Carbon Course References and Recommended Resources

References:

The Global Carbon Cycle - Chris Swanston

• Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J. 2011. Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. Oak Ridge, TN, U.S.A.

Climate Safety. Graphics: Permafrost, Carbon Stocks. (Accessed February 8, 2012)

Druffel, E.R.M.; Williams, P.M.; Bauer, J.E.; Ertel, J.R. 1992. Cycling of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matter in the Open Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research. 97:15,639-15,659.

Friedlingstein,P; Houghton,R.A.; Marland,G.; Hackler,J.; Boden,T.A.; Conway,T.J.; Canadell ,J.G.; Raupach, M.R.; Ciais, P.; Le Quéré, C. 2010. Update on CO2 emissions. Nature Geoscience. 3:811-812.

Global Carbon Project. 2011. Carbon Budget 2009 [presentation]. Recently updated to Carbon Budget 2010. (Accessed January 17, 2012)."

Gower, S.T. 2003. Patterns and Mechanisms of the Forest Carbon Cycle. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 28: 169-204.

Houghton, R.A. 2007. Balancing the Global Carbon Budget. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 35:313-347.

Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Metz, B.; Davidson, O.R.; Bosch, P.R.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L.A. (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 851 p..

Ruesch, A.; Gibbs, H.K. 2008. New IPCC Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map For the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (Accessed January 17, 2012)

• Tarnocai, C.; Canadell, J.G.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Kuhry, P.; Mazhitova, G.; Zimov, S. 2009. Soil organic carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 23: GB2023, 11pp.

UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2009. Updated global carbon map. (Accessed January 17, 2012)

USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service. 2000. World Soil Resources Map Index. (Accessed January 17, 2012)

Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes and Storage - Christian Giardina

Giardina, C.P.; Ryan, M.G.; Hubbard, R. M.; Binkley,D. 2001. Tree species  and soil textural controls on carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates.  Soil Science Society of America Journal. 65:1272–1279.

Giardina, C.P.; Binkley,D.; Ryan, M.G.; Fownes, J.H.; Senock, R.S. 2004. Belowground carbon cycling in a humid tropical forest decreases with fertilization. Oecologia. 139(4): 545-550.

Giardina, C.P.; Coleman, M.D.; Hancock, J.E.; King, J.S.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Loya, W.M.; Pregitzer, K.S.; Ryan, M.G.; Trettin, C.C. 2005. The Response of Belowground Carbon Allocation in Forests to Global Change. In: Binkley, D; Menyailo, O., eds. Tree Species Effects on Soil: Implications for Global Change. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Trees and Soil Interactions, Implications to Global Climate Change August 2004 Krasnoyarsk, Russia. NATO Science Series. 55: 119-154.

Ise, T.; Litton, C.M.; Giardina, C.P.; Ito, A. 2010. Comparison of modeling approaches for carbon partitioning: Impact on estimates of global net primary production and equilibrium biomass of woody vegetation from MODIS GPP. Journal of Geophysical Research.  115: G04025.

Litton, C.M.; Giardina, C.P. 2008. Belowground Responses to Climate Change. Functional Ecology.22: 941-954.

Liu, L.; King, J.S.; Giardina,C.P. 2005. Effects of elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 on leaf litter production and chemistry in trembling aspen and paper birch communities. Tree Physiology. 25(12): 1511-1522.

NOAA  Earth Systems Research Laboratory [ESRL].  Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. (Accessed June 1, 2011). Figure created by Robert A. Rohde. Image Location: Wikipedia. (Accessed January 71, 2012).

Stevenson, F.J. 1994. Humus Chemistry: genesis, composition, reactions. 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, 496 pp.

USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service. 2000. World Soil Resources Map Index. (Accessed January 17, 2012)

Wardle, D.A.; Bardgett, R.D.; Klironomos, J.N.; Setälä, H.; van der Putten, W.H.; Wall, D.H. 2004. Ecological Linkages Between Aboveground and Belowground Biota. Science. 304(5677): 1629-1633.

Forests: Trends and Data for the U.S. - Christopher Woodall

Birdsey, R.A.; Pregitzer, K.; Lucier, A.  2006.  Forest carbon management in the United States: 1600-2100. Journal of Environmental Quality. 35: 1461-1469.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC]. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Heath, L.S.; Smith, J.E.; Woodall, C.W.; Azuma, D.L.; Waddell, K.L.  2011. Carbon stocks on forestland of the United States, with emphasis on USDA Forest Service ownership. Ecosphere. 2: 6.  

