Climate Change and...

Annotated Bibliography

Effects of Climate Change


T. P. Brabets, M. A. Walvoord (2009). Trends in streamflow in the Yukon River Basin from 1944 to 2005 and the influence of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Journal of Hydrology 371 (1-4): 108-119

ABSTRACT: Streamflow characteristics in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska and Canada have changed from 1944 to 2005, and some of the change can be attributed to the two most recent modes of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Seasonal, monthly, and annual stream discharge data from 21 stations in the Yukon River Basin were analyzed for trends over the entire period of record, generally spanning 4–6 decades, and examined for differences between the two most recent modes of the PDO: cold-PDO (1944–1975) and warm-PDO (1976–2005) subsets. Between 1944 and 2005, average winter and April flow increased at 15 sites. Observed winter flow increases during the cold-PDO phase were generally limited to sites in the Upper Yukon River Basin. Positive trends in winter flow during the warm-PDO phase broadened to include stations in the Middle and Lower Yukon River drainage basins. Increases in winter streamflow most likely result from groundwater input enhanced by permafrost thawing that promotes infiltration and deeper subsurface flow paths. Increased April flow may be attributed to a combination of greater baseflow (from groundwater increases), earlier spring snowmelt and runoff, and increased winter precipitation, depending on location. Calculated deviations from long-term mean monthly discharges indicate below-average flow in the winter months during the cold PDO and above-average flow in the winter months during the warm PDO. Although not as strong a signal, results also support the reverse response during the summer months: above-average flow during the cold PDO and below-average flow during the warm PDO. Changes in the summer flows are likely an indirect consequence of the PDO, resulting from earlier spring snowmelt runoff and also perhaps increased summer infiltration and storage in a deeper active layer.

Annual discharge has remained relatively unchanged in the Yukon River Basin, but a few glacier-fed rivers demonstrate positive trends, which can be attributed to enhanced glacier melting. A positive trend in annual flow during the warm PDO near the mouth of the Yukon River suggests that small increases in flow throughout the Yukon River Basin have resulted in an additive effect manifested in the downstream-most streamflow station.

Many of the identified changes in streamflow patterns in the Yukon River Basin show a correlation to the PDO regime shift. This work highlights the importance of considering proximate climate forcings as well as global climate change when assessing hydrologic changes in the Arctic.

T. Das, H. G. Hidalgo, M. D. Dettinger, D. R. Cayan, D. W. Pierce, T.P. Barnett, M. D. Dettinger, D. R. Cayan, C. Bonfils, G. Bala, A. Mirin (2009). Structure and detectability of trends in hydrological measures over the western United States. Journal of Hydrometeorology 10 (4): 871-892

ABSTRACT: This study examines the geographic structure of observed trends in key hydrologically relevant variables across the western United States at ° spatial resolution during the period 1950–99. Geographical regions, latitude bands, and elevation classes where these trends are statistically significantly different from trends associated with natural climate variations are identified. Variables analyzed include late-winter and spring temperature, winter-total snowy days as a fraction of winter-total wet days, 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE) as a fraction of October–March (ONDJFM) precipitation total [precip(ONDJFM)], and seasonal [JFM] accumulated runoff as a fraction of water-year accumulated runoff. Observed changes were compared to natural internal climate variability simulated by an 850-yr control run of the finite volume version of the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3-FV), statistically downscaled to a ° grid using the method of constructed analogs. Both observed and downscaled model temperature and precipitation data were then used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model to obtain the hydrological variables analyzed in this study. Large trends (magnitudes found less than 5% of the time in the long control run) are common in the observations and occupy a substantial part (37%–42%) of the mountainous western United States. These trends are strongly related to the large-scale warming that appears over 89% of the domain. The strongest changes in the hydrologic variables, unlikely to be associated with natural variability alone, have occurred at medium elevations [750–2500 m for JFM runoff fractions and 500–3000 m for SWE/Precip(ONDJFM)] where warming has pushed temperatures from slightly below to slightly above freezing. Further analysis using the data on selected catchments indicates that hydroclimatic variables must have changed significantly (at 95% confidence level) over at least 45% of the total catchment area to achieve a detectable trend in measures accumulated to the catchment scale.

M. D. Dettinger, H. F. Diaz (2000). Global characteristics of stream flow seasonality and variability. Journal of Hydrometeorology 1 (4): 289-310

ABSTRACT: Monthly stream flow series from 1345 sites around the world are used to characterize geographic differences in the seasonality and year-to-year variability of stream flow. Stream flow seasonality varies regionally, depending on the timing of maximum precipitation, evapotranspiration, and contributions from snow and ice. Lags between peaks of precipitation and stream flow vary smoothly from long delays in high-latitude and mountainous regions to short delays in the warmest sectors. Stream flow is most variable from year to year in dry regions of the southwest United States and Mexico, the Sahel, and southern continents, and it varies more (relatively) than precipitation in the same regions. Tropical rivers have the steadiest flows. El Niño variations are correlated with stream flow in many parts of the Americas, Europe, and Australia. Many stream flow series from North America, Europe, and the Tropics reflect North Pacific climate, whereas series from the eastern United States, Europe, and tropical South America and Africa reflect North Atlantic climate variations.

M.M. Elsner, L. Cuo, N. Voisin, J. Deems, A.F. Hamlet, J. Vano, K.E.B. Mickelson, S.Y. Lee, D.P. Lettenmaier (2009). Implications of 21st century climate change for the hydrology of Washington State. Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington: 66 p.

ABSTRACT: The hydrology of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) is particularly sensitive to changes in climate because seasonal runoff is dominated by snowmelt from cool season mountain snowpack, and temperature changes impact the balance of precipitation falling as rain and snow. Based on results from 39 global simulations performed for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4), PNW temperatures are projected to increase an average of approximately 0.3°C per decade over the 21st century, while changes in annual mean precipitation are projected to be modest, with a projected increase of 1% by the 2020s and 2% by the 2040s.

Based on IPCC AR4 projections, we updated previous studies of implications of climate change on the hydrology of the PNW. In particular, we used results from 20 global climate models (GCMs) and two emissions scenarios from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES): A1B and B1. PNW 21st century hydrology was simulated using the full suite of GCMs and 2 SRES emissions scenarios over Washington, as well as focus regions of the Columbia River basin, the Yakima River basin, and those Puget Sound river basins that supply much of the basin’s municipal water supply. Using two hydrological models, we evaluated projected changes in snow water equivalent, seasonal soil moisture and runoff for the entire state and case study watersheds for A1B and B1 SRES emissions scenarios for the 2020s, 2040s, and 2080s. We then evaluated future projected changes in seasonal streamflow in Washington.

April 1 snow water equivalent (SWE) is projected to decrease by an average of approximately 27-29% across the State by the 2020s, 37-44% by the 2040s and 53-65% by the 2080s, based on the composite scenarios of B1 and A1B, respectively, which represent average effects of all climate models. In three relatively warm transient watersheds west of the Cascade crest, April 1 SWE is projected to almost completely disappear by the 2080s. By the 2080s, seasonal streamflow timing will shift significantly in both snowmelt dominant and transient, rain-snow mixed watersheds. Annual runoff across the State is projected to increase by 0-2% by the 2020s, 2-3% by the 2040s, and 4-6% by the 2080s; these changes are mainly driven by projected increases in winter precipitation.

Hamlet, A.F., D.P. Lettenmaier (2000). Long-range climate forecasting and its use for water management in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Journal of Hydroinformatics

ABSTRACT: methods of downscaling seasonal temperature and precipitation to interpret the implications of alternative climate scenarios on PNW water resources.Ongoing research by the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington focuses on the use of recent advances in climate research to improve streamflow forecasts at seasonal-to-interannual, decadal, and longer time scales. Seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasting capabilities have advanced significantly in the past several years, primarily because of improvements in the understanding of, and an ability to forecast, El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) at seasonal/interannual time scales, and because of better understanding of longer time scale climate phenomena like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These phenomena exert strong controls on climate variability along the Pacific Coast of North America.

The streamflow forecasting techniques we have developed for Pacific Northwest (PNW) rivers are based on climate forecasts that facilitate longer lead times (as much as a year) than the methods that are traditionally used for water management (maximum forecast lead times of a few months). At interannual time scales, the simplest of these techniques involves resampling meteorological data from previous years identified to be in similar climate categories as are forecast for the coming year. These data are then used to drive a hydrology model, which produces an ensemble of streamflow forecasts that are analogous to those that result from the well-known Extended Streamflow Prediction (ESP) method. This technique is a relatively simple, but effective, way of incorporating long-lead climate information into streamflow forecasts. It faithfully captures the history of observed climate variability. Its main limitation is that the sample size of observed events for some climate categories is small because of the length of the historic record. Furthermore, it is unable to capture important aspects of global change, which may interact with shorter term variations through changes in climate phenomena like ENSO and PDO. An alternative to the resampling method is to use nested regional climate models to produce the long-lead climate forecasts. Success using this approach has been hindered to some degree by the bias that is inherent in climate models, even when downscaled using regional nested modeling approaches. Adjustment or correction for this bias is central to the use of climate model output for hydrologic forecasting purposes. Approaches for dealing with climate model bias in the context of global and meso-scale are presently an area of active research.We illustrate an experimental application of the nested climate modeling approach for the Columbia River Basin, and compare it with the simpler resampling method.

