Climate Change and...

Annotated Bibliography

Carbon Dynamics

Fire Effects

Alexis, M., Rasse, D., Rumpel, C., Bardoux, G., Pechot, N., Schmalzer, P., Drake, B., Mariotti, A. (2007). Fire impact on C and N losses and charcoal production in a scrub oak ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 82 (2): 201-216

ABSTRACT: Fire profoundly modifies the terrestrial C cycle of about 40% of the Earth’s land surface. The immediate effect of fire is that of a net loss of C as CO2 gas and soot particles to the atmosphere. Nevertheless, a proportion of the ecosystem biomass is converted into charcoal, which contains highly recalcitrant molecular structures that contribute to long-term C storage. The present study aimed to assess simultaneously losses to the atmosphere and charcoal production rates of C and N compounds as a result of prescription fire in a Florida scrub-oak ecosystem. Pre-fire and post-fire charred and unburned organic matter stocks were determined for vegetation leaves and stems, litter and soil in 20 sub-plots installed in a 30-ha area that was subjected to prescribed fire. Concentrations of C and N were determined, and fluxes among pools and to the atmosphere were derived from these measurements. Soil C and N stocks were unchanged by the fire. Post-fire standing dead biomass contained 30% and 12% of pre-fire vegetation C and N stocks, respectively. In litter, post-fire stocks contained 64% and 83% of pre-fire C and N stocks, respectively. Most of the difference in relative losses between vegetation and litter could be attributed to substantial litter fall of charred and unburned leaves during the fire event. Indeed, an estimated 21% of pre-fire vegetation leaf C was found in the post-fire litter, while the remaining 79% was lost to the atmosphere. About 3/4 of the fire-induced leaf litter fall was in the form of unburned tissue and the remainder was charcoal, which amounted to 5% of pre-fire leaf C stocks. Charcoal production ranged between 4% and 6% of the fire-affected biomass, i.e. the sum of charcoal production and atmospheric losses. This value is below the range of literature values for the transformation of plant tissue into stable soil organic matter through humification processes, which suggests that fire generates a smaller quantity of stable organic C than humification processes over decades and potentially centuries.

Amiro, B. D., Ian MacPherson, J., Desjardins, R. L., Chen, J. M., Liu, J. (2003). Post-fire carbon dioxide fluxes in the western Canadian boreal forest: evidence from towers, aircraft and remote sensing. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 115 (1-2): 91-107

ABSTRACT: Recent CO2 flux measurements from towers and aircraft (net ecosystem exchange by eddy covariance) and remote sensing/modeling (net primary productivity--NPP) following fire show that the regenerating boreal forest in western Canada has a low initial flux that increases with time since fire. Daytime CO2 fluxes are downward, even after 2 years following fire, although fluxes were upward during the first year after the fire. In summer, the forest is a net carbon sink a few years following fire. A regression of all data gives a relationship where the CO2 flux relative to 10 years following fire=0.11+0.92 log10 (years since fire) (r2 =0.5). The CO2 flux reaches the same rate as that of a mature site between 10 and 30 years following fire, depending on the site and the data set. Many studies in the literature indicate that soil respiration decreases following fire, although several models assume that heterotrophic respiration increases. If fire reduces respiration and our growing season measurements showing a net sink in early years are widely applicable, it is likely that some models may have overestimated the impact of fire on the carbon balance of the boreal landscape.

Amiro, B.D., Orchansky, A.L., Barr, A.G., Black, T.A., Chambers, S.D., Chapin III, F.S., Goulden, M.L., Litvak, M., Liu, H.P., McCaughey, J.H. (2006). The effect of post-fire stand age on the boreal forest energy balance. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 140 (1-4): 41-50

ABSTRACT: Fire in the boreal forest renews forest stands and changes the ecosystem properties. The successional stage of the vegetation determines the radiative budget, energy balance partitioning, evapotranspiration and carbon dioxide flux. Here, we synthesize energy balance measurements from across the western boreal zone of North America as a function of stand age following fire. The data are from 22 sites in Alaska, Saskatchewan and Manitoba collected between 1998 and 2004 for a 150-year forest chronosequence. The summertime albedo immediately after a fire is about 0.05, increasing to about 0.12 for a period of about 30 years and then averaging about 0.08 for mature coniferous forests. A mature deciduous (aspen) forest has a higher summer albedo of about 0.16. Wintertime albedo decreases from a high of 0.7 for 5- to 30-year-old forests to about 0.2 for mature forests (deciduous and coniferous). Summer net radiation normalized to incoming solar radiation is lower in successional forests than in more mature forests by about 10%, except for the first 1–3 years after fire. This reduction in net radiative forcing is about 12–24 W m−2 as a daily average in summer (July). The summertime daily Bowen ratio exceeds 2 immediately after the fire, decreasing to about 0.5 for 15-year-old forests, with a wide range of 0.3–2 for mature forests depending on the forest type and soil water status. The magnitude of these changes is relatively large and may affect local, regional and perhaps global climates. Although fire has always determined stand renewal in these forests, increased future area burned could further alter the radiation balance and energy partitioning, causing a cooling feedback to counteract possible warming from carbon dioxide released by boreal fires.

Ansley, R. J., Boutton, T. W., Skjemstad, J. O. (2006). Soil organic carbon and black carbon storage and dynamics under different fire regimes in temperate mixed-grass savanna. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20 (3): B3006

ABSTRACT: We quantified the effects of repeated, seasonal fires on soil organic carbon (SOC), black carbon (BC), and total N in controls and four fire treatments differing in frequency and season of occurrence in a temperate savanna. The SOC at 0–20 cm depth increased from 2044 g C m−2 in controls to 2393–2534 g C m−2 in the three treatments that included summer fire. Similarly, soil total N (0–20 cm) increased from 224 g N m−2 in the control to 251–255 g N m−2 in the treatments that included summer fire. However, winter fires had no effect on SOC or total N. Plant species composition coupled with lowerd13 C of SOC suggested that increased soil C in summer fire treatments was related to shifts in community composition toward greater relative productivity by C3 species. Lowerd15 N of soil total N in summer fire treatments was consistent with a scenario in which N inputs > N losses. The BC storage was not altered by fire, and comprised 13–17% of SOC in all treatments. Results indicated that fire and its season of occurrence can significantly alter ecosystem processes and the storage of C and N in savanna ecosystems.

Balshi, M. S., Mcguire, A. D., Zhuang, Q., Melillo, J., Kicklighter, D. W., Kasischke, E., Wirth, C., Flannigan, M., Harden, J., Clein, J. S., Burnside, T. J., Mcallister, J., Kurz, W. A., Apps, M., Shvidenko, A. (2007). The role of historical fire disturbance in the carbon dynamics of the pan-boreal region: A process-based analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 112 (G02029): doi:10.1029/2006JG000380

ABSTRACT: Wildfire is a common occurrence in ecosystems of northern high latitudes, and changes in the fire regime of this region have consequences for carbon feedbacks to the climate system. To improve our understanding of how wildfire influences carbon dynamics of this region, we used the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage north of 45°N from the start of spatially explicit historically recorded fire records in the twentieth century through 2002, and evaluated the role of fire in the carbon dynamics of the region within the context of ecosystem responses to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. Our analysis indicates that fire plays an important role in interannual and decadal scale variation of source/sink relationships of northern terrestrial ecosystems and also suggests that atmospheric CO2 may be important to consider in addition to changes in climate and fire disturbance. There are substantial uncertainties in the effects of fire on carbon storage in our simulations. These uncertainties are associated with sparse fire data for northern Eurasia, uncertainty in estimating carbon consumption, and difficulty in verifying assumptions about the representation of fires that occurred prior to the start of the historical fire record. To improve the ability to better predict how fire will influence carbon storage of this region in the future, new analyses of the retrospective role of fire in the carbon dynamics of northern high latitudes should address these uncertainties.