Woodall, C.W.; Domke, G.M.; MacFarlane, D.W.; Oswalt, C.M. In Press. Comparing field- and model-based standing dead tree carbon stock estimates across forests of the United States. Forestry.

Grasslands and Carbon: Processes and Trends - Rebecca McCulley

Bliss, N.B. 2003. Soil Organic Carbon on Lands of the Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 03-304. Figure B3.  (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Burke, I.C.; Mosier, A.R. ; Hook, P.B.; Milchunas, D.G. ; Barrett, J.E.; Vinton, M.A. ; McCulley, R.L.; Kaye, J.P.; Gill, R.A.; Epstein, H.E.; Kelly, R.H.; Parton, W.J.; Yonker, C.M.; Lowe, P.; Lauenroth, W.K. 2008. Soil organic matter and nutrient dynamics of shortgrass steppe ecosystems. In Lauenroth, W.K.; Burke, I.C. (eds.). Ecology of the Shortgrass Steppe. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 306-341.

Burke, I.C.; Lauenroth, W.K.; Milchunas D.G. 1997. Biogeochemistry of managed grassland in central North America. In Paul, E.A.; Paustian, K.; Elliott, E.T.; Cole, C.V. (eds.). Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. CRC Press, New York, NY, 85-102.

Knapp, A.K.; Briggs, J.M.; Blair, J.M.; Turner, C.L. 1998. Patterns and controls of aboveground net primary production in tallgrass prairie. In Knapp, A.K.; Briggs, J.M; Hartnett, D.C.; Collins, S.L. (eds.). Grassland Dynamics: Long-Term Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 193-221.

Lauenroth, W.K.; Sala, O.E. 1992. Long-term forage production of North American shortgrass steppe. Ecological Applications. 2:397-403.

Sala, O.E.; Parton, W.J. ; Joyce, L.A.; Lauenroth, W.K. 1988. Primary production of the Central Grassland Region of the United States. Ecology. 69:40-45.

Disturbance Effects on Forest Carbon Dynamics - Mike Ryan

Hurteau,M.D.; Koch, G.W.; Hungate, B.A. 2008. Carbon protection and fire risk reduction: toward a full accounting of forest carbon offsets. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6: 493–498.

Hurteau, M.D.; Brooks, M.L. 2011. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Fire on Carbon in US Dry Temperate Forest Systems. Bioscience. 61: 139-146.

Kashian, D.M.; Romme, W.H.; Tinker, D.B.; Turner, M.G.; Ryan, M.G.  2006. Carbon Storage on coniferous landscapes with stand-replacing fires. BioScience 7: 598-606. Copyright, American Institute of Biological Sciences.

McKechnie, J.; Columbo, S.; Chen, J.; Mabee, W.; MacLean, H.L. 2011. Forest Bioenergy or Forest Carbon?  Assessing Trade-Offs in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation with Wood-Based  Fuels.  Environmental Science and Technology. 45: 789–795.

Ryan, M.G.; Harmon, M.E.; Birdsey, R.A.; Giardina, C. P.; Heath, L.S.; Houghton, R.A.; Jackson, R.B.; McKinley, D.C.; Morrison, J. F. 2010. A synthesis of the science on forests and carbon for U.S. forests. Ecological Society of America. Issues in Ecology. 13(1):1-16.

Smithwick, E.A.H.; Westerling, A.L.; Turner, M.G.; Romme, W.H.; Ryan, M.G. 2011. Climate, Fire and Carbon: Tipping Points and Landscape Vulnerability in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Final Report: Joint Fire Science Program Project Number 09-3-01-47. 39p. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Western Regional Climate Center, Western U.S. Climatological Data Summaries for West Yellowstone, WY; Dillon, CO; Cheeseman, CO; Fort Valley, AZ. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

An Introduction to Forest Carbon Management - Maria Janowiak

Birdsey, R.A. 1996. Regional Estimates of Timber Volume and Forest Carbon for Fully Stocked Timberland, Average Management After Final Clearcut Harvest. In Sampson, R.N.; Hair, D. (eds.). Forests and Global Change, Vol. 2, Forest Management Opportunities for Mitigating Carbon Emissions. American Forests, Washington, D.C.