At much longer time scales, changes in Columbia River flows that might be associated with global climate change are of considerable concern in the PNW, given recent Endangered Species Act listing of certain salmonid species, and the increase in water demand that is expected to follow increases in human population in the region. Many of the same general challenges associated with the spatial downscaling of climate forecasts are present in these long-range investigations. Additional uncertainties exist in the ability of climate models to predict the effects of changing greenhouse gas concentrations. These uncertainties tend to dominate the results, and lead us to use relatively simple methods of downscaling seasonal temperature and precipitation to interpret the implications of alternative climate scenarios on PNW water resources.

J. Morrison, M. C. Quick, M.G.G. Foreman (2002). Climate change in the Fraser River watershed: flow and temperature projections. Journal of Hydrology 263 (1-4): 230-244

ABSTRACT: An analysis of the historic flows and water temperatures of the Fraser River system has detected trends in both the annual flow profile and the summer temperatures. This study was undertaken to determine if these trends are likely to continue under the conditions predicted by various global circulation models. To do this, existing flow and temperature models were run with weather data that were derived from actual weather observations, but modified using changes predicted by the global circulation models.

The validity of the flow model results is supported by very close agreement with the historical record. The differences between model output and the historical record for mean flow, mean peak flow, mean minimum flow and peak flow day were not statistically significant; furthermore, there was only a 3–4 day shift in the occurrence of cumulative flow milestones. The temperature model's mean water temperature was only 0.2 °C higher than the historical record.

For the period 2070–2099, the flow model predicted a modest 5% (150 m3 /s) average flow increase but a decrease in the average peak flow of about 18% (1600 m3 /s). These peaks would occur, on average, 24 days earlier in the year even though for 13% of the years the peak flow occurred much later as a result of summer or fall rain, instead of the currently normal spring freshet. In the same period, the summer mean water temperature is predicted to increase by 1.9 °C. The potential exposure of salmon to water temperatures above 20 °C, which may degrade their spawning success, is predicted to increase by a factor of 10.

Trends in both flow and temperature in this study closely match the trends in the historical record, 1961–1990, which suggests that the historical trends may already be related to climate change. While the mean flow of 2726 m3 /s does not show a statistically significant trend, the hydrological profile has been changing.

Hamlet, A. F., D.P. Lettenmaier (1999). Columbia River streamflow forecasting based on ENSO and PDO climate signals. Journal of Water Resource Planning and Management 125 (November/December): 333-341

ABSTRACT: A simple method has been devised to incorporate the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate signals into the well-known extended streamflow prediction forecasting approach. Forecasts of ENSO are currently available up to a year or more in advance, which facilitates forecasting of the streamflow response to this climate signal at interannual forecast lead times. The bimodal phase of the PDO can be identified in real time using a combination of assumed persistence of the existing phase and the tracking of extreme events to identify transitions. The technique makes use of a gridded meteorological data set to drive a macroscale hydrology model at 1° spatial resolution over the Columbia River Basin above The Dalles. A streamflow forecast ensemble is created by resampling from the historical meteorological data according to six predefined PDO/ENSO categories. Given a forecast of the ENSO climate signal for the coming water year and the existing phase of the PDO, these meteorological ensembles are then used to drive the hydrology model based on the initial soil and snow conditions as of the forecast date. To evaluate the technique, a retrospective forecast of the historic record was prepared (1989–1998), using October–September as the forecast period, as well as an ensemble forecast for water years 1999 and 2000 that were prepared on June 1, 1998 and May 10, 1999, respectively. The results demonstrate the increase in lead time and forecast specificity over climatology that can be achieved by using PDO and ENSO climate information to condition the forecast ensembles.

H. G. Hidalgo, J. A. Dracup (2003). ENSO and PDO effects on hydroclimatic variations of the upper Colorado River Basin. Journal of Hydrometeorology 4 (1): 5-23

ABSTRACT: Linkages between tropical Pacific Ocean monthly climatic variables and the Upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) hydroclimatic variations from 1909 to 1998 are analyzed at interseasonal timescales. A study of the changes in these linkages through the years and their relationship to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is also investigated. Tropical Pacific climate variations were represented by atmospheric/oceanic ENSO indicators. For the UCRB, warm season (April–September) streamflow totals at Lee's Ferry, Arizona, and precipitation averages at different periods (cold season: October–March; warm season: April–September; and annual: October–September) were used to study the UCRB's response to tropical Pacific climatic forcing. A basinwide ENSO signature was found in the significant correlations between warm season precipitation in the UCRB and warm season SST averages from the Niño-3 region in most of the stations around the UCRB. This link is more evident during the warm phase of ENSO (El Niño), which is associated with an increase in warm season precipitation. The analysis also showed a link between June to November ENSO conditions and cold season precipitation variations contained in a principal component representing the high-elevation precipitation stations, which are the main source of streamflow. However, the amplitude and coherence of the cold season ENSO signal is significantly smaller compared to the general precipitation variations found in stations around the UCRB. Only when very few stations in the high elevations are considered is the ENSO signal in cold season precipitation in the basin revealed. Interdecadal hydroclimatic variations in the UCRB related to possible PDO influences were also investigated. There are significant shifts in the mean of UCRB's moisture-controlled variables (precipitation and streamflow) coincident with the PDO shifts, suggesting a connection between the two processes. It has been suggested in other studies that this connection could be expressed as a modulation on the predominance of each ENSO phase; that is, strong and consistent winter El Niño (La Niña) patterns are associated with the positive (negative) phase of the PDO. In the UCRB this apparent modulation seems to be accompanied by a general change in the sign of the correlation between ENSO indicators and cold season precipitation in most stations of the basin around 1932/33. From 1909 to 1932 the basin has a predominantly cold season ENSO response characteristic of the northwestern United States (drier than normal associated with tropical SST warming and vice versa); from 1933 to 1998 the response of the basin is predominantly typical of the southwestern United States during winter (wetter than normal associated with tropical SST warming and vice versa). This apparent correlation sign reversal is suggested to be related to interdecadal changes in the boundary of the north–south bipolar response characteristic of the ENSO signal in the western United States during winter.

Harshburger, B., H. Ye, J. Dzialoski (2002). Observational evidence of the influence of Pacific SSTs on winter precipitation and spring stream discharge in Idaho. Journal of Hydrology 264 (1-4): 157-169

ABSTRACT: Forty years of winter precipitation (23 stations) and spring stream flow discharge records (five stations) from across Idaho are analyzed to reveal regional patterns of association with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that winter precipitation in the northern Idaho mountains, between 45° and 48°N, is negatively correlated with fall SSTs in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (El Nino and La Nina). Winter precipitation north of 45°N, is negatively correlated with winter SSTs in the northern Pacific (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO). Spring stream discharge in Idaho is also negatively correlated with SSTs in the eastern tropical and northern regions of the Pacific Ocean.

The association is asymmetric with stronger responses during negative SSTs for both regions in the Pacific Ocean. Wet and dry conditions are most likely associated with the combination of La Nina–negative PDO and El Nino–positive PDO, respectively. The greatest anomalies occur during the optimal combination of La Nina with negative PDO conditions. The revealed connections are valuable for climatic predictions based on the previous season's SST conditions in the eastern tropical Pacific and slowly evolving SSTs in the northern Pacific Ocean.

McCabe, G. J., Betancourt, J. L., Hidalgo, H. G. (2007). Associations of decadal to multidecadal sea-surface temperature variability with upper Colorado River flow. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43 (1): 183-192

ABSTRACT: The relations of decadal to multidecadal (D2M) variability in global sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) with D2M variability in the flow of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) are examined for the years 1906-2003. Results indicate that D2M variability of SSTs in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, tropical Pacific, and Indian Oceans is associated with D2M variability of the UCRB. A principal components analysis (with varimax rotation) of detrended and 11-year smoothed global SSTs indicates that the two leading rotated principal components (RPCs) explain 56% of the variability in the transformed SST data. The first RPC (RPC1) strongly reflects variability associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the second RPC (RPC2) represents variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the tropical Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean SSTs. Results indicate that SSTs in the North Atlantic Ocean (RPC1) explain as much of the D2M variability in global SSTs as does the combination of Indian and Pacific Ocean variability (RPC2). These results suggest that SSTs in all of the oceans have some relation with flow of the UCRB, but the North Atlantic may have the strongest and most consistent association on D2M time scales. Hydroclimatic persistence on these time scales introduces significant nonstationarity in mean annual streamflow, with critical implications for UCRB water resource management.

Tootle, G. A., Piechota, T. C., Singh, A. (2005). Coupled oceanic-atmospheric variability and U.S. streamflow. Water Resources Research 41 (12): W122408

ABSTRACT: A study of the influence of interdecadal, decadal, and interannual oceanic-atmospheric influences on streamflow in the United States is presented. Unimpaired streamflow was identified for 639 stations in the United States for the period 1951–2002. The phases (cold/negative or warm/positive) of Pacific Ocean (El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)) and Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)) oceanic-atmospheric influences were identified for the year prior to the streamflow year (i.e., long lead time). Statistical significance testing of streamflow, based on the interdecadal, decadal, and interannual oceanic-atmospheric phase (warm/positive or cold/negative), was performed by applying the nonparametric rank-sum test. The results show that in addition to the well-established ENSO signal the PDO, AMO, and NAO influence streamflow variability in the United States. The warm phase of the PDO is associated with increased streamflow in the central and southwest United States, while the warm phase of the AMO is associated with reduced streamflow in these regions. The positive phase of the NAO and the cold phase of the AMO are associated with increased streamflow in the central United States. Additionally, the coupled effects of the oceanic-atmospheric influences were evaluated on the basis of the long-term phase (cold/negative or warm/positive) of the interdecadal (PDO and AMO) and decadal (NAO) influences and ENSO. Streamflow regions in the United States were identified that respond to these climatic couplings. The results show that the AMO may influence La Niña impacts in the Southeast, while the NAO may influence La Niña impacts in the Midwest. By utilizing the streamflow water year and the long lead time for the oceanic-atmospheric variables, useful information can be provided to streamflow forecasters and water managers.