Boerner, R EJ, Waldrop, T A, Shelburne, V B (2006). Wildfire mitigation strategies affect soil enzyme activity and soil organic carbon in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda ) forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36 (12): 3148-3154

ABSTRACT: We quantified the effects of three wildfire hazard reduction treatments (prescribed fire, thinning from below, and the combination of fire and thinning), and passive management (control) on mineral soil organic C, and enzyme activity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests on the Piedmont of South Carolina. Soil organic C was reduced by thinning, either alone or with prescribed fire, and this effect persisted through the fourth post-treatment year. Fire also resulted in reduced soil organic C, but not until several years after treatment. Soil C/N ratio initially increased after fire, either alone or with thinning, but this difference did not persist. The activities of three soil enzymes (acid phosphatase, chitinase, and phenol oxidase) in the upper mineral soil were quantified as measures of microbial activity. During the fourth post-treatment year we observed significant stimulation of all three enzyme systems as a result of thinning or thinning and burning. Although the patterns of variation in acid phosphatase and chitinase activity among treatments were similar during the first and fourth post-treatment years, the first-year treatment effects were not statistically significant. Given the management objective of utilizing these stands for timber production, the increased potential for rapid nutrient turnover offered by thinning gives this approach advantages over prescribed fire; however, management for maximum long-term storage of soil C may be better facilitated by prescribed fire.

Bond-Lamberty, B., Peckham, S.D., Ahl, D. E., Gower, S. T. (2007). Fire as the dominant driver of central Canadian boreal forest carbon balance. Nature 450 (7166): 89-92

ABSTRACT: Changes in climate, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and fire regimes have been occurring for decades in the global boreal forest1, 2, 3 , with future climate change likely to increase fire frequency4 —the primary disturbance agent in most boreal forests3, 5. Previous attempts to assess quantitatively the effect of changing environmental conditions on the net boreal forest carbon balance have not taken into account the competition between different vegetation types on a large scale6, 7, 8, 9 . Here we use a process model with three competing vascular and non-vascular vegetation types to examine the effects of climate, carbon dioxide concentrations and fire disturbance on net biome production, net primary production and vegetation dominance in 100 Mha of Canadian boreal forest. We find that the carbon balance of this region was driven by changes in fire disturbance from 1948 to 2005. Climate changes affected the variability, but not the mean, of the landscape carbon balance, with precipitation exerting a more significant effect than temperature. We show that more frequent and larger fires in the late twentieth century resulted in deciduous trees and mosses increasing production at the expense of coniferous trees. Our model did not however exhibit the increases in total forest net primary production that have been inferred from satellite data1, 10 . We find that poor soil drainage decreased the variability of the landscape carbon balance, which suggests that increased climate and hydrological changes have the potential to affect disproportionately the carbon dynamics of these areas. Overall, we conclude that direct ecophysiological changes resulting from global climate change have not yet been felt in this large boreal region. Variations in the landscape carbon balance and vegetation dominance have so far been driven largely by increases in fire frequency.

Caldwell, T.G., Johnson, D.W., Miller, W.W., Qualls, R.G. (2002). Forest floor carbon and nitrogen losses due to prescription fire. Soil Science Society Of America JournalSoil Sci So 66: 262-267

ABSTRACT: Fire is the dominant factor affecting C and N losses from the semiarid forests of the eastern Sierra Nevada. As prescription fire becomes a best management practice, it is critical to develop an estimate of these fluxes. The objectives of this study were (i) to test and refine methods to estimate the volatilized C and N losses from the forest floor following fire, (ii) to investigate the interactions between O-horizon temperature and nutrient loss, and (iii) to assess measured N losses in the context of atmospheric N deposition, leaching, and N fixation. The quantities of C and N volatilized from the forest floor by prescription fire in the Sierra Nevada were measured using two different field-based methods: weight loss estimation and Ca/element ratio determination. Three sites were included in the study: Marlene, Sawtooth and Spooner. The weight method indicated C losses of 6.12, 7.39, and 17.8 Mg C ha-1 at the Sawtooth, Marlene, and Spooner sites, respectively. The ratio method indicated comparable C losses from the Sawtooth (6 Mg C ha-1 ) site, but greater losses at Marlene (16 Mg C ha-1 ) and Spooner (24 Mg C ha-1 ) sites. The weight method indicated N losses of 56.2, 60.8, and 362 kg N ha-1 , at the Sawtooth, Marlene, and Spooner sites, respectively. The ratio method indicated comparable N losses of 59.9 kg N ha-1 at the Sawtooth site, but considerably greater losses at Marlene (243 kg N ha-1 ), and Spooner (524 kg N ha-1 ) sites. The Ca-element method was preferred because of minimal needs for preburn sampling. Regardless of method, the estimated losses were significant, particularly for N, compared with deposition and leaching rates. Volatilization will represent the major mechanism for N loss from forest ecosystems of this region subjected to prescribed fire.

Czimczik, C. I., C. A. Masiello (2007). Controls on black carbon storage in soils. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21 (GB3005): doi:10.1029/2006GB002798

ABSTRACT: Fire-derived black carbon (BC: charcoal and soot) has been thought to be a passive player in soils, contributing to the refractory soil organic carbon (SOC) pool, but playing no role in pedogenesis and regional short-term carbon cycling. This model, however, is at odds with recent results on the role of charcoal in soil fertility and its detection in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool. For example, if BC simply accumulated passively in soils, its pattern of accumulation should match a simple model correlating fire frequency to BC storage. Instead, soil type, climate, biota, and land use practices all appear to play roles in controlling whether BC accumulates or is lost from soils. We summarize current knowledge of BC-soil interactions and construct a new paradigm describing the controls on BC storage in soils. We reconcile the refractory-labile BC paradox by proposing a model where BC storage is controlled by (1) fire frequency, (2) ecosystem presence or absence of aromatic precursor carbon and appropriate combustion conditions, (3) biological or physical mixing to remove BC from the soil surface, where it is vulnerable to combustion in future fires, (4) the presence or absence of soil mineral fractions able to sorb BC into the long-term stable carbon pool, and (5) the presence of microbial communities capable of degrading aromatic carbon. We also recognize that soil BC/SOC ratios are strongly influenced by land-use practices and add (6) human activities as a final control.

Czimczik, C.I., Preston, C.M., Schmidt, M.W.I., Schulze, E. (2003). How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal). Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17 (1): doi:10.1029/2002GB001956

ABSTRACT: In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance and converts soil organic carbon (OC) to more degradation-resistant aromatic carbon, i.e., black carbon (BC) which might act as a long-term atmospheric-carbon sink. Little is known on the effects of fires on boreal soil OC stocks and molecular composition. We studied how a surface fire affected the composition of the forest floor of Siberian Scots pine forests by comparing the bulk elemental composition, molecular structure (13 C-MAS NMR), and the aromatic carbon fraction (BC and potentially interfering constituents like tannins) of unburned and burned forest floor. Fire reduced the mass of the forest floor by 60%, stocks of inorganic elements (Si, Al, Fe, K, Ca, Na, Mg, Mn) by 30–50%, and of OC, nitrogen, and sulfur by 40–50%. In contrast to typical findings from temperate forests, unburned OC consisted mainly of (di-)O-alkyl (polysaccharides) and few aromatic structures, probably due to dominant input of lichen biomass. Fire converted OC into alkyl and aromatic structures, the latter consisting of heterocyclic macromolecules and small clusters of condensed carbon. The small cluster size explained the small BC concentrations determined using a degradative molecular marker method. Fire increased BC stocks (16 g kg−1 OC) by 40% which translates into a net-conversion rate of 0.7% (0.35% of net primary production) unburned OC to BC. Here, however, BC was not a major fraction of soil OC pool in unburned or burned forest floor, either due to rapid in situ degradation or relocation.