Brown, S. 1999. Opportunities for Mitigating Carbon Emissions through Forestry Activities. Winrock International, Arlington, VA. 5 p. (Accessed January 17, 2012)

CCSP, 2007. The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR): The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research [King, A.W., L. Dilling, G.P. Zimmerman, D.M. Fairman, R.A. Houghton, G. Marland, A.Z. Rose, and T.J. Wilbanks (eds.)]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, USA, 242 pp. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Congressional Budget Office (CBO). 2007. The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Expanded Renewable and Alternative Fuels Use. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2005. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Glover, J.; White, D.O.; Langrish, T.A.G. 2002. Wood versus concrete and steel in house construction: A life cycle assessment. Journal of Forestry. 100(8): 34-41.

Heath, L.S.; Smith, J.E.; Birdsey, R.A. 2003. Carbon Trends in U. S. Forestlands: A Context for the Role of Soils in Forest Carbon Sequestration. In Kimble, J. M. ; Heath, L. S.; Birdsey, R. A.; Lal, R. (eds.). The Potential of U. S. Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. Lewis Publishers (CRC Press), Boca Raton, FL, 35–45.

Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.  [Parry, M. L.; Canziani, O. F.; Palutikof, J. P.; van der Linden, P. J.; Hanson, C.E. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 976 p.

Maness, T.C. 2009. Forest Management and Climate Change Mitigation: Good Policy Requires Careful Thought. Journal of Forestry. 107: 119-124.

Ryan, M.G.; Harmon, M.E.; Birdsey, R.A.; Giardina, C. P.; Heath, L.S.; Houghton, R.A.; Jackson, R.B.; McKinley, D.C.; Morrison, J. F. 2010. A synthesis of the science on forests and carbon for U.S. forests. Ecological Society of America: Issues in Ecology. 13(1):1-16.

Smith, James E.; Heath, Linda S.; Skog, Kenneth E.; Birdsey, Richard A. 2006. Methods for calculating forest ecosystem and harvested carbon with standard estimates for forest types of the United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-343. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 216 p. (Accessed June 7, 2011).

Union of Concerned Scientists. 2007. Biofuels: An important part of a low-carbon diet. Clean Vehicles Program. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Forest Management Options for Carbon Sequestration: Considerations in the Eastern U.S. - Richard Birdsey

Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Metz, B.; Davidson, O.R.; Bosch, P.R.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L.A. (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 851 p.

McKinley, D.C.; Ryan, M.G.; Birdsey, R.A.; Giardina, C.P.; Harmon, M.E.; Heath, L.S.; Houghton, R.A.; Jackson, R.B.; Morrison, J.F.; Murray, B.C.; Pataki, D.E.; Skog, K.E. 2011. A synthesis of current knowledge on forests and carbon storage in the United States. Ecological Applications. 21(6): 1902-1924.

Nunery, J. S.;  Keaton, W.S. 2010. Forest carbon storage in the northeastern United States: Net effects of harvesting frequency, post-harvest retention, and wood products. Forest Ecology and Management. 259: 1363–1375.

Pan, Y., Chen, J. M., Birdsey, R., McCullough, K., He, L., and Deng, F. 2011. Age structure and disturbance legacy of North American forests. Biogeosciences. 8: 715-732.

Ryan, M.G.; Harmon, M.E.; Birdsey, R.A.; Giardina, C. P.; Heath, L.S.; Houghton, R.A.; Jackson, R.B.; McKinley, D.C.; Morrison, J. F. 2010. A synthesis of the science on forests and carbon for U.S. forests. Ecological Society of America: Issues in Ecology. 13(1):1-16.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2009. Summary Report: 2007 National Resources Inventory. Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC, and Center for Survey Statistics and Methodology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. 123 pages. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Forest Management Options for Carbon Sequestration: Considerations in the Western U.S. - Bernard Bormann

Bormann, B.T.; Homann, P.S.; Darbyshire, R.L.; Morrissette, B.A. 2008. Intense forest wildfire sharply reduces mineral soil C and N: the first direct evidence. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 2771-2783.

Homann, P.; Bormann, B.T.; Darbyshire, R.L.; Morrissette, B.A.; Nay, S.M. In press. Forest Soil C and N losses associated with wildfire and prescribed fire. Soil Science Science Society of America Journal. (accepted April 2011)

Weigand, J.F.; Haynes, R.W.; Tiedeman, A.R.; Riggs, R.A.; Quigley, T.M.  1993. Economic assessment of ungulate herbivory in commercial forests of eastern Oregon and Washington, USA.  Forest Ecology and Management. 61:137-155.

Tarrant, R.F.; Miller, R.E. 1963. Accumulation of organic matter and soil nitrogen beneath a stand of red alder and Douglas-fir.  Science Science Society of America Journal. 27: 231-234.