Neal, E.G., M. Todd Walter, C. Coffeen (2002). Linking the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to seasonal stream discharge patterns in Southeast Alaska. Journal of Hydrology 263 (1-4): 188-197

ABSTRACT: This study identified and examined differences in Southeast Alaskan streamflow patterns between the two most recent modes of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). Identifying relationships between the PDO and specific regional phenomena is important for understanding climate variability, interpreting historical hydrological variability, and improving water-resources forecasting. Stream discharge data from six watersheds in Southeast Alaska were divided into cold-PDO (1947–1976) and warm-PDO (1977–1998) subsets. For all watersheds, the average annual streamflows during cold-PDO years were not significantly different from warm-PDO years. Monthly and seasonal discharges, however, did differ significantly between the two subsets, with the warm-PDO winter flows being typically higher than the cold-PDO winter flows and the warm-PDO summer flows being typically lower than the cold-PDO flows. These results were consistent with and driven by observed temperature and snowfall patterns for the region. During warm-PDO winters, precipitation fell as rain and ran-off immediately, causing higher than normal winter streamflow. During cold-PDO winters, precipitation was stored as snow and ran off during the summer snowmelt, creating greater summer streamflows. The Mendenhall River was unique in that it experienced higher flows for all seasons during the warm-PDO relative to the cold-PDO. The large amount of Mendenhall River discharge caused by glacial melt during warm-PDO summers offset any flow reduction caused by lack of snow accumulation during warm-PDO winters. The effect of the PDO on Southeast Alaskan watersheds differs from other regions of the Pacific Coast of North America in that monthly/seasonal discharge patterns changed dramatically with the switch in PDO modes but annual discharge did not.

Edmonds, R. L., R.C. Francis, N.J. Mantua, D.L. Peterson, R.C. Wissmar, P.A. Bisson (2003). Sources of climate variability in river ecosystems. American Fisheries Society: 11-37

ABSTRACT: River ecosystems are naturally variable in time and space and this variability is largely determined by climate, geology, and topography. We explore how variability in climate influences rivers. Our specific goals are to discuss (1) the major natural drivers of globalscale climate; (2) variability in temperature, precipitation, and streamflow patterns and how they relate to natural climate oscillations, such as ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation, PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation), and AO/NAO (Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation); (3) how human activities influence climate variability; (4) how climate variability influences river systems; and (5) the need to account for climate variability in river restoration activities. Three regional-scale river drainages are explored in detail: the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest; the Colorado River in the Rocky Mountains and the Southwestern USA; and the Kissimmee–Okeechobee–Everglades drainage in South Florida. As is true for many river drainages, humans have strongly influenced the hydrologic cycle in the three aforementioned basins through land-use practices. Clearing forests, creating urban environments, building dams, irrigating fields and straightening rivers all contribute to hydrologic change, especially river flooding. Rates of climate change and climate variability are now being influenced by human activities. Restoring the connectivity between river channels and floodplains, and “naturalization” of flow regimes of many large river drainages could be a major management action for ameliorating changes due to increased climate variability.

S. A. Mauget (2003). Multidecadal regime shifts in U.S. streamflow, precipitation, and temperature at the end of the Twentieth Century. Journal of Climate 16 (23): 3905-3916

ABSTRACT: Intra- to multidecadal variation in annual streamflow, precipitation, and temperature over the continental United States are evaluated here through the calculation of Mann–Whitney U statistics over running-time windows of 6–30-yr duration. When this method is demonstrated on time series of nationally averaged annual precipitation and mean temperature during 1896–2001, it reveals that 8 of the 10 wettest years occurred during the last 29 yr of that 106-yr period, and 6 of the 10 warmest years during the last 16. Both of these results indicate highly significant departures from long-term stationarity in U.S. climate at the end of the twentieth century. The effects of increased wetness are primarily evident in the central and eastern United States, while evidence of warmth is found throughout the Rocky Mountain region and in the West. Analysis of annual streamflow records across the United States during 1939–98 shows broadly consistent effects. Initial evidence of the recent wet regime is most apparent in eastern streamflow, which shows a clear pattern of high-ranked mean annual values during the 1970s. Over the midwestern states, a coherent pattern of high-ranked annual flow is found during multidecadal periods beginning during the late 1960s and early 1970s and ending in either 1997 or 1998. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, a significant incidence of low-ranked annual flow conditions throughout the West was roughly coincident with the onset of western warmth during the mid-1980s. Evidence of highly significant transitions to wetter and warmer conditions nationally, and consistent variation in streamflow analyses, suggests that increased hydrological surplus in the central and eastern United States and increased hydrological deficit in the West may be representative of the initial stages of climate change over the continental United States.

G. A. Hodgkins, R. W. Dudley, T. G. Huntington (2003). Changes in the timing of high river flows in New England over the 20th Century. Journal of Hydrology 278 (1-4): 244-252

ABSTRACT: The annual timing of river flows is a good indicator of climate-related changes, or lack of changes, for rivers with long-term data that drain unregulated basins with stable land use. Changes in the timing of annual winter/spring (January 1 to May 31) and fall (October 1 to December 31) center of volume dates were analyzed for 27 rural, unregulated river gaging stations in New England, USA with an average of 68 years of record. The center of volume date is the date by which half of the total volume of water for a given period of time flows past a river gaging station, and is a measure of the timing of the bulk of flow within the time period. Winter/spring center of volume (WSCV) dates have become significantly earlier (p<0.1) at all 11 river gaging stations in areas of New England where snowmelt runoff has the most effect on spring river flows. Most of this change has occurred in the last 30 years with dates advancing by 1–2 weeks. WSCV dates were correlated with March through April air temperatures (r=-0.72) and with January precipitation (r=-0.37). Three of 16 river gaging stations in the remainder of New England had significantly earlier WSCV dates. Four out of 27 river gaging stations had significantly earlier fall center of volume dates in New England. Changes in the timing of winter/spring and fall peak flow dates were consistent with the changes in the respective center of volume dates, given the greater variability in the peak flow dates. Changes in the WSCV dates over the last 30 years are consistent with previous studies of New England last-frost dates, lilac bloom dates, lake ice-out dates, and spring air temperatures. This suggests that these New England spring geophysical and biological changes all were caused by a common mechanism, temperature increases.

D. P. Lettenmaier, E. F. Wood, J. R. Wallis (1994). Hydro-climatological trends in the continental United States, 1948-88. Journal of Climate 7 (4): 586-607

ABSTRACT: Spatial patterns in trends of four monthly variables: average temperature, precipitation, streamflow, and average of the daily temperature range were examined for the continental United States for the period 1948–88. The data used are a subset of the Historical Climatology Network (1036 stations) and a stream gage network of 1009 stations. Trend significance was determined using the nonparametric seasonal Kendall's test on a monthly and annual basis, and a robust slope estimator was used for determination of trend magnitudes. A bivariate test was used for evaluation of relative changes in the variables, specifically, streamflow relative to precipitation, streamflow relative to temperature, and precipitation relative to temperature.

Strong trends were found in all of the variables at many more stations than would be expected due to chance. There is a strong spatial and seasonal structure in the trend results. For instance, although annual temperature increases were found at many stations, mostly in the North and West, there were almost as many downtrends, especially in the South and East. Among the most important trend patterns are (a) increases in March temperature at almost half of the stations; (b) increases in precipitation from September through December at as many as 25 percent of the stations, mostly in the central part of the country; (c) strong increases in streamflow in the period November–April at a maximum of almost half of the stations, with the largest trend magnitudes in the north-central states; (d) changes in the temperature range (mostly downward) at a large number of stations beginning in late spring and continuing through winter, affecting as many as over half of the stations. The observed trends in streamflow are not entirely consistent with the changes in the climatic variables and may be due to a combination of climatic and water management effects.

H.F. Lins, J.R. Slack (1999). Streamflow trends in the United States. Geophysical Research Letters 26 (2): 227-230

ABSTRACT: Secular trends in streamflow are evaluated for 395 climate-sensitive streamgaging stations in the conterminous United States using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. Trends are calculated for selected quantiles of discharge, from the 0th to the 100th percentile, to evaluate differences between low-, medium-, and high-flow regimes during the twentieth century. Two general patterns emerge; trends are most prevalent in the annual minimum (Q0 ) to median (Q50 ) flow categories and least prevalent in the annual maximum (Q100 ) category; and, at all but the highest quantiles, streamflow has increased across broad sections of the United States. Decreases appear only in parts of the Pacific Northwest and the Southeast. Systematic patterns are less apparent in the Q100 flow. Hydrologically, these results indicate that the conterminous U.S. is getting wetter, but less extreme.