Gough, C. M., Vogel, C. S., Harrold, K. H., George, K., Curtis, S. (2007). The legacy of harvest and fire on ecosystem carbon storage in a north temperate forest. Global Change Biology 13 (9): 1935-1949

ABSTRACT: Forest harvesting and wildfire were widespread in the upper Great Lakes region of North America during the early 20th century. We examined how long this legacy of disturbance constrains forest carbon (C) storage rates by quantifying C pools and fluxes after harvest and fire in a mixed deciduous forest chronosequence in northern lower Michigan, USA. Study plots ranged in age from 6 to 68 years and were created following experimental clear-cut harvesting and fire disturbance. Annual C storage was estimated biometrically from measurements of wood, leaf, fine root, and woody debris mass, mass losses to herbivory, soil C content, and soil respiration. Maximum annual C storage in stands that were disturbed by harvest and fire twice was 26% less than a reference stand receiving the same disturbance only once. The mechanism for this reduction in annual C storage was a long-lasting decrease in site quality that endured over the 62-year timeframe examined. However, during regrowth the harvested and burned forest rapidly became a net C sink, storing 0.53 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 after 6 years. Maximum net ecosystem production (1.35 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 ) and annual C increment (0.95 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 ) were recorded in the 24- and 50-year-old stands, respectively. Net primary production averaged 5.19 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 in experimental stands, increasing by < 10% from 6 to 50 years. Soil heterotrophic respiration was more variable across stand ages, ranging from 3.85 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 in the 6-year-old stand to 4.56 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 in the 68-year-old stand. These results suggest that harvesting and fire disturbances broadly distributed across the region decades ago caused changes in site quality and successional status that continue to limit forest C storage rates.

Hall, S.A., Burke, C., Hobbs, N.T. (2006). Litter and dead wood dynamics in ponderosa pine forests along a 160-year chronosequence. Ecological Applications 16 (6): 2344-2355

ABSTRACT: Disturbances such as fire play a key role in controlling ecosystem structure. In fire-prone forests, organic detritus comprises a large pool of carbon and can control the frequency and intensity of fire. The ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA, where fire has been suppressed for a century, provide an ideal system for studying the long-term dynamics of detrital pools. Our objectives were (1) to quantify the long-term temporal dynamics of detrital pools; and (2) to determine to what extent present stand structure, topography, and soils constrain these dynamics. We collected data on downed dead wood, litter, duff (partially decomposed litter on the forest floor), stand structure, topographic position, and soils for 31 sites along a 160-year chronosequence. We developed a compartment model and parameterized it to describe the temporal trends in the detrital pools. We then developed four sets of statistical models, quantifying the hypothesized relationship between pool size and (1) stand structure, (2) topography, (3) soils variables, and (4) time since fire. We contrasted how much support each hypothesis had in the data using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC).

Time since fire explained 39–80% of the variability in dead wood of different size classes. Pool size increased to a peak as material killed by the fire fell, then decomposed rapidly to a minimum (61–85 years after fire for the different pools). It then increased, presumably as new detritus was produced by the regenerating stand. Litter was most strongly related to canopy cover (r2 = 77%), suggesting that litter fall, rather than decomposition, controls its dynamics. The temporal dynamics of duff were the hardest to predict. Detrital pool sizes were more strongly related to time since fire than to environmental variables. Woody debris peak-to-minimum time was 46–67 years, overlapping the range of historical fire return intervals (1 to >100 years). Fires may therefore have burned under a wide range of fuel conditions, supporting the hypothesis that this region's fire regime was mixed severity.

Hamman, S. T., Burke, I. C., Stromberger, M. E. (2007). Relationships between microbial community structure and soil environmental conditions in a recently burned system. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39 (7): 1703-1711

ABSTRACT: Most wildfires, even the most severe, burn at mixed intensities across a landscape, depending on local fuel loads, fuel moistures, and wind strength and direction. This heterogeneous patchwork of fire effects can influence the patterns of above- and belowground biotic recovery through altered environmental conditions, nutrient availability, and biotic sources for microbial and vegetative re-colonization. We quantified the effects of low- and high-severity fire 14 months post-burn on key environmental variables typically limiting to microbial activity. We characterized the soil microbial community structure through ester-linked fatty acid analysis (EL-FAME) and identified the soil environmental factors that best explain the pattern of microbial community profiles through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Low-severity burning caused no change in soil moisture, pH or temperature while high-severity burning caused an increase in soil moisture, temperature, and a decrease in pH levels, relative to the unburned sites. Soil respiration rates were significantly lower in both the low- and high-severity burn sites, relative to unburned sites, likely due to initial root and microbial death. Overall microbial biomass did not change with either low- or high-severity burning, but the microbial community ordination biplots showed separation of communities by fire, and slight separation by fire severity along three axes. This community separation was driven primarily by a decrease in fungal biomarkers (18:2ω6c, 18:3ω6c) with both low- and high-severity fire. Only 23% of the variation in the microbial community distribution could be explained by three environmental variables: soil pH, temperature, and carbon. These results suggest that the microbial communities in both the low- and high-severity burn sites are structurally different from the populations in the unburned sites.

Harden, J. W., Mack, M., Veldhuis, H., Gower, S. T. (2002). Fire dynamics and implications for nitrogen cycling in boreal forests. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 107 (8223): doi:10.1029/2001JD000494

ABSTRACT: We used a dynamic, long-term mass balance approach to track cumulative carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses to fire in boreal Manitoba over the 6500 years since deglaciation. Estimated C losses to decomposition and fire, combined with measurements of N pools in mature and burned forest floors, suggest that loss of N by combustion has likely resulted in a long-term loss that exceeds the amount of N stored in soil today by 2 to 3 times. These estimates imply that biological N fixation rates could be as high as 5 to 10 times atmospheric deposition rates in boreal regions. At the site scale, the amount of N lost is due to N content of fuels, which varies by stand type and fire severity, which in turn vary with climate and fire dynamics. The interplay of fire frequency, fire severity, and N partitioning during regrowth are important for understanding rates and sustainability of nutrient and carbon cycling over millenia and over broad regions.

Harden, J.W., Trumbore, S.E., Stocks, B.J., Hirsch, A., Gower, S.T., O'Neill, K.P., Kaisischke, E.S. (2000). The role of fire in the boreal carbon budget. Global Change Biology 6 (S1): 174-184

ABSTRACT: To reconcile observations of decomposition rates, carbon inventories, and net primary production (NPP), we estimated long-term averages for C exchange in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba. Soil drainage as defined by water table, moss cover, and permafrost dynamics, is the dominant control on direct fire emissions. In upland forests, an average of about 10–30% of annual NPP was likely consumed by fire over the past 6500 years since these landforms and ecosystems were established. This long-term, average fire emission is much larger than has been accounted for in global C cycle models and may forecast an increase in fire activity for this region. While over decadal to century times these boreal forests may be acting as slight net sinks for C from the atmosphere to land, periods of drought and severe fire activity may result in net sources of C from these systems.