Bioenergy from wood and forest carbon dynamics - Kenneth Skog

Forest Vegetation Simulator [FVS]. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Graz / Oak Ridge Carbon Accounting Model [GORCAM]. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

McKechnie, J.; Colombo, S.; Cheng, J.; Mabee, W.; MacLean, H.L. 2011. Forest bioenergy or forest carbon? Assessing trade-offs in greenhouse gas mitigation with wood-based fuels. Environmental Science and Technology. 45(2):789-95.

Palosuo, T.; Wihersaaari, M.; Liski, J. 2001. Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions due to energy use of forest residues –Impacts of soil carbon balance. In Pelkonen, P.; Hakkila, P.; Karjalainen, T.; Schlmadinger, B. (eds.). Woody biomass as an energy source – Challenges in Europe. European Forest Institute [EFI] proceedings no. 39. Joensuu, Finland. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Repo, A.; Tuomi, M.; Liski, J. 2010. Indirect carbon dioxide emissions from producing bioenergy from forest harvest residues. GCB Bioenergy. 3(2): 107-115.

Searchinger, T.D.; Hamburg, S.P.;  Melillo, J.; Chameides, W.; Havlik, P.;  Kammen, D.M. ; Likens, G.E.; Lubowski, R.N.; Obersteiner, M.; Oppenheimer, M.; Robertson, G.P.; Schlesinger, W.H.; Tilman, G.D. 2009.  Fixing a Critical Climate Accounting Error. Science. 326 (5952): 527-528. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Schlamadinger, B.; Spitzer, J. 1994. CO2 mitigation through bioenergy from forestry substituting fossil energy.  In Chartier, P.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Grassi, G. (eds.).  Bi omass for energy, environment, agriculture and industry. Proceedings of the 8th European Biomass Conference, Vienna, Austria, 3rd -5th  October 1994. Volume 1. Pergamon, New York, pp. 310-321.

Schlamadinger, B.; Spitzer, J.; Kohlmaier, G.H.; Lüdeke, M. 1995. Carbon balance of bioenergy from logging residues. Biomass and Bioenergy. 8 (4): 221-234.

Schlamadinger, B.; Marland, G. 1996. The role of forest and bioenergy strategies in the global carbon cycle. Biomass and Bioenergy. 10 (5/6): 275-300.

Zanchi, G.; Pena, N.; Bird, N. 2010. The upfront carbon debt of bioenergy. Joanneum Research, Graz, Austria. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

The Potential for Soil Carbon Sequestration - Luke Nave

Lehmann, J.; Kinyangi, J.; Solomon, D. 2007. Organic matter stabilization in soil microaggregates: implications from spatial heterogeneity of organic carbon contents and carbon forms. Biogeochemistry.85: 45-57.

Nave, L.E.; Vance, E.D.; Swanston, C.W.; Curtis, P.S. 2009. Impacts of elevated N inputs on north temperate forest soil C storage, C/N, and net N-mineralization. Geoderma. 153: 231-240.

Nave, L.E.; Vance, E.D.; Swanston, C.W.; Curtis, P.S. 2010. Harvest impacts on soil carbon storage in temperate forests. Forest Ecology and Management. 259: 857-866.

Nave L.E.; Vance E.D.; Swanston C.W.; Curtis P.S. 2011. Fire effects on temperate forest soil C and N storage. Ecological Applications. 21(4): 1189-1201.

Sollins, P.; Swanston, C.; Kleber, M.; Filley, T.; Kramer, M.; Crow, S.; Caldwell, B.A.; Lajtha, K.; Bowden, R. 2006. Organic C and N stabilization in a forest soil: Evidence from sequential density fractionation.Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 38: 3313-3324.

Sollins, P.; Kramer, M.G.; Swanston, C.; Lajtha, K.; Filley, T.; Aufdenkampe, A.K.; Wagai, R.; Bowden, R.D. 2009. Sequential density fractionation across soils of contrasting mineralogy: evidence for both microbial- and mineral-controlled soil organic matter stabilization. Biogeochemistry. 96: 209-231.

Urban Forestry - David Nowak

Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL]. 2000. Recently updated to Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 2011. (Accessed January 17th, 2012)

i-Tree. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

NASA, Urban Remote Sensing. Urban Climatology and Air Quality. (Accessed January 17, 2012)

REDD and the context for North American Carbon Emissions Mitigation - Andrea Tuttle

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility [FCPF]. 2009. Introduction to the FCPF. Global Dialogue on Developing a Readiness Preparation Proposal.