D. M. Meko, C.W. Stockton (1984). Secular variations in streamflow in the western United States. Journal of Applied Meteorology 23 (6): 889-897

ABSTRACT: Long-term streamflow series in the western United States were examined for evidence of secular changes related to climate. Streamflow series contained appreciable low-frequency variation related to the combined influence of temperature and precipitation. Evidence of nonstationarity was found in selected records for the Pacific Northwest and the Upper Colorado Basins: mean annual streamflow increased significantly (0.05 level) from the first to last half of the 1914–80 period in the Pacific Northwest, and decreased significantly over the same period in the Upper Colorado region. Correlation analyses and examination of drought years revealed a strong tendency for anomalies of opposite sign in the Pacific Northwest and the Southwest. Drought in the Upper Colorado Basin was statistically independent of drought in the Pacific Northwest. Under exceptional meteorological conditions (e.g., water-year 1976–77), however, low flows occurred over a vast area from the Northwest coast to the mountains of central Arizona.

Pagano, T.C., D. Garen (2005). A recent increase in western U.S. streamflow variability and persistence. Journal of Hydrometeorology 6 (2): 173-179

ABSTRACT: April–September streamflow volume data from 141 unregulated basins in the western United States were analyzed for trends in year-to-year variability and persistence. Decadal time-scale changes in streamflow variability and lag-1-yr autocorrelation (persistence) were observed. The significance of the variability trends was tested using a jackknife procedure involving the random resampling of seasonal flows from the historical record. The 1930s–50s was a period of low variability and high persistence, the 1950s–70s was a period of low variability and antipersistence, and the period after 1980 was highly variable and highly persistent. In particular, regions from California and Nevada to southern Idaho, Utah, and Colorado have recently experienced an unprecedented sequence of consecutive wet years along with multiyear extreme droughts.

S. J. Déry, E. F. Wood (2005). Decreasing river discharge in northern Canada. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L10401

ABSTRACT: Freshwater discharge to high-latitude oceans in 64 Canadian rivers is investigated. The mean annual discharge rate attains 1252 km3 yr-1 for an area of 5.6 × 106 km2 , equating to a sink of 225 mm yr-1 in the surface water budget of northern Canada (excluding the Arctic Archipelago where insufficient data exist). Application of the Mann-Kendall test to the data reveals a 10% decrease (-125 km3 yr-1 or -22 mm yr-1 ) in the total annual river discharge to the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans from 1964 to 2003. This trend in river runoff is consistent with a 21 mm yr-1 decline in observed precipitation over northern Canada between 1964 and 2000. We find evidence of statistically-significant links between the Arctic Oscillation, El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to the total annual freshwater discharge in northern Canada's rivers at interannual-to-decadal timescales.

A. F. Hamlet, P. W. Mote, M. P. Clark, D. P. Lettenmaier (2007). Twentieth-century trends in runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture in the western United States. Journal of Climate 20 (8): 1468-1486

ABSTRACT: A physically based hydrology model is used to produce time series for the period 1916–2003 of evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, and soil moisture (SM) over the western United States from which long-term trends are evaluated. The results show that trends in ET in spring and summer are determined primarily by trends in precipitation and snowmelt that determine water availability. From April to June, ET trends are mostly positive due primarily to earlier snowmelt and earlier emergence of snow-free ground, and secondarily to increasing trends in spring precipitation. From July to September trends in ET are more strongly influenced by precipitation trends, with the exception of areas (most notably California) that receive little summer precipitation and have experienced large changes in snowmelt timing. Trends in the seasonal timing of ET are modest, but during the period 1947–2003 when temperature trends are large, they reflect a shift of ET from midsummer to early summer and late spring. As in other studies, it is found that runoff is occurring earlier in spring, a trend that is related primarily to increasing temperature, and is most apparent during 1947–2003. Trends in the annual runoff ratio, a variable critical to western water management, are determined primarily by trends in cool season precipitation, rather than changes in the timing of runoff or ET. It was found that the signature of temperature-related trends in runoff and SM is strongly keyed to mean midwinter [December–February (DJF)] temperatures. Areas with warmer winter temperatures show increasing trends in the runoff fraction as early as February, and colder areas as late as June. Trends toward earlier spring SM recharge are apparent and increasing trends in SM on 1 April are evident over much of the region. The 1 July SM trends are less affected by snowmelt changes and are controlled more by precipitation trends.

Meko, D.M., M.D. Therrell, C.H. Baisan, M.K. Hughes (2001). Sacramento River flow reconstructed to AD 869 from tree rings. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37 (4): 1029-1040

ABSTRACT: A time series of annual flow of the Sacramento River, California, is reconstructed to A.D. 869 from tree rings for a longterm perspective on hydrologic drought. Reconstructions derived by principal components regression of flow on time-varying subsets of tree-ring chronologies account for 64 to 81 percent of the flow variance in the 1906 to 1977 calibration period. A Monte Carlo analysis of reconstructed n-year running means indicates that the gaged record contains examples of drought extremes for averaging periods of perhaps = 6 to 10 years, but not for longer and shorter averaging periods. For example, the estimated probability approaches 1.0 that the flow in A.D. 1580 was lower than the lowest single-year gaged flow. The tree-ring record also suggests that persistently high or low flows over 50-year periods characterize some parts of the long-term flow history. The results should contribute to sensible water resources planning for the Sacramento Basin and to the methodology of incorporating tree-ring data in the assessment of the probability of hydrologic drought.

Graumlich, L.J., M. F. J. Pisaric, L. A. Waggoner, J. S. Littell, J. C. King (2003). Upper Yellowstone River flow and teleconnections with Pacific Basin climate variability during the past three centuries. Climate Change 59 (1-2): 245-262

ABSTRACT: Climate variability, coupled with increasing demand is raising concerns about the sustainability of water resources in the western United States. Tree-ring reconstructions of stream flow that extend the observational record by several centuries provide critical information on the short-term variability and multi-decadal trends in water resources. In this study, precipitation sensitive Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzeisii ) tree ring records are used to reconstruct annual flow of the Yellowstone River back to A.D. 1706. Linkages between precipitation in the Greater Yellowstone Region and climate variability in the Pacific basin were incorporated into our model by including indices Pacific Ocean interannual and decadal-scale climatic variability, namely the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation. The reconstruction indicates that 20th century streamflow is not representative of flow during the previous two centuries. With the exception of the 1930s, streamflow during the 20th century exceeded average flows during the previous 200 years. The drought of the 1930s resulted in the lowest flows during the last three centuries, however, this probably does not represent a worst-case scenario for the Yellowstone as other climate reconstructions indicate more extreme droughts prior to the 18th century.

Gedalof, Z., D.L. Peterson, N.J. Mantua (2004). Columbia River flow and drought since 1750. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40 (6): 1579-1592

ABSTRACT: A network of 32 drought sensitive tree-ring chronologies is used to reconstruct mean water year flow on the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon, since 1750. The reconstruction explains 30 percent of the variability in mean water year (October to September) flow, with a large portion of unexplained variance caused by underestimates of the most severe low flow events. Residual statistics from the tree-ring reconstruction, as well as an identically specified instrumental reconstruction, exhibit positive trends over time. This finding suggests that the relationship between drought and streamflow has changed over time, supporting results from hydrologic models, which suggest that changes in land cover over the 20th Century have had measurable impacts on runoff production. Low pass filtering the flow record suggests that persistent low flows during the 1840s were probably the most severe of the past 250 years, but that flows during the 1930s were nearly as extreme. The period from 1950 to 1987 is anomalous in the context of this record for having no notable multiyear drought events. A comparison of the flow reconstruction to paleorecords of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) support a strong 20th Century link between large scale circulation and streamflow, but suggests that this link is very weak prior to 1900.

Piechota, T.C., J. A. Dracup, R. G. Fovell (1997). Western US streamflow and atmospheric circulation patterns during El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Journal of Hydrology 201 (1-4): 249-271

ABSTRACT: Using principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and jackknife analysis, we investigated the spatial and temporal modes that dominate streamflow variability in the western US in response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Spatial variability was investigated with data only from ENSO years and with rotated PCA on 79 streamflow stations in the western United States. Eight regions, or clusters, were thus pinpointed as areas where streamflow tends to co-vary similarly following ENSO events; traditional cluster analysis confirmed the identification of these regions. The ENSO response in streamflow was then further evaluated by forming an aggregate ENSO composite for each region.

Temporal variability of western US streamflow in the PCA-identified regions was evaluated with a `T-mode' PCA that isolated the different responses in streamflow following ENSO events. The T-mode PCA breaks the 13 ENSO events that occurred from 1932 to 1993 into five subsets. It is interesting to note that the events in the dominant mode, PC1(+), occurred before 1976, and next mode, PC2(+), included events prior to 1976.

Finally, we investigated the atmospheric circulation patterns over the North Pacific Ocean and much of North America that are associated with the various US streamflow responses. The circulation patterns vary according to the prescribed ENSO forcing. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the varied ENSO-streamflow relationship in the western US and the use of ENSO for long-range streamflow forecasting.