Irvine, J., Law, B.E., Hibbard, K.A. (2007). Postfire carbon pools and fluxes in semiarid ponderosa pine in Central Oregon. Global Change Biology 13 (8): 1748-1760

ABSTRACT: Forest fire dramatically affects the carbon storage and underlying mechanisms that control the carbon balance of recovering ecosystems. In western North America where fire extent has increased in recent years, we measured carbon pools and fluxes in moderately and severely burned forest stands 2 years after a fire to determine the controls on net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and make comparisons with unburned stands in the same region. Total ecosystem carbon in soil and live and dead pools in the burned stands was on average 66% that of unburned stands (11.0 and 16.5 kg C m−2 , respectively, P<0.01). Soil carbon accounted for 56% and 43% of the carbon pools in burned and unburned stands. NEP was significantly lower in severely burned compared with unburned stands (P<0.01) with an increasing trend from −125±44 g C m−2 yr−1 (±1 SD) in severely burned stands (stand replacing fire), to −38±96 and +50±47 g C m−2 yr−1 in moderately burned and unburned stands, respectively. Fire of moderate severity killed 82% of trees <20 cm in diameter (diameter at 1.3 m height, DBH); however, this size class only contributed 22% of prefire estimates of bole wood production. Larger trees (> 20 cm DBH) suffered only 34% mortality under moderate severity fire and contributed to 91% of postfire bole wood production. Growth rates of trees that survived the fire were comparable with their prefire rates. Net primary production NPP (g C m−2 yr−1 , ±1 SD) of severely burned stands was 47% of unburned stands (167±76, 346±148, respectively, P<0.05), with forb and grass aboveground NPP accounting for 74% and 4% of total aboveground NPP, respectively. Based on continuous seasonal measurements of soil respiration in a severely burned stand, in areas kept free of ground vegetation, soil heterotrophic respiration accounted for 56% of total soil CO2 efflux, comparable with the values of 54% and 49% previously reported for two of the unburned forest stands. Estimates of total ecosystem heterotrophic respiration (Rh) were not significantly different between stand types 2 years after fire. The ratio NPP/Rh averaged 0.55, 0.85 and 1.21 in the severely burned, moderately burned and unburned stands, respectively. Annual soil CO2 efflux was linearly related to aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) with an increase in soil CO2 efflux of 1.48 g C yr−1 for every 1 g increase in ANPP (P<0.01, r2 = 0.76). There was no significant difference in this relationship between the recently burned and unburned stands. Contrary to expectations that the magnitude of NEP 2 years postfire would be principally driven by the sudden increase in detrital pools and increased rates of Rh, the data suggest NPP was more important in determining postfire NEP.

Jain, A. K. (2007). Global estimation of CO emissions using three sets of satellite data for burned area. Atmospheric Environment 41 (33): 6931-6940

ABSTRACT: Using three sets of satellite data for burned areas together with the tree cover imagery and a biogeochemical component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) the global emissions of CO and associated uncertainties are estimated for the year 2000. The available fuel load (AFL) is calculated using the ISAM biogeochemical model, which accounts for the aboveground and surface fuel removed by land clearing for croplands and pasturelands, as well as the influence on fuel load of various ecosystem processes (such as stomatal conductance, evapotranspiration, plant photosynthesis and respiration, litter production, and soil organic carbon decomposition) and important feedback mechanisms (such as climate and fertilization feedback mechanism). The ISAM estimated global total AFL in the year 2000 was about 687 Pg AFL. All forest ecosystems account for about 90% of the global total AFL. The estimated global CO emissions based on three global burned area satellite data sets (GLOBSCAR, GBA, and Global Fire Emissions Database version 2 (GFEDv2)) for the year 2000 ranges between 320 and 390 Tg CO. Emissions from open fires are highest in tropical Africa, primarily due to forest cutting and burning. The estimated overall uncertainty in global CO emission is about +/-65%, with the highest uncertainty occurring in North Africa and Middle East region (+/-99%). The results of this study suggest that the uncertainties in the calculated emissions stem primarily from the area burned data.

Johnson, D., Murphy, J. D., Walker, R. F., Glass, D. W., Miller, W. W. (2007). Wildfire effects on forest carbon and nutrient budgets. Ecological Engineering 31 (3): 183-192

ABSTRACT: A wildfire burned through previously established research plots, allowing comparisons of pre- and post-fire nutrient pools and fluxes. The Gondola fire resulted in the loss of 30.9 mg ha-1 of C and 510 kg ha-1 of N, mostly by the combustion of forest floor and vegetation. Mineral N leaching was accelerated for 3 years after the fire, but accounted for only 19 kg ha-1 of the total N loss. Potential inputs of P by ash were small relative to soil extractable pools and no significant changes in soil extractable P were noted. No changes in exchangeable K+ were noted, even though inputs by ash could have been detected, suggesting that K was lost either during or after the fire. Similarly, decreases in soil exchangeable Mg2+ were noted even though ash inputs should have caused notable increases, suggesting Mg loss either during or after the fire. The increases in soil-exchangeable Ca2+ were large, but only marginally significant (P = 0.09) and fell within the error bounds of what could have been input from ash. Comparisons with a nearby site that burned >20 years previously suggest that ecosystem C pools will not be made up for until trees are re-established at the Gondola fire, whereas N losses could be more than made up for within 20 years if N-fixing vegetation colonized the site.

Johnson, D. W., Murphy, J. F., Susfalk, R. B., Caldwell, T. G., Miller, W. W., Walker, R. F., Powers, R. F. (2005). The effects of wildfire, salvage logging, and post-fire N-fixation on the nutrient budgets of a Sierran forest. Forest Ecology and Management 220 (1-3): 155-165

ABSTRACT: The effects of fire, post-fire salvage logging, and revegetation on nutrient budgets were estimated for a site in the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains that burned in a wildfire in 1981. Approximately two decades after the fire, the shrub (former fire) ecosystem contained less C and more N than the adjacent forest ecosystem. Reconstruction of pre-fire nutrient budgets suggested that most C was exported in biomass during salvage logging and will not be recovered until forest vegetation occupies the site again. Salvage logging may have resulted in longer-term C sequestration in wood products than would have occurred had the logs been left in the field to decay, however. Reconstructed budgets suggested that most N was lost via volatilization during the fire rather than in post-fire salvage logging (assuming that foliage and O horizons were combusted). Comparisons of the pre-fire and present day N budgets also suggested that the lost N was rapidly replenished in O horizons and mineral soils, probably due to N-fixation by snowbush (Ceanothus velutinus Dougl.), the dominant shrub on the former fire site. There were no significant differences in ecosystem P, K, or S contents and no consistent, significant differences in soil extractable P or S between the shrub and forested plots. Exchangeable K+ , Ca2+ , and Mg2+ were consistently and significantly greater in shrub than in adjacent forested soils, however, and the differences were much larger than could be accounted for by estimated ash inputs. In the case of Ca, even the combustion of all aboveground organic matter could not account for more than a fraction of the difference in exchangeable pools. We speculate that the apparent large increased in soil and ecosystem Ca content resulted from either the release of Ca from non-exchangeable forms in the soil or the rapid uptake and recycling of Ca by post-fire vegetation.