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility [FCPF]. 2010. Harvesting Knowledge on REDD-Plus: Early Lessons from the FCPF Initiative and Beyond.  Facility Management Team Working Paper #]. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Forest Carbon Portal. (January 17, 2012).

Google Earth. (January 17, 2012).

Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Metz, B.; Davidson, O.R.; Bosch, P.R.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L.A. (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 851 p.

Kapos, V.; Ravilious, C.; Campbell, A.; Dickson, B.; Gibbs, H.K.; Hansen, M.C.; Lysenko, I.; Miles, L.; Price, J.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Trumper, K.C. 2008. Carbon and biodiversity: a demonstration atlas. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. (January 17, 2012)

Sheil, D.; Casson, A.; Meijaard, E.; van Nordwijk, M.; Gaskell, J.; Sunderland-Groves, J.;
Wertz, K.; Kanninen, M. 2009. The impacts and opportunities of oil palm in Southeast Asia: What do we know and what do we need to know? Occasional paper no. 51. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.  (January 17, 2012).

UN Food and Agricultural Organization [FAO]. 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. (January 17, 2012).

UNFCCC REDD-plus. Draft decision -/CP.16. Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention. (January 17, 2012).

UN-REDD Programme. (January 17, 2012).

UN-REDD Programme Strategy 2011-2015. Available for download. (January 17, 2012).  

Van der Werf, G.R.; Morton, D. C.; DeFries, R. S.; Olivier, J. G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Jackson, R. B.; Collatz G.J.; Randerson, J. T. 2009. CO2 emissions from forest loss.  Nature Geoscience. 2: 737 – 738.

Verified Carbon Standard. (January 17, 2012).

Zarin, D.; Angelsen, A.; Brown, S.; Loisel, C.; Peskett, L.; Streck, C. 2009. Reducing Emissions from Degradation and Forest Degradation (REDD): An options assessment report. Meridian Institute. (January 17, 2012).

Forest Carbon for the Private Landowner (1): Basics of Carbon Offsets, Markets, and Trading - Sarah Hines

Butler, B. J. 2008. Family forest owners of the United States. 2006. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-27. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station 73 p.

Gillenwater, M.  2011.  What is Additionality?  Part 1: A long-standing problem.  Discussion Paper.  Greenhouse Gas Management Institute, Silver Spring, MD. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Gunn, J.; Saah, D.; Fernholz, K.; Ganz, D. 2009. Carbon Credit Eligibility under Area Regulation of Harvest Level in Northern Minnesota.  Presentation made at Carbon in Northern Forests Workshop.  Held June 10-11, 2009.  Traverse City, MI.  More information available.

Stein, S.M.; McRoberts, R.E.; Mahal, L.G.; Carr, M.A.; Alig, R.J.; Comas, S.J.; Theobald, D.M.; Cundiff, A. 2009. Private forests, public benefits: increased housing density and other pressures on private forest contributions. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-795. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 74 p. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

McKinsey & Company. 2010.  Impact of the Financial Crisis on Carbon Economics.  Version 2.1 of the Global Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve.  (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Voluntary Carbon Standard – Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects (VCS 2007.1, 2008). VCS Association. Accessed January 17, 2012).

Brooke, R.; Short, J.; Bisson, K.; Gunn, J. 2009. Payments for Forest Carbon: Opportunities and Costs for Small Forest Owners. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [DOE, EERE]. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Forest Carbon for the Private Landowner (2): Protocols, Project Examples and Opportunities - Andrea Tuttle

American Carbon Registry . (Accessed January 17, 2012).

American Carbon Registry. Forest Carbon Project Standards Version 2.1. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Climate Action Reserve. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Climate Action Reserve.  Adopted Protocols.  (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Climate Action Reserve. Projects. CAR590 Lompico Forest Carbon Project, Sempervirens Fund. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

The Conservation Fund. Garcia River Forest: Sustainable Forestry and Climate Change. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2008. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Pacific Forest Trust. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Pacific Gas and Electric, Climate Smart Program. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

US Forest Service Tools for Carbon Estimation - Coeli Hoover

Carbon On Line Estimator [COLE]. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Forest Vegetation Simulator [FVS]. (Accessed January 17, 2012).

Heath, L.S.; Nichols, M.C.; Smith, J.E.; Mills, J.R. 2010. FORCARB2 : An Updated Version of the U.S. Forest Carbon Budget Model. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-67. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 52 p. [CD-ROM].