C. J. Earle (1993). Asynchronous droughts in California streamflow as reconstructed from tree rings. Quaternary Research 39 (3): 290-299

ABSTRACT: Streamflow since 1560 A.D. for four rivers within the Sacramento River Basin, California, has been reconstructed dendroclimatically. Both the highest and the lowest reconstructed streamflows occurred during the historical period, with high flows from 1854 to 1916 and low flows from 1917 to 1950. Prolonged (decade-scale) excursions from the mean have been the norm throughout the reconstructed period. The periods of high and low streamflow in the Sacramento Basin are generally synchronous with wet and dry periods reconstructed by dendroclimatic studies in the western United States. The record indicates a number of asynchronous droughts or wet years. The strongest contrasts are developed between northern (western Washington and Oregon or the Columbia Basin) and southern (the Sacramento Basin or central California) climate regions. These asynchronous events may be due to variation in the latitude of the subtropical high and in the latitudinal position of winter storms coming off the Pacific. No association was found with El Niño-Southern Oscillation events.

Woodhouse, C. A., S.T. Gray, D. M. Meko (2006). Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin. Water Resources Research 42: W05415

ABSTRACT: Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October–September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72–81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past.

Meko, D., D. A. Graybill (1995). Tree-ring reconstruction of upper Gila River discharge. Water Resources Bulletin 31 (4): 605-616

ABSTRACT: Effective planning for use of water resources requires accurate information on hydrologic variability induced by climatic fluctuations. Tree-ring analysis is one method of extending our knowledge of hydrologic variability beyond the relatively short period covered by gaged streamfiow records. In this paper, a network of recently developed tree-ring chronologies is used to reconstruct annual river discharge in the upper Gila River drainage in southeastern Arizona and southwestern Arizona since A.D. 1663. The need for data on hydrologic variability for this semi-arid basin is accentuated because water supply is inadequate to meet current demand. A reconstruction based on multiple linear regression (R^2=0.66) indicates that 20th century is unusual for clustering of high-discharge years (early 1900s), severity of multiyear drought (1950s), and amplification of low-frequency discharge variations. Periods of low discharge recur at irregular intervals averaging about 20 years. Comparison with other tree-ring reconstructions shows that these low-flow periods are synchronous from the Gila Basin to the southern part of the Upper Colorado River Basin.

Chatters, J.C., K.A. Hoover (1992). Response of the Columbia River climate system to Holocene climate change. Quaternary Research 37 (1): 42-59

ABSTRACT: An understanding of the response of a fluvial system to past climatic changes is useful for predicting its response to future shifts in temperature and precipitation. To determine the response of the Columbia River system to previous climatic conditions and transitions, a well-dated sequence of floodplain development in the Wells Reservoir region was compared with the paleoenvironmental history of the Columbia River Basin. Results of this comparison indicate that aggradation episodes, occurring approximately 9000-8000, 7000-6500, 4400-3900, and 2400-1800 yr B.P., coincided with climatic transitions that share certain characteristics. The inferred climates associated with aggradation had at least moderate rates of precipitation that occurred mainly in winter coupled with moderate winter temperatures. Such conditions would have resulted in the buildup of snowpacks and a high frequency of rain-on-snow events. The warming and precipitation increases predicted for the Pacific Northwest under most CO2 -doubling scenarios are likely to repeat these conditions, which could increase the frequency of severe, sediment-laden floods in the Columbia River Basin.

Fuller, I.C., M.G. Macklin, J. Lewin, D.G. Passmore, A.G. Wintle (1998). River response to high-frequency climate oscillations in southern Europe over the past 200 k.y.. Geology 26 (3): 275-278

ABSTRACT: A 200 k.y. chronology of river response to climate-related environmental change has been established for northeast Spain using newly developed luminescence dating techniques. This constitutes the best-documented record of late Quaternary river behavior currently available for the North Atlantic region and enables fluvial stratigraphies to be compared with high-resolution ice core and marine oxygen isotope climate series. Pleistocene and Holocene river aggradational episodes coincide with stadial or neoglacial events, while phases of river incision occur during interstadial or interglacial periods. Alluviation and erosion cycles would appear to track variations in sediment supply controlled by vegetation cover and winter storm frequency.

R. A. Case, G. M. MacDonald (2003). Tree ring reconstructions of streamflow for three Canadian prairie rivers. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 39 (3): 703-716

ABSTRACT: Information regarding long term hydrological variability is critical for the effective management of surface water resources. In the Canadian Prairie region, growing dependence on major river systems for irrigation and other consumptive uses has resulted in an increasing vulnerability to hydrological drought and growing interprovincial tension. This study presents the first dendrochronological records of streamflow for Canadian Prairie rivers. We present 1,113-year, 522-year, and 325-year reconstructions of total water year (October to September) streamflow for the North Saskatchewan, South Saskatchewan, and Saskatchewan Rivers, respectively. The reconstructions indicate relatively high flows during the 20th Century and provide evidence of past prolonged droughts. Low flows during the 1840s correspond with aridity that extended over much of the western United States. Similarly, an exceptional period of prolonged low flow conditions, approximately 900 A.D. to 1300 A.D., is coincident with evidence of sustained drought across central and western North America. The 16th Century megadrought of the western United States and Mexico, however, does not appear to have had a major impact on the Canadian rivers. The dendrohydrological records illustrate the risks involved if future water policy and infrastructure development in the Canadian Prairies are based solely on records of streamflow variability over the historical record.

W. S. Merritt, Younes Alila, M. Barton, B. Taylor, S. Cohen, D. Neilsen (2006). Hydrologic response to scenarios of climate change in subwatersheds of the Okanagan basin, British Columbia. Journal of Hydrology 326 (1-4): 79-108

ABSTRACT: Scenarios of climate change were generated for the Okanagan Basin, a snow-driven semi-arid basin located in the southern interior region of British Columbia. Three global climate models (GCMs) were used to generate high (A2) and low (B2) emission scenarios; the Canadian global coupled model (CGCM2), the Australian developed CSIROMk2, and the HadCM3 model developed at the Hadley Centre in the United Kingdom. The three time periods simulated were 2010–2039 (2020s), 2040–2069 (2050s) and 2070–2099 (2080s). An increase in winter temperature of 1.5–4.0 °C and a precipitation increase of the order of 5-20% is predicted by the 2050s. Modelled summer precipitation is more variable with predicted change ranging from zero to a 35% decrease depending on the GCM and emission scenario. Summer temperatures were simulated to increase by approximately 2–4 °C. The UBC Watershed Model was used to model the hydrologic response of gauged sub watersheds in the basin under the altered climates. All scenarios consistently predicted an early onset of the spring snowmelt, a tendency towards a more rainfall dominated hydrograph and considerable reductions in the annual and spring flow volumes in the 2050s and 2080s. Of the three climate models, the CGCM2 model provided the most conservative predictions of the impacts of climate change in Okanagan Basin. Simulations based on the CSIROMk2 climate model suggested greatly reduced snowpack and flow volumes despite a sizeable increase in the winter precipitation. The scenarios raise questions over the availability of future water resources in the Okanagan Basin, particularly as extended periods of low flows into upland reservoirs are likely to coincide with increased demand from agricultural and domestic water users.

N. L. Miller, K. E. Bashford, E. Strem (2003). Potential impacts of climate change on California hydrology. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 39 (4): 771-784

ABSTRACT: Previous reports based on climate change scenarios have suggested that California will be subjected to increased wintertime and decreased summertime streamflow. Due to the uncertainty of projections in future climate, a new range of potential climatological future temperature shifts and precipitation ratios is applied to the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model and Anderson Snow Model in order to determine hydrologic sensitivities. Two general circulation models (GCMs) were used in this analysis: one that is warm and wet (HadCM2 run 1) and one that is cool and dry (PCM run B06.06), relative to the GCM projections for California that were part of the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A set of specified incremental temperature shifts from 1.5°C to 5.0°C and precipitation ratios from 0.70 to 1.30 were also used as input to the snow and soil moisture accounting models, providing for additional scenarios (e.g., warm/dry, cool/wet). Hydrologic calculations were performed for a set of California river basins that extend from the coastal mountains and Sierra Nevada northern region to the southern Sierra Nevada region; these were applied to a water allocation analysis in a companion paper. Results indicate that for all snow producing cases, a larger proportion of the streamflow volume will occur earlier in the year. The amount and timing is dependent on the characteristics of each basin, particularly the elevation. Increased temperatures lead to a higher freezing line, therefore less snow accumulation and increased melting below the freezing height. The hydrologic response varies for each scenario, and the resulting solution set provides bounds to the range of possible change in streamflow, snowmelt, snow water equivalent, and the change in the magnitude of annual high flows. An important result that appears for all snowmelt driven runoff basins, is that late winter snow accumulation decreases by 50 percent toward the end of this century.

Stone, M.C., R.H. Hotchkiss, L.O. Mearns (2003). Water yield responses to high and low spatial resolution climate change scenarios in the Missouri River basin. Geophysical Research Letters 30 (4): 1186

ABSTRACT: Water yield responses to two climate change scenarios different spatial scales were compared for the Missouri River Basin. A coarse-resolution climate change scenario created from runs of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization General Circulation Model CSIRO GCM). The high-resolution climate change scenario developed using runs of the Regional Climate Model RegCM, for which the GCM provided the initial and lateral boundary conditions. Water yield responses to the high- and resolution climate change scenarios were investigated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Basinwide water yield increased for both GCM and RegCM scenarios but with an overall greater increase for the RegCM scenario. Significant differences in water yields were found between the GCM and RegCM climate scenarios.