Kobziar, L. N., Stephens, S. L. (2006). The effects of fuels treatments on soil carbon respiration in a Sierra Nevada pine plantation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 141 (2-4): 161-178

ABSTRACT: Fire-prone forests in the American west are presently slated for extensive fuels reduction treatments, yet the effect on soil CO2 efflux rates, or soil respiration, has received little attention. This study utilizes the homogeneity of a Sierra Nevada ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws)–Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi , Grev. & Balf.) plantation to investigate changes in soil respiration following mechanical shredding of understory vegetation, or mastication, in 2004; mastication coupled with prescribed burning in 2005; and burning alone also in 2005 as measured over the growing seasons from 2003 to 2005. Soil respiration, soil temperature and soil moisture were measured in two masticated stands which were burned the following year, and in one burned stand; the three of which were compared with two controls stands. Soil respiration response to treatments was detectable even though spatial variability within sites was high (coefficients of variation of 39–66%). Mastication produced short-term reductions in respiration rates, reduced soil moisture by 20%, and mitigated a year-to-year reduction in soil temperature evidenced by controls. Prescribed fire in masticated stands lowered soil respiration from 3.42 to 2.68μmol m−2 s−1 while fire in the untreated stand raised rates from 3.41 to 3.83μmol m−2 s−1 , although seasonal increases in control sites were greater than those in the untreated stand. Masticated then burned site soil moisture increased by 52% while soil temperature decreased over the span of the growing season. Microclimate variables were not consistently effective in explaining spatial trends. Exponential models using soil temperature and/or moisture to predict temporal trends in respiration were only significant in treated stands, suggesting that treatment implementation increased sensitivity to environmental factors. These results imply that fuels reduction practices in water-stressed forests may have important consequences for ecosystem carbon dynamics.

Komarov, A. S., Kubasova, T. S. (2007). Modeling organic matter dynamics in conifer-broadleaf forests in different site types upon fires: A computational experiment. Biology Bulletin 34 (4): 408-416

ABSTRACT: The effect of forest fires differing in intensity on organic matter dynamics in forest soils has been assessed in different types of forest sites using the EFIMOD system of models. Differences between the patterns of organic matter dynamics according to scenarios of forest ecosystem development under normal conditions and upon forest fires have been analyzed. Recovery rates of soil organic matter pools after fires depend on their intensity and frequency. The most profound changes take place upon high-intensity crown fires, which may even result in ecosystem destruction.

Lajeunesse, S. D., Dilustro, J. J., Sharitz, R. R., Collins, B. S. (2006). Ground layer carbon and nitrogen cycling and legume nitrogen inputs following fire in mixed pine forests. American Journal of Botany 93 (1): 84-93

ABSTRACT: Many mixed pine forests in the southeastern United States undergo prescribed burning to promote open pine savannas. In these systems, soil texture can influence fire's effect on vegetation and nutrient cycling. Our objectives were to examine fire and soil texture effects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools in ground layer vegetation. We measured biomass and tissue nutrient concentrations and estimated legume N inputs via N2 fixation in frequently burned sandy and clayey sites that were in the first and second seasons following a prescribed fire in 2002 (B02) or had been unburned since 2000 (B00). Mean belowground biomass was significantly greater on sandy than on clayey sites. Total aboveground mean biomass did not differ significantly between B00 and B02 sites, but grasses had greater aboveground biomass in clayey than in sandy sites. Carbon and N pools (measured in grams per square meter) in grasses were greater in clayey than in sandy sites, yet grasses had greater tissue concentrations of C (as a percentage) in sandy sites. Legumes showed significant interaction effects between soil texture and fire frequency for tissue C and N pools, above- and belowground biomass, and acetylene reduction activities. Results suggest that soil texture can influence fire effects on ground layer vegetation in southeastern mixed pine forests.

S. Lavorel, M. D. Flannigan, E. F. Lambin, M. C. Scholes (2007). Vulnerability of land systems to fire: Interactions among humans, climate, the atmosphere, and ecosystems. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12 (1): 33-53

ABSTRACT: Fires are critical elements in the Earth System, linking climate, humans, and vegetation. With 200–500 Mha burnt annually, fire disturbs a greater area over a wider variety of biomes than any other natural disturbance. Fire ignition, propagation, and impacts depend on the interactions among climate, vegetation structure, and land use on local to regional scales. Therefore, fires and their effects on terrestrial ecosystems are highly sensitive to global change. Fires can cause dramatic changes in the structure and functioning of ecosystems. They have significant impacts on the atmosphere and biogeochemical cycles. By contributing significantly to greenhouse gas (e.g., with the release of 1.7–4.1 Pg of carbon per year) and aerosol emissions, and modifying surface properties, they affect not only vegetation but also climate. Fires also modify the provision of a variety of ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, soil fertility, grazing value, biodiversity, and tourism, and can hence trigger land use change. Fires must therefore be included in global and regional assessments of vulnerability to global change. Fundamental understanding of vulnerability of land systems to fire is required to advise management and policy. Assessing regional vulnerabilities resulting from biophysical and human consequences of changed fire regimes under global change scenarios requires an integrated approach. Here we present a generic conceptual framework for such integrated, multidisciplinary studies. The framework is structured around three interacting (partially nested) subsystems whose contribute to vulnerability. The first subsystem describes the controls on fire regimes (exposure). A first feedback subsystem links fire regimes to atmospheric and climate dynamics within the Earth System (sensitivity), while the second feedback subsystem links changes in fire regimes to changes in the provision of ecological services and to their consequences for human systems (adaptability). We then briefly illustrate how the framework can be applied to two regional cases with contrasting ecological and human context: boreal forests of northern America and African savannahs.

Leduc, S. D., Rothstein, D. E. (2007). Initial recovery of soil carbon and nitrogen pools and dynamics following disturbance in jack pine forests: A comparison of wildfire and clearcut harvesting. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39 (11): 2865-2876

ABSTRACT: Forests naturally maintained by stand-replacing wildfires are often managed with clearcut harvesting, yet we know little about how replacing wildfire with clearcutting affects soil processes and properties. We compared the initial recovery of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and dynamics following disturbance in jack pine (Pinus banksiana ) stands in northern Lower Michigan, USA, by sampling soils (Oa+A horizons) from three “treatments”: 3–6-year-old harvest-regenerated stands, 3–6-year-old wildfire-regenerated stands and 40–55-year-old intact, mature stands (n=4 stands per treatment). We measured total C and N; microbial biomass and potentially mineralizable C and N; net nitrification; and gross rates of N mineralization and nitrification. Burned stands exhibited reduced soil N but not C, whereas clearcut and mature stands had similar quantities of soil organic matter. Both disturbance types reduced microbial biomass C compared to mature stands; however, microbial biomass N was reduced in burned stands but not in clearcut stands. The experimental C and N mineralization values were fit to a first-order rate equation to estimate potentially mineralizable pool size (C0 and N0 ) and rate parameters. Values for C0 in burned and clearcut stands were approximately half that of the mature treatment, with no difference between disturbance types. In contrast, N0 was lowest in the wildfire stands (170.2μg N g−1 ), intermediate in the clearcuts (215.4μg N g−1 ) and highest in the mature stands (244.6μg N g−1 ). The most pronounced difference between disturbance types was for net nitrification. These data were fit to a sigmoidal growth equation to estimate potential NO3 accumulation (Nitmax) and kinetic parameters. Values of Nitmax in clearcut soils exceeded that of wildfire and mature soils (149.2 vs. 83.5 vs. 96.5μg NO3 –N g−1 , respectively). Moreover, the clearcut treatment exhibited no lag period for net NO3 production, whereas the burned and mature treatments exhibited an approximate 8-week lag period before producing appreciable quantities of NO3 . There were no differences between disturbances in gross rates of mineralization or nitrification; rather, lower NO3 immobilization rates in the clearcut soils, 0.20μg NO3 g−1 d−1 compared to 0.65 in the burned soils, explained the difference in net nitrification. Because the mobility of NO3 and NH4 + differs markedly in soil, our results suggest that differences in nitrification between wildfire and clearcutting could have important consequences for plant nutrition and leaching losses following disturbance.