Smith, James E.; Heath, Linda S.; Skog, Kenneth E.; Birdsey, Richard A. 2006. Methods for calculating forest ecosystem and harvested carbon with standard estimates for forest types of the United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-343. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 216 p.

Smith, James E.; Heath, Linda S.; Nichols, Michael C. 2007. US forest carbon calculation tool: forest-land carbon stocks and net annual stock change. Revised. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-13. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 34 p. [DVD-ROM].

Recommended Resources

The Global Carbon Cycle - Chris Swanston

NASA Earth Observatory. The Carbon Cycle

Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center

Field, C.B.; Raupach, M.R. 2004. The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World. Island Press, Washington D.C., 526 pp.

The Global Carbon Project

North American Carbon Program

Pan, Y.; Birdsey, R.A.; Fang, J.; Houghton, R.; Kauppi, P.E.; Kurtz, W.A.; Phillips, O.L.; Shvidenko, A.; Lewis, S.L.; Canadell, J.G.; Ciais, P.; Jackson, R.B.; Pacala, S.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Piao, S.; Rautiainen, A.; Sitch, S.; Hayes, D. 2011. A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World's Forests. Science. 333: 988-993.

Project Vulcan

The State of the Carbon Cycle Report

Disturbance Effects on Forest Carbon Dynamics - Mike Ryan

Smithwick, E.A.H.; Westerling, A.L.; Turner, M.G.; Romme, W.H.; Ryan, M.G. 2011. Climate, Fire and Carbon: Tipping Points and Landscape Vulnerability in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Final Report: Joint Fire Science Program Project Number 09-3-01-47. 39p.

McKinley, D.C.; Ryan, M.G.; Birdsey, R.A.; Giardina, C.P.; Harmon, M.E.; Heath, L.S.; Houghton, R.A.; Jackson, R.B.; Morrison, J.F.; Murray, B.C.; Pataki, D.E.; Skog, K.E. 2011. A synthesis of current knowledge on forests and carbon storage in the United States. Ecological Applications. 21(6): 1902-1924.

Ryan, M.G.; Harmon, M.E.; Birdsey, R.A.; Giardina, C. P.; Heath, L.S.; Houghton, R.A.; Jackson, R.B.; McKinley, D.C.; Morrison, J. F. 2010. A synthesis of the science on forests and carbon for U.S. forests. Ecological Society of America. Issues in Ecology. 13(1):1-16.

CCSP, 2008. The effects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity in the United States. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Backlund, P.; Janetos, A.; Schimel, D. ; Hatfield, J.; Boote, K.; Fay, P.; Hahn, L.; Izaurralde, C.; Kimball, B.A.; Mader, T.; Morgan, J.; Ort, D.; Polley, W.; Thomson, A.; Wolfe, D.; Ryan, M.G.; Archer, S.R.; Birdsey, R.; Dahm, C.; Heath, L.; Hicke, J.;  Hollinger, D.; Huxman, T.;  Okin, G.; Oren, R.; Randerson, J.; Schlesinger, W.; Lettenmaier, D.; Major, D.; Poff, L.; Running, S.; Hansen, L.; Inouye, D.; Kelly, B.P.; Meyerson, L.; Peterson, B.; Shaw, R. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC., USA, 362 pp.

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The Potential for Soil Carbon Sequestration - Luke Nave

Urban Forestry - David Nowak

Nowak, D. J.; Crane, D.E.  2002. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA.   Environmental Pollution. 116: 381-389.

Pataki, D.E.; Alig, R.J.; Fung, A.S.; Golubiewski, E.; Kennedy, C.A.; McPherson, E.G.; Nowak, D.J.; Pouyat, R.V.; Romero Lankao, P.  2006. Urban ecosystems and the North American carbon cycle. Global Change Biology. 12: 1-11.

Nowak, D. J.; Crane, D.E.; Stevens, J. C.; Hoehn, R.E.; Walton, J.T.; Bond, J.  2008. A ground-based method of assessing urban forest structure and ecosystem services.   Aboriculture & Urban Forestry. 34(6): 347-358.

Nowak, D.J.  2006. Institutionalizing urban forestry as a "biotechnology" to improve environmental quality.   Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 5:93-100.

Forest Carbon for the Private Landowner (1): Basics of Carbon Offsets, Markets, and Trading - Sarah Hines

U.S. Forest Service Tools for Carbon Estimation - Coeli Hoover

Hoover, C.M.; Rebain, S.A. 2011. Forest carbon estimation using the Forest Vegetation Simulator: Seven things you need to know. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-77. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 16 p.