Hamlet, A.F., D.P. Lettenmaier (1999). Effects of climate change on hydrology and water resources in the Columbia River basin. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 35 (6): 1597-1623

ABSTRACT: As part of the National Assessment of Climate Change, the implications of future climate predictions derived from four global climate models (GCMs) were used to evaluate possible future changes to Pacific Northwest climate, the surface water response of the Columbia River basin, and the ability of the Columbia River reservoir system to meet regional water resources objectives. Two representative GCM simulations from the Hadley Centre (HC) and Max Planck Institute (MPI) were selected from a group of GCM simulations made available via the National Assessment for climate change. From these simulations, quasi-stationary, decadal mean temperature and precipitation changes were used to perturb historical records of precipitation and temperature data to create inferred conditions for 2025, 2045, and 2095. These perturbed records, which represent future climate in the experiments, were used to drive a macro-scale hydrology model of the Columbia River at 118 degree resolution. The altered streamfiows simulated for each scenario were, in turn, used to drive a reservoir model, from which the ability of the system to meet water resources objectives was determined relative to a simulated hydrologic base case (current climate). Although the two GCM simulations showed somewhat different seasonal patterns for temperature change, in general the simulations show reasonably consistent basin average increases in temperature of about 1.8-2.1°C for 2025, and about 2.32.9°C for 2045. The HC simulations predict an annual average temperature increase of about 4.5°C for 2095. Changes in basin averaged winter precipitation range from -1 percent to +20 percent for the HC and MPI scenarios, and summer precipitation is also variously affected. These changes in climate result in significant increases in winter runoff volumes due to increased winter precipitation and warmer winter temperatures, with resulting reductions in snowpack. Average March 1 basin average snow water equivalents are 75 to 85 percent of the base case for 2025, and 55 to 65 percent of the base case by 2045. By 2045 the reduced snowpack and earlier snow melt, coupled with higher evapotranspiration in early summer, would lead to earlier spring peak flows and reduced runoff volumes from April-September ranging from about 75 percent to 90 percent of the base case. Annual runoff volumes range from 85 percent to 110 percent of the base case in the simulations for 2045. These changes in streamfiow create increased competition for water during the spring, summer, and early fall between nonfirm energy production, irrigation, instream flow, and recreation. Flood control effectiveness is moderately reduced for most of the scenarios examined, and desirable navigation conditions on the Snake are generally enhanced or unchanged. Current levels of winter-dominated firm energy production are only significantly impacted for the MPI 2045 simulations.

C. A. Gibson, J. L. Meyer, N. L. Poff, L. E. Hay, A. Georgakakos (2005). Flow regime alterations under changing climate in two river basins: implications for freshwater ecosystems. River Research and Applications 21 (8): 849-864

ABSTRACT: We examined impacts of future climate scenarios on flow regimes and how predicted changes might affect river ecosystems. We examined two case studies: Cle Elum River, Washington, and Chattahoochee-Apalachicola River Basin, Georgia and Florida. These rivers had available downscaled global circulation model (GCM) data and allowed us to analyse the effects of future climate scenarios on rivers with (1) different hydrographs, (2) high future water demands, and (3) a river-floodplain system. We compared observed flow regimes to those predicted under future climate scenarios to describe the extent and type of changes predicted to occur. Daily stream flow under future climate scenarios was created by either statistically downscaling GCMs (Cle Elum) or creating a regression model between climatological parameters predicted from GCMs and stream flow (Chattahoochee-Apalachicola). Flow regimes were examined for changes from current conditions with respect to ecologically relevant features including the magnitude and timing of minimum and maximum flows. The Cle Elum's hydrograph under future climate scenarios showed a dramatic shift in the timing of peak flows and lower low flow of a longer duration. These changes could mean higher summer water temperatures, lower summer dissolved oxygen, and reduced survival of larval fishes. The Chattahoochee-Apalachicola basin is heavily impacted by dams and water withdrawals for human consumption; therefore, we made comparisons between pre-large dam conditions, current conditions, current conditions with future demand, and future climate scenarios with future demand to separate climate change effects and other anthropogenic impacts. Dam construction, future climate, and future demand decreased the flow variability of the river. In addition, minimum flows were lower under future climate scenarios. These changes could decrease the connectivity of the channel and the floodplain, decrease habitat availability, and potentially lower the ability of the river to assimilate wastewater treatment plant effluent. Our study illustrates the types of changes that river ecosystems might experience under future climates.

Duell, L. F. W. (1994). The sensitivity of northern Sierra Nevada streamflow to climate change. Water Resources Bulletin 30 (5): 841-859

ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of streamflow to climate change was investigated in the American, Carson, and Truckee River Basins, California and Nevada. Nine gaging stations were used to represent streamflow in the basins. Annual models were developed by regressing 1961-1991 streamflow data on temperature and precipitation. Climate-change scenarios were used as inputs to the models to determine streamflow sensitivities. Climate-change scenarios were generated from historical time series by modifying mean temperatures by a range of +4°C to -4°C and total precipitation by a range of +25 percent to -25 percent. Results show that streamflow on the warmer, lower west side of the Sierra Nevada generally is more sensitive to temperature and precipitation changes than is streamflow on the colder, higher east side. A 2°C rise in temperature and a 25-percent decrease in precipitation results in streamflow decreases of 56 percent on the American River and 25 percent on the Carson River. A 2°C decline in temperature and a 25-percent increase in precipitation results in streamflow increases of 102 percent on the American River and 22 percent on the Carson River.

D. H. Burn (2008). Climatic influences on streamflow timing in the headwaters of the Mackenzie River Basin. Journal of Hydrology 352 (1-2): 225-238

ABSTRACT: The Mann–Kendall non-parametric test for trend is used to explore the trend behaviour of nine measures of the timing of runoff. The relationship between trends in timing measures and trends in meteorological variables are investigated using partial correlation analysis. The relationships between six climate indices and trends in the timing measures are also examined. The analysis is conducted for 26 streamflow gauging stations from three sub-watersheds of the Mackenzie River Basin in northern Canada. The results reveal that for several of the timing measures, many more trends are identified than can be expected to occur by chance. The spring freshet is observed to be occurring earlier with this timing shift appearing particularly strong in headwater catchments. Based on the partial correlation analysis, it is plausible to attribute some of the observed trends to trends in meteorological variables. Timing of runoff is affected by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the North Pacific (NP) index and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) but not by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Arctic Oscillation (AO).

S. Jain, M. Hoerling, J. Eischeid (2005). Decreasing reliability and increasing synchroneity of western North American streamflow. Journal of Climate 18 (5): 613-618

ABSTRACT: Assessing climate-related societal vulnerability and mitigating impacts requires timely diagnosis of the nature of regional hydrologic change. A late-twentieth-century emergent trend is discovered toward increasing year-to-year variance (decreasing reliability) of streamflow across the major river basins in western North America—–Fraser, Columbia, Sacramento–San Joaquin, and Upper Colorado. Simultaneously, a disproportionate increase in the incidence of synchronous flows (simultaneous high or low flows across all four river basins) has resulted in expansive water resources stress. The observed trends have analogs in wintertime atmospheric circulation regimes and ocean temperatures, raising new questions on the detection, attribution, and projection of regional hydrologic change induced by climate.

Maurer, E.P., D. P. Lettenmaier, N. J. Mantua (2004). Variability and potential sources of predictability of North American runoff. Water Resources Research 40 (11): W09306

ABSTRACT: Understanding the space-time variability of runoff has important implications for climate because of the linkage of runoff and evapotranspiration and is a practical concern as well for the prediction of drought and floods. In contrast to many studies investigating the space-time variability of precipitation and temperature, there has been relatively little work evaluating climate teleconnections of runoff, in part because of the absence of data sets that lend themselves to commonly used techniques in climate analysis like principal components analysis. We examine the space-time variability of runoff over North America using a 50-year retrospective spatially distributed data set of runoff and other land surface water cycle variables predicted using a calibrated macroscale hydrology model, thus avoiding some shortcomings of past studies based more directly on streamflow observations. We determine contributions to runoff variability of climatic teleconnections, soil moisture, and snow for lead times up to a year. High and low values of these sources of predictability are evaluated separately. We identify patterns of runoff variability that are not revealed by direct analysis of observations, especially in areas of sparse stream gauge coverage. The presence of nonlinear relationships between large-scale climate changes and runoff pattern variability, as positive and negative values of the large-scale climate indices rarely show opposite teleconnections with a runoff pattern. Dry soil moisture anomalies have a stronger influence on runoff variability than wet soil. Snow, and more so soil moisture, in many locations enhance the predictability due to climatic teleconnections.

P. K. Naik, D. A. Jay (2005). Estimation of Columbia River virgin flow: 1879 to 1928. Hydrological Processes in press

ABSTRACT: The Columbia River is a major source of and conduit for Pacific Northwest economic activity, and is one of the more heavily modified rivers in North America. Understanding human and climate-induced changes in its hydrologic properties is, therefore, vital. Long streamflow records are essential to determining how runoff has changed over time, and Columbia River daily streamflow record at The Dalles began in 1878. To understand and separate anthropogenic and climate effects, however, it is also necessary to have a basin-scale estimate of virgin or naturalized flow. The United States Geological Survey has calculated a monthly averaged adjusted river flow at The Dalles for 1879-1999 that accounts for the effects of flow regulation. The Bonneville Power Administration has estimated the monthly averaged virgin flow at The Dalles, i.e. the flow in the absence of both flow regulation and irrigation depletion for 1929-89. We have estimated the monthly virgin flow of the Columbia River at The Dalles from records of irrigated area for the missing early years, i.e. for the period 1879-1928. In addition, to allow hindcasting of a virgin flow sediment transport for the system, a daily virgin flow index with realistic higher moments and spectral properties has been calculated. Examination of the virgin flow record shows that climate change since the late 19th century has decreased annual average flow volume by > 7%; irrigation depletion has reduced the flow by another 7%.