Manson, A.D., Jewitt, D., Short, A.D. (2007). Effects of season and frequency of burning on soils and landscape functioning in a moist montane grassland. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 24 (1): 9-18

ABSTRACT: The effects of burning on soil properties and landscape function were investigated in a long-term experiment comparing different burning strategies in a moist montane grassland. Total C, total N, total S, bulk density, plant-available nutrients, and soil acidity were determined in the top 200mm of soil, together with vegetation basal cover at the soil surface. The no-burn treatment had the lowest basal cover (14.8%). Basal cover for the burnt treatments ranged from 19.0% (five-year spring burn) to 25.4% (alternate autumn/spring, burnt every 18 months). The organic matter content of these soils was very high with total carbon ranging from 114g kg−1 in the 0-50mm layer to 77g kg−1 in the 150-200mm layer. Bulk density was very low, being 0.57g ml−1 in the 0-50mm layer. There were no significant effects of burning on the quantity of soil organic matter. The C:N ratio was significantly affected throughout the top 200mm by burning treatments; in the 0-50mm layer it ranged from 14.43 in the no-burn treatment to 16.14 in the treatment burnt every 18 months. Higher C:N ratios in frequently burnt treatments suggests that grassland productivity is N-limited in these treatments. In the top 50mm, soil pH is lower in treatments burnt infrequently (5 year and no burn) than in those burnt frequently, whereas concentrations of basic exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg) were lower in treatments burnt infrequently (five-year and no burn) than in those burnt frequently. The higher pH and concentrations of basic cations in frequently burnt treatments was probably due to greater cycling of nutrients to the soil surface as a result of higher productivity and deposition of nutrients in ash, together with reduced leaching of cations with nitrate. Landscape Function Analysis was used to measure the functioning of the landscape in terms of scarce resources and the processes that maintain these resources. All sites were highly functional, irrespective of the burning treatment applied. The infrequently burned sites had significantly higher nutrient cycling and infiltration indices than frequently burnt sites and these indices were correlated well with soil chemical properties (acidity, acid saturation, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, P and pH). No significant differences were found between treatments for the stability index.

McCarthy, D. R., Brown, K. J. (2006). Soil respiration responses to topography, canopy cover, and prescribed burning in an oak-hickory forest in southeastern Ohio. Forest Ecology and Management 237 (1-3): 94-102

ABSTRACT: Soil respiration (Rs ) is an important component of carbon loss from forest ecosystems. As forest management (e.g. prescribed burning) is becoming increasingly more common, it is important to understand the relationship between Rs and prescribed fire. Unfortunately, this relationship is still misunderstood due to the heterogeneity of physical and biological factors over the landscape and between ecosystems. To examine the effects of landscape position, canopy cover (CC), and prescribed burning on soil moisture, soil temperature, and Rs , while controlling for variation in soil properties, we utilized a randomized complete block (RCB) design with five treatments within each block. Each block consisted of five 2 m × 2 m treatment subplots: control, cool burn, hot burn, lime fertilization, and leaf litter removal. A total of 20 blocks were nested within a 2 × 2 factorial design with two effects, landscape position (upland or lowland) and canopy cover (100 or 60%). Rs , soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured monthly from June to November 2004. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant effects of treatment and time on Rs . However, Rs was not significantly affected by prescribed fire, landscape position, or canopy cover. Soil temperature and moisture were significantly affected by landscape position, canopy cover, and time. By eliminating within-site variability between control and prescribed burning treatments, Rs rates were found to be unchanged in burn plots during the growing season following the fire. These results highlight the importance of environmental variability in determining the effects of prescribed fire on Rs rates.

Murphy, J. D., Johnson, D. W., Miller, W. W., Walker, R. F., Blank, R. R. (2006). Prescribed fire effects on forest floor and soil nutrients in a Sierra Nevada forest. Soil Science 171 (3): 181-199

ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to quantify the effects of prescribed fire on forest floor C and nutrient content, soil chemical properties, and soil leaching in a Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi [Grev. and Balf.]) forest in the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The study included a prescribed fire and three timber harvest treatments: whole-tree (WT) thinning, cut-to-length (CTL) thinning, and no harvest (CONT). Prescribed fire resulted in significant decreases in forest floor C (-8 to -23 mg ha-1 , or 39% to 61% decrease), N (-114 to -252 kg ha-1 , or -31% to 51% decrease), S (0 to -15 kg ha-1 , or 0% to 48% decrease), and K (-3 to -45 kg ha-1 , or 12% to 51% decrease) contents but no significant change in Ca or Mg contents. In each case, the decreases were greatest in the CTL treatment, where slash accumulation before burning was greatest. Burning caused statistically significant effects on soil total nitrogen, C:N ratio, pH, water-extractable ortho-P, and water-extractable SO4 2- in some cases, but these effects were generally small, inconsistent among harvest treatments and horizons, and in the case of ortho-P much less than the temporal variation in both burned and unburned plots. There were no statistically significant effects of burning on total C, Bray-extractable P, bicarbonate-extractable P, and exchangeable Ca2+ , K+ , or Mg2+ . Burning had no significant effect on soil solution pH, ortho-P, SO4 2- , NO3 - , or NH4 + as measured by ceramic cup lysimeters and no effect on the cumulative leaching of ortho-P, NO3 - , or NH4 + as measured by resin lysimeters. Burning had no effect on needle weight or nutrient contents as measured by the vector analysis. We conclude that prescribed fire had minimal effects on soils or water quality at this site, and that the most ecologically significant effect was the loss of N from the forest floor.

Ojima, D. S., Schimel, D. S., Parton, W. J., Owensby, C. E. (1994). Long- and short-term effects of fire on nitrogen cycling in tallgrass prairie. Biogeochemistry 24 (2): 67-84

ABSTRACT: Fires in the tallgrass prairie are frequent and significantly alter nutrient cycling processes. We evaluated the short-term changes in plant production and microbial activity due to fire and the long-term consequences of annual burning on soil organic matter (SOM), plant production, and nutrient cycling using a combination of field, laboratory, and modeling studies. In the short-term, fire in the tallgrass prairie enhances microbial activity, increases both above-and belowground plant production, and increases nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, repeated annual burning results in greater inputs of lower quality plant residues causing a significant reduction in soil organic N, lower microbial biomass, lower N availability, and higher C:N ratios in SOM. Changes in amount and quality of below-ground inputs increased N immobilization and resulted in no net increases in N availability with burning. This response occurred rapidly (e.g., within two years) and persisted during 50 years of annual burning. Plant production at a long-term burned site was not adversely affected due to shifts in plant NUE and carbon allocation. Modeling results indicate that the tallgrass ecosystem responds to the combined changes in plant resource allocation and NUE. No single factor dominates the impact of fire on tallgrass plant production.

