted to promote recurrent colonization episodes of pine (A). National Park Service managers have chosen to resist and counter these effects by periodically removing pine seedlings and small trees (B). Photo: C. Millar.