Sankarasubramanian, A., R.M. Vogel (2003). Hydroclimatology of the continental United States. Geophysical Research Letters 30 (7): 1363

ABSTRACT: The overall water balance and the sensitivity of watershed runoff to changes in climate are investigated using national databases of climate and streamflow for 1,337 watersheds in the U.S. We document that 1% changes in precipitation result in 1.5–2.5% changes in watershed runoff, depending upon the degree of buffering by storage processes and other factors. Unlike previous research, our approach to estimating climate sensitivity of streamflow is nonparametric and does not depend on a hydrologic model. The upper bound for precipitation elasticity of streamflow is shown to be the inverse of the runoff ratio. For over a century, investigators [ Pike, 1964 ; Budyko, 1974 ; Ol'dekop, 1911; and Schreiber, 1904 ] have suggested that variations in watershed aridity alone are sufficient to predict spatial variations in long-term watershed runoff. We document that variations in soil moisture holding capacity are just as important as variations in watershed aridity in explaining the mean and variance of annual watershed runoff.

Sankarasubramanian, A., R.M. Vogel, J. F. Limbrunner (2001). Climate elasticity of streamflow in the United States. Water Resources Research 37 (6): 1771-1781

ABSTRACT: Precipitation elasticity of streamflow,e, provides a measure of the sensitivity of streamflow to changes in rainfall. Watershed model-based estimates ofeare shown to be highly sensitive to model structure and calibration error. A Monte Carlo experiment compares a nonparametric estimator ofewith various watershed model-based approaches. The nonparametric estimator is found to have low bias and is as robust as or more robust than alternate model-based approaches. The nonparametric estimator is used to construct a map ofefor the United States. Comparisons with 10 detailed climate change studies reveal that the contour map ofeintroduced here provides a validation metric for past and future climate change investigations in the United States. Further investigations reveal thatetends to be low for basins with significant snow accumulation and for basins whose moisture and energy inputs are seasonally in phase with one another. The Budyko hypothesis can only explain variations inefor very humid basins.

Bartlein, P.J. (1982). Streamflow anomaly patterns in the U.S.A. and southern Canada –– 1951–1970. Journal of Hydrology 57 (1-2): 49-63

ABSTRACT: The map patterns of streamflow conditions in the U.S.A. and southern Canada are examined by means of a principal components analysis of the monthly flow records of 102 streams. The analysis reveals the basic anomaly patterns of streamflow, and also describes the variation of these patterns through time. The basic anomaly patterns are of large spatial scale, and vary slowly through time, reflecting the temporal and spatial scale of the controlling climatic anomalies. An extension of the analysis allows the gaging stations to be assigned to homogeneous hydrologic regions.

McCabe, G. J., Wolock, D. M. (2002). A step increase in streamflow in the conterminous United States. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (24): 2185

ABSTRACT: Annual minimum, median, and maximum daily streamflow for 400 sites in the conterminous United States (U.S.), measured during 1941–1999, were examined to identify the temporal and spatial character of changes in streamflow statistics. Results indicate a noticeable increase in annual minimum and median daily streamflow around 1970, and a less significant mixed pattern of increases and decreases in annual maximum daily streamflow. These changes in annual streamflow statistics primarily occurred in the eastern U.S. In addition, the streamflow increases appear as a step change rather than as a gradual trend and coincide with an increase in precipitation.

J. N. Moore, J. T. Harper, M. C. Greenwood (2007). Significance of trends toward earlier snowmelt runoff, Columbia and Missouri Basin headwaters, western United States. Geophysical Research Letters 34 (L16402)

ABSTRACT: We assess changes in runoff timing over the last 55 years at 21 gages unaffected by human influences, in the headwaters of the Columbia-Missouri Rivers. Linear regression models and tests for significance that control for “false discoveries” of many tests, combined with a conceptual runoff response model, were used to examine the detailed structure of spring runoff timing. We conclude that only about one third of the gages exhibit significant trends with time but over half of the gages tested show significant relationships with discharge. Therefore, runoff timing is more significantly correlated with annual discharge than with time. This result differs from previous studies of runoff in the western USA that equate linear time trends to a response to global warming. Our results imply that predicting future snowmelt runoff in the northern Rockies will require linking climate mechanisms controlling precipitation, rather than projecting response to simple linear increases in temperature.

Zhang, X., Harvey, K.D., Hogg, W. D., Yuzyk, T. R. (2001). Trends in Canadian streamflow. Water Resources Research 37 (4): 987-998

ABSTRACT: This study presents trends computed for the past 30-50 years for 11 hydroclimatic variables obtained from the recently created Canadian Reference Hydrometric Basin Network database. It was found that annual mean streamflow has generally decreased during the periods, with significant decreases detected in the southern part of the country. Monthly mean streamflow for most months also decreased, with the greatest decreases occurring in August and September. The exceptions are March and April, when significant increases in streamflow were observed. Significant increases were identified in lower percentiles of the daily streamflow frequency distribution over northern British Columbia and the Yukon Territory. In southern Canada, significant decreases were observed in all percentiles of the daily streamflow distribution. Breakup of river ice and the ensuing spring freshet occur significantly earlier, especially in British Columbia. There is also evidence to suggest earlier freeze-up of rivers, particularly in eastern Canada. The trends observed in hydroclimatic variables are entirely consistent with those identified in climatic variables in other Canadian studies.

Nash, L. L., P. H. Gleick (1991). Sensitivity of streamflow in the Colorado basin to climatic changes. Journal of Hydrology 125 (3-4): 221-241

ABSTRACT: Changes in regional temperature and precipitation expected to occur as a result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases may have significant impacts on water resources. We use a conceptual hydrologic model, developed and operated by the National Weather Service, to study the sensitivity of surface runoff in several sub-basins of the Colorado River to these changes. Increases in temperature of 2°C decrease mean annual runoff by 4–12%. A temperature increase of 4°C decreases mean annual runoff by 9–21%. Increases or decreases in annual precipitation of 10–20% result in corresponding changes in mean annual runoff of approximately 10–20%. For the range of scenarios studied, these results suggest that runoff in the basin is somewhat more sensitive to changes in precipitation than to changes in temperature. Seasonal changes were also observed, with peak runoff shifting from June to April or May. Fall and winter flows generally increase, whereas spring and summer flows decrease in most of the scenarios studied. These changes are attributed to an increase of the ratio of rain to snow and to a higher snowline. Although these results suggest that streamflow in the Colorado Basin is less sensitive to climatic changes than previous statistical studies have indicated, the magnitude of possible changes is nonetheless sufficiently great to have significant environmental, economic, and political implications.

Cooper, D. M., Wilkinson, W. B., Arnell, N. W. (1995). The effects of climate change on aquifer storage and river baseflow. Hydrological Sciences Journal 40 (5): 615-631

ABSTRACT: The effects of changes in climate on aquifer storage and groundwater flow to rivers have been investigated using an idealized representation of the aquifer/river system. The generalized aquifer/river model can incorporate spatial variability in aquifer transmissivity and is applied with parameters characteristic of Chalk and Triassic sandstone aquifers in the United Kingdom, and is also applicable to other aquifers elsewhere. The model is run using historical time series of recharge, estimated from observed rainfall and potential evaporation data, and with climate inputs perturbed according to a number of climate change scenarios. Simulations of baseflow suggest large proportional reductions at low flows from Chalk under high evaporation change scenarios. Simulated baseflow from the slower responding Triassic sandstone aquifer shows more uniform and less severe reductions. The change in hydrological regime is less extreme for the low evaporation change scenario, but remains significant for the Chalk aquifer.

E. S. Zavaleta, B. D. Thomas, N. R. Chiariello, G.P. Asner, M. R. Shaw, C.B. Field (2003). Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (17): 9892-9893

ABSTRACT: Models predict that global warming may increase aridity in water-limited ecosystems by accelerating evapotranspiration. We show that interactions between warming and the dominant biota in a grassland ecosystem produced the reverse effect. In a 2-year field experiment, simulated warming increased spring soil moisture by 5–10% under both ambient and elevated CO2 . Warming also accelerated the decline of canopy greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) each spring by 11–17% by inducing earlier plant senescence. Lower transpirational water losses resulting from this earlier senescence provide a mechanism for the unexpected rise in soil moisture. Our findings illustrate the potential for organism–environment interactions to modify the direction as well as the magnitude of global change effects on ecosystem functioning.