ONeill,Katherine, Richter,Daniel, Kasischke,Eric (2006). Succession-driven changes in soil respiration following fire in black spruce stands of interior Alaska. Biogeochemistry 80 (1): 1-20

ABSTRACT: This study examined the nitrogen (N) dynamics of a black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP)-dominated chronosequence in Manitoba, Canada. The seven sites studied each contained separate well- and poorly drained stands, originated from stand-killing wildfires, and were between 3 and 151 years old. Our goals were to (i) measure total N concentration ([N]) of all biomass components and major soil horizons; (ii) compare N content and select vegetation N cycle processes among the stands; and (iii) examine relationships between ecosystem C and N cycling for these stands. Vegetation [N] varied significantly by tissue type, species, soil drainage, and stand age; woody debris [N] increased with decay state and decreased with debris size. Soil [N] declined with horizon depth but did not vary with stand age. Total (live + dead) biomass N content ranged from 18.4 to 99.7 g N m−2 in the well-drained stands and 37.8–154.6 g N m−2 in the poorly drained stands. Mean soil N content (380.6 g N m−2 ) was unaffected by stand age. Annual vegetation N requirement (5.9 and 8.4 g N m−2 yr−1 in the middle-aged well- and poorly drained stands, respectively) was dominated by trees and fine roots in the well-drained stands, and bryophytes in the poorly drained stands. Fraction N retranslocated was significantly higher in deciduous than evergreen tree species, and in older than younger stands. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was significantly lower in bryophytes than in trees, and in deciduous than in evergreen trees. Tree NUE increased with stand age, but overall stand NUE was roughly constant (~150 g g−1 N) across the entire chronosequence.

Page-Dumroese, D. S, Jurgensen, M. F (2006). Soil carbon and nitrogen pools in mid- to late-successional forest stands of the northwestern United States: potential impact of fire. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36 (9): 2270-2284

ABSTRACT: When sampling woody residue (WR) and organic matter (OM) present in forest floor, soil wood, and surface mineral soil (0–30 cm) in 14 mid- to late-successional stands across a wide variety of soil types and climatic regimes in the northwestern USA, we found that 44%–84% of carbon (C) was in WR and surface OM, whereas >80% of nitrogen (N) was in the mineral soil. In many northwestern forests fire suppression and natural changes in stand composition have increased the amounts of WR and soil OM susceptible to wildfire losses. Stands with high OM concentrations on the soil surface are at greater risk of losing large amounts of C and N after high-severity surface fires. Using the USDA Forest Service Regional Soil Quality Standards and Guidelines, we estimate that 6%–80% of the pooled C to a mineral-soil depth of 30 cm could be lost during a fire considered detrimental to soil productivity. These estimates will vary with local climatic regimes, fire severity across the burned area, the size and decay class of WR, and the distribution of OM in the surface organic and mineral soil. Estimated N losses due to fire were much lower (<1%–19%). Further studies on the amounts and distribution of OM in these stands are needed to assess wildfire risk, determine the impacts of different fire severities on WR and soil OM pools, and develop a link between C and N losses and stand productivity.

Park, R. J., Jacob, D. J., Logan, J. A. (2007). Fire and biofuel contributions to annual mean aerosol mass concentrations in the United States. Atmospheric Environment 41 (35): 7389-7400

ABSTRACT: We estimate the contributions from biomass burning (summer wildfires, other fires, residential biofuel, and industrial biofuel) to seasonal and annual aerosol concentrations in the United States. Our approach is to use total carbonaceous (TC) and non-soil potassium (ns-K) aerosol mass concentrations for 2001–2004 from the nationwide IMPROVE network of surface sites, together with satellite fire data. We find that summer wildfires largely drive the observed interannual variability of TC aerosol concentrations in the United States. TC/ns-K mass enhancement ratios from fires range from 10 for grassland and shrub fires in the south to 130 for forest fires in the north. The resulting summer wildfire contributions to annual TC aerosol concentrations for 2001–2004 are 0.26μg C m−3 in the west and 0.14μg C m−3 in the east; Canadian fires are a major contributor in the east. Non-summer wildfires and prescribed burns contribute on an annual mean basis 0.27 and 0.31μg C m−3 in the west and the east, highest in the southeast because of prescribed burning. Residential biofuel is a large contributor in the northeast with annual mean concentration of up to 2.2μg C m−3 in Maine. Industrial biofuel (mainly paper and pulp mills) contributes up to 0.3μg C m−3 in the southeast. Total annual mean fine aerosol concentrations from biomass burning average 1.2 and 1.6μg m−3 in the west and east, respectively, contributing about 50% of observed annual mean TC concentrations in both regions and accounting for 30% (west) and 20% (east) of total observed fine aerosol concentrations. Our analysis supports bottom-up source estimates for the contiguous United States of 0.7–0.9 Tg C yr−1 from open fires (climatological) and 0.4 Tg C yr−1 from biofuel use. Biomass burning is thus an important contributor to US air quality degradation, which is likely to grow in the future.

Patra, P. K., Ishizawa, M., Maksyutov, S., Nakazawa, T., Inoue, G. (2005). Role of biomass burning and climate anomalies for land-atmosphere carbon fluxes based on inverse modeling of atmospheric CO2 . Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19 (3): doi:10.1029/2004GB002258

ABSTRACT: A Time-dependent inverse (TDI) model is used to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2 ) fluxes for 64 regions of the globe from atmospheric measurements in the period January 1994 to December 2001. The global land anomalies agree fairly well with earlier results. Large variability in CO2 fluxes are recorded from the land regions, which are typically controlled by the available water for photosynthesis, and air temperature and soil moisture dependent heterotrophic respiration. For example, the anomalous CO2 emissions during the 1997/1998 El Niño period are estimated to be about 1.27 ± 0.22, 2.06 ± 0.37, and 1.17 ± 0.20 Pg-C yr−1 from tropical regions in Asia, South America, and Africa, respectively. The CO2 flux anomalies for boreal Asia region are estimated to be 0.83 ± 0.19 and 0.45 ± 0.14 Pg-C yr−1 of CO2 during 1996 and 1998, respectively. Comparison of inversion results with biogeochemical model simulations provide strong evidence that biomass burning (natural and anthropogenic) constitutes the major component in land-atmosphere carbon flux anomalies. The net biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges based on the biogeochemical model used in this study are generally lower than those estimated from TDI model results, by about 1.0 Pg-C yr−1 for the periods and regions of intense fire. The correlation and principal component analyses suggest that changes in meteorology (i.e., rainfall and air temperature) associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation are the most dominant controlling factors of CO2 flux anomaly in the tropics, followed by the Indian Ocean Dipole Oscillation. Our results indicate that the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations are closely linked with CO2 flux variability in the temperate and high-latitude regions.

Rothstein, D. E., Yermakov, Z., Buell, A. L. (2004). Loss and recovery of ecosystem carbon pools following stand-replacing wildfire in Michigan jack pine forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34 (9): 1908-1918

ABSTRACT: We used a 72-year chronosequence to study the loss and recovery of ecosystem C pools following stand-replacing wildfire in Michigan, USA, jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forests. We quantified the amount of C stored in aboveground plant biomass, standing dead timber, downed dead wood, surface organic soil, and mineral soil in 11 jack pine stands that had burned between 1 and 72 years previously. Total ecosystem C ranged from a low of 59 Mg C·ha–1 in the 4-year-old stand to 110 Mg C·ha–1 in the 72-year-old stand. Changes in total ecosystem C across the chronosequence conformed to theoretical predictions, in which C stocks declined initially as decomposition of dead wood and forest-floor C exceeded production by regenerating vegetation, and then increased asymptotically with the development of a new stand of jack pine. This pattern was well described by the following "gamma" function: total ecosystem C (Mg·ha–1 ) = 112.2 – 39.6 × age0.351 × exp(–0.053 × age01.039 ); mean-corrected R2 = 0.976. Using the first derivative of this parameterized gamma function, we estimated that jack pine stands function as a weak source of C to the atmosphere for only ca. 6 years following wildfire, and reach a maximum net ecosystem productivity of 1.6 Mg C·ha–1 ·year–1 by year 16. We attribute the rapid transition from carbon source to carbon sink in these ecosystems to two factors: (i) stand-replacing wildfires in these xeric forests leave behind little respirable substrate in surface organic horizons, and (ii) jack pine is able to rapidly reestablish following wildfires via serotinous cones. Jack pine stands remained net sinks for C across the chronosequence; however, net ecosystem productivity had declined to 0.12 C ha–1 ·year–1 by year 72. Carbon sequestration by mature jack pine ecosystems was driven primarily by continued growth of overstory jack pine, not by accumulation of detrital C.