N. S. Christensen, A. W. Wood, N. Voisin, D. P. Lettenmaier, R. N. Palmer (2004). The effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin. Climatic Change 62 (1-3): 337-363

ABSTRACT: The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin are assessed by comparing simulated hydrologic and water resources scenarios derived from downscaled climate simulations of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Center for Atmospheric Research Parallel Climate Model (PCM) to scenarios driven by observed historical (1950–1999) climate. PCM climate scenarios include an ensemble of three 105-year future climate simulations based on projected `business-as-usual' (BAU) greenhouse gas emissions and a control climate simulation based on static 1995 greenhouse gas concentrations. Downscaled transient temperature and precipitation sequences were extracted from PCM simulations, and were used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model to produce corresponding streamflow sequences. Results for the BAU scenarios were summarized into Periods 1, 2, and 3 (2010–2039, 2040–2069, 2070–2098). Average annual temperature changes for the Colorado River basin were 0.5 °C warmer for control climate, and 1.0, 1.7, and 2.4 °C warmer for Periods 1–3, respectively, relative to the historical climate. Basin-average annual precipitation for the control climate was slightly (1%) less than for observed historical climate, and 3, 6, and 3% less for future Periods 1–3, respectively. Annual runoff in the control run was about 10% lower than for simulated historical conditions, and 14, 18, and 17% less for Periods 1–3, respectively. Analysis of water management operations using a water management model driven by simulated streamflows showed that streamflows associated with control and future BAU climates would significantly degrade the performance of the water resources system relative to historical conditions, with average total basin storage reduced by 7% for the control climate and 36, 32 and 40% for Periods 1–3, respectively. Releases from Glen Canyon Dam to the Lower Basin (mandated by the Colorado River Compact) were met in 80% of years for the control climate simulation (versus 92% in the historical climate simulation), and only in 59–75% of years for the future climate runs. Annual hydropower output was also significantly reduced for the control and future climate simulations. The high sensitivity of reservoir system performance for future climate is a reflection of the fragile equilibrium that now exists in operation of the system, with system demands only slightly less than long-term mean annual inflow.

Jain, S., Woodhouse, C. A., Hoerling, M. P. (2002). Multidecadal streamflow regimes in the interior western United States: Implications for the vulnerability of water resources. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (21): 2036

ABSTRACT: In the interior western United States, increased demand for water coupled with the uncertain nature of anthropogenic and natural hydroclimatic variations add challenges to the task of assessing the adequacy of the existing regional water resources systems. Current availability of relatively short instrumental streamflow records further limits the diagnosis of multidecadal and longer time variations. Here we develop a long-term perspective of streamflow variations using a 285-year long tree-ring reconstruction at Middle Boulder Creek, Colorado. Analysis of the reconstructed streamflow provides useful insights for assessing vulnerability: (a) a wider range of hydrologic variations on multidecadal time scales, not seen in the instrumental record, (b) wet/dry regimes show disparate fluctuations across various flow thresholds, and (c) temporal changes in the flow probabilities have varied “flavors” corresponding to wet and dry regimes and their spatial extent. Based on these results, we discuss implications for the climate-related vulnerability of regional water resources.

Marks, D., G.A. King, J. Dolph (1993). Implications of climate change for the water balance of the Columbia River Basin, USA. Climate Research 2 (3): 203-213

ABSTRACT: Global climate change will affect the terrestrial biosphere primarily through changes in regional energy and water balance. Changes in soil moisture and evapotranspiration will particularly affect water and forest resources. Existing spatially lumped hydrologic models are not adequate to analyze the potential effects of climate change on the regional water balance over large river basins or regions primarily because they do not satisfactorily account for the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic processes. Here we summarize application of a spatially distributed water balance model that was tested using historical data from the U. S. portion of the Columbia River Basin In the Pacific Northwest for a very dry (1977) and very wet (1972) water year. The model adequately partitions incoming precipitation into evapotranspiration and runoff. Because precipitation in the basin is underestimated from measured data, modeled runoff is less than measured runoff from the basin during both the wet and dry years The potential effects of climate change on runoff and soil moisture in the Columbia River Basin were simulated using 2xCO2 scenario data from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation model (GCM). The predicted future climate conditions significantly increase potential evapotranspiration, causing a 20% reduction in runoff relative to input precipitation, and a 58 % reduction in soil moisture storage. If these changes in regional water balance are realized the distribution and composition of forests in the Northwest would change markedly, and water resources would become more limited. Because of uncertainties in future climate scenarios, and limitations in the implementation of the water balance model, the 2xCO2 results should be viewed only as a sensitivity analysis.

E. P. Maurer, I. T. Stewart, C. Bonfils, P. B. Duffy, D. Cayan (2007). Detection, attribution, and sensitivity of trends toward earlier streamflow in the Sierra Nevada. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: D11118

ABSTRACT: Observed changes in the timing of snowmelt dominated streamflow in the western United States are often linked to anthropogenic or other external causes. We assess whether observed streamflow timing changes can be statistically attributed to external forcing, or whether they still lie within the bounds of natural (internal) variability for four large Sierra Nevada (CA) basins, at inflow points to major reservoirs. Streamflow timing is measured by “center timing” (CT), the day when half the annual flow has passed a given point. We use a physically based hydrology model driven by meteorological input from a global climate model to quantify the natural variability in CT trends. Estimated 50-year trends in CT due to natural climate variability often exceed estimated actual CT trends from 1950 to 1999. Thus, although observed trends in CT to date may be statistically significant, they cannot yet be statistically attributed to external influences on climate. We estimate that projected CT changes at the four major reservoir inflows will, with 90% confidence, exceed those from natural variability within 1–4 decades or 4–8 decades, depending on rates of future greenhouse gas emissions. To identify areas most likely to exhibit CT changes in response to rising temperatures, we calculate changes in CT under temperature increases from 1 to 5°. We find that areas with average winter temperatures between -2°C and -4°C are most likely to respond with significant CT shifts. Correspondingly, elevations from 2000 to 2800 m are most sensitive to temperature increases, with CT changes exceeding 45 days (earlier) relative to 1961–1990.

T. Beechie, E. Buhle, M. Ruckelshaus, A. Fullerton, L. Holsinger (2006). Hydrologic regime and the conservation of salmon life history diversity. Biological Conservation 130 (4): 560-572

ABSTRACT: Life history diversity of imperiled Pacific salmonOncorhynchus spp. substantially contributes to their persistence, and conservation of such diversity is a critical element of recovery efforts. Preserving and restoring diversity of life history traits depends in part on environmental factors affecting their expression. We analyzed relationships between annual hydrograph patterns and life history traits (spawn timing, age at spawning, age at outmigration, and body size) of Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) to identify environmental indicators of current and historic diversity. Based on mean monthly flow patterns, we identified three hydrologic regimes: snowmelt-dominated, rainfall-dominated, and transitional. Chinook populations in snowmelt-dominated areas contained higher proportions of the stream-type life history (juvenile residence >1 year in freshwater), had older spawners, and tended to spawn earlier in the year than populations in rainfall-dominated areas. There are few extant Puget Sound populations dominated by the stream-type life history, as several populations with high proportions of stream-type fish have been extirpated by construction of dams that prevent migration into snowmelt-dominated reaches. The few extant populations are thus a high priority for conservation. The low level of genetic distinction between stream-type and ocean-type (juvenile residence <1 year in freshwater) life histories suggests that allowing some portion of extant populations to recolonize habitats above dams might allow re-expression of suppressed life history characteristics, creating a broader spatial distribution of the stream-type life history. Climate change ultimately may limit the effectiveness of some conservation efforts, as stream-type Chinook may be dependent on a diminishing snowmelt-dominated habitat.

L. R. Gardner (2009). Assessing the effect of climate change on mean annual runoff. Journal of Hydrology In Press, Corrected Proof

ABSTRACT: From published runoff measurements in catchments with a wide range of climatic conditions it is found that long-term mean annual runoff (R) can be closely fitted (r2 = 0.94) to measured climatic data by R = P*exp(-PET/P), where P is the mean annual precipitation and PET is the mean annual potential evapotranspiration (in mm) calculated via the Holland equation, PET = 1.2 * 1010 * exp(-4620/Tk), which is solely a function of the mean annual temperature in Kelvin, Tk. Application of the chain rule for partial differentiation to the combined equations gives the following equation for estimating the change in runoff due to changes in P and Tk:

dR = exp(-PET/P) * [1 + PET/P] * dP – [5544 * 1010 * exp(-PET/P) * exp(-4620/Tk) * Tk2 ] * dTk

By setting dR equal to zero, this equation can be used to estimate the increase in P required to maintain constant runoff for a small increase in T. It can also be used to estimate the decrease in runoff in a scenario with constant precipitation and increased temperature. It is shown herein that predictions of annual runoff changes for various climate change scenarios based on this simple model compare favorably with those based on more complex, calibrated hydrological models, as well as with those based on long-term historical observations of runoff and climate change. Application of the equation above also indicates that the IPCC projections for climate change under the A1B emissions scenario may underestimate the area of North America that is likely to suffer decreases in runoff.

C. H. Luce, Z. A. Holden (2009). Declining annual streamflow distributions in the Pacific Northwest United States, 1948–2006. Geophysical Research Letters 36 (L16401): doi:10.1029/2009GL039407

ABSTRACT: Much of the discussion on climate change and water in the western United States centers on decreased snowpack and earlier spring runoff. Although increasing variability in annual flows has been noted, the nature of those changes is largely unexplored. We tested for trends in the distribution of annual runoff using quantile regression at 43 gages in the Pacific Northwest. Seventy-two percent of the stations showed significant (α = 0.10) declines in the 25th percentile annual flow, with half of the stations exceeding a 29% decline and a maximum decline of 47% between 1948 and 2006. Fewer stations showed statistically significant declines in either median or mean annual flow, and only five had a significant change in the 75th percentile, demonstrating that increases in variance result primarily from a trend of increasing dryness in dry years. The asymmetric trends in streamflow distributions have implications for water management and ecology well beyond those of shifted timing alone, affect both rain and snow-dominated watersheds, and contribute to earlier timing trends in high-elevation watersheds.

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