R.E.J. Boerner, J. Huang, S. C. Hart (2008). Fire, thinning, and the carbon economy: Effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments on estimated carbon storage and sequestration rate. Forest Ecology and Management 255 (8-9): 3081-3097

ABSTRACT: Changes in estimated standing stocks of carbon (C) in vegetation, forest floor, dead wood, and mineral soil for the fire and fire surrogate (FFS) network sites were evaluated in relation to the application of prescribed fire, mechanical treatments designed as surrogates for prescribed fire, and the combination of mechanical treatment and fire. Pre-treatment C stocks and changes in C stocks over two intervals (pre-treatment to first post-treatment year and first post-treatment to a 2nd, 3rd, or 4th post-treatment year, depending on site) were evaluated using meta-analytical methods. Total C storage across the network averaged 185 ± 8 (standard error) Mg C ha−1 , of which 45% was in vegetation, 38% in soil organic matter, 10% in the forest floor and 7% in dead wood. C stored in vegetation was not significantly affected by prescribed fire, but decreased ~30 Mg ha−1 as the result of mechanical or mechanical + fire treatment; in contrast, forest floor C storage was reduced by ~1–7 Mg ha−1 by fire or mechanical + fire treatment, but unaffected by mechanical treatment alone. Neither dead wood C nor soil organic C was significantly affected by the treatments. At the network scale, total ecosystem C was not significantly affected by fire, though four individual sites did exhibit significant C losses to fire. Mechanical treatment, with or without fire, produced significant reductions of 16–32 Mg ha−1 during the first post-treatment year, but this was partially balanced by enhanced net C uptake of ~12 Mg ha−1 during the subsequent 1–3 years. In terms of C storage and uptake, western coniferous forests responded differently to the FFS treatments than did eastern deciduous, coniferous, and mixed forests, suggesting that optimal management for fire, harvesting, and C sequestration may differ between regions.

B.T. Bormann, P. S. Homann, R. L. Darbyshire, B. A. Morrissette (2008). Intense forest wildfire sharply reduces mineral soil C and N: the first direct evidence. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38 (11): 2771-2783

ABSTRACT: Direct evidence of the effects of intense wildfire on forest soil is rare because reliable prefire data are lacking. By chance, an established large-scale experiment was partially burned in the 2002 Biscuit fire in southwestern Oregon. About 200 grid points were sampled across seven burned and seven unburned stands before and after the fire. Fire-related soil changes — including losses of soil organic and inorganic matter — were so large that they became complicated to measure. The 51 Mg·ha–1 of loose rocks on the soil surface after fire suggests erosion of 127 Mg·ha–1 of fine mineral soil, some of which likely left in the fire plume. After accounting for structural changes and erosion with a comparable-layers approach, combined losses from the O horizon and mineral soil totaled 23 Mg C·ha–1 and 690 kg N·ha–1 , of which 60% (C) and 57% (N) were lost from mineral horizons. Applying a fixed-depth calculation — commonly used in previous fire studies — that disregards structural changes and erosion led to underestimates of loss of nearly 50% for C and 25% for N. Although recent debate has centered on the effects of postwildfire forest management on wood, wildlife habitat, and fuels, this study indicates that more consideration should be given to the possible release of greenhouse gases and reduction of future forest productivity and CO2 uptake.

Fauria, M. M., Johnson, E. A. (2008). Climate and wildfires in the North American boreal forest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series B 363 (1501): 2317-2329

ABSTRACT: The area burned in the North American boreal forest is controlled by the frequency of midtropospheric blocking highs that cause rapid fuel drying. Climate controls the area burned through changing the dynamics of large-scale teleconnection patterns (Pacific Decadal Oscillation/El Niño Southern Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation, PDO/ENSO and AO) that control the frequency of blocking highs over the continent at different time scales. Changes in these teleconnections may be caused by the current global warming. Thus, an increase in temperature alone need not be associated with an increase in area burned in the North American boreal forest. Since the end of the Little Ice Age, the climate has been unusually moist and variable: large fire years have occurred in unusual years, fire frequency has decreased and fire–climate relationships have occurred at interannual to decadal time scales. Prolonged and severe droughts were common in the past and were partly associated with changes in the PDO/ENSO system. Under these conditions, large fire years become common, fire frequency increases and fire–climate relationships occur at decadal to centennial time scales. A suggested return to the drier climate regimes of the past would imply major changes in the temporal dynamics of fire–climate relationships and in area burned, a reduction in the mean age of the forest, and changes in species composition of the North American boreal forest.

M. D. Flannigan, B. J. Stocks, B. M. Wotton (2000). Climate change and forest fires. Science of The Total Environment 262 (3): 221-229

ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the impacts of climate change on forest fires and describes how this, in turn, will impact on the forests of the United States. In addition to reviewing existing studies on climate change and forest fires we have used two transient general circulation models (GCMs), namely the Hadley Centre and the Canadian GCMs, to estimate fire season severity in the middle of the next century. Ratios of 2×CO2 seasonal severity rating (SSR) over present day SSR were calculated for the means and maximums for North America. The results suggest that the SSR will increase by 10–50% over most of North America; although, there are regions of little change or where the SSR may decrease by the middle of the next century. Increased SSRs should translate into increased forest fire activity. Thus, forest fires could be viewed as an agent of change for US forests as the fire regime will respond rapidly to climate warming. This change in the fire regime has the potential to overshadow the direct effects of climate change on species distribution and migration.

Heyerdahl, E. K., Morgan, P., Riser, J. P., II. (2008). Multi-season climate synchronized historical fires in dry forests (1650-1900), Northern Rockies, USA. Ecology 89 (3): 705-716

ABSTRACT: Our objective was to infer the climate drivers of regionally synchronous fire years in dry forests of the U.S. northern Rockies in Idaho and western Montana. During our analysis period (1650–1900), we reconstructed fires from 9245 fire scars on 576 trees (mostly ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) at 21 sites and compared them to existing tree-ring reconstructions of climate (temperature and the Palmer Drought Severity Index [PDSI]) and large-scale climate patterns that affect modern spring climate in this region (El Niño–Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO]). We identified 32 regional-fire years as those with five or more sites with fire. Fires were remarkably widespread during such years, including one year (1748) in which fires were recorded at 10 sites across what are today seven national forests plus one site on state land. During regional-fire years, spring–summers were significantly warm and summers were significantly warm-dry whereas the opposite conditions prevailed during the 99 years when no fires were recorded at any of our sites (no-fire years). Climate in prior years was not significantly associated with regional- or no-fire years. Years when fire was recorded at only a few of our sites occurred under a broad range of climate conditions, highlighting the fact that the regional climate drivers of fire are most evident when fires are synchronized across a large area. No-fire years tended to occur during La Niña years, which tend to have anomalously deep snowpacks in this region. However, ENSO was not a significant driver of regional-fire years, consistent with the greater influence of La Niña than El Niño conditions on the spring climate of this region. PDO was not a significant driver of past fire, despite being a strong driver of modern spring climate and modern regional-fire years in the northern Rockies.

M. D. Hurteau, G. W. Koch, B. A. Hungate (2008). Carbon protection and fire risk reduction: toward a full accounting of forest carbon offsets. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 6 (9): 493-498

ABSTRACT: Management of forests for carbon uptake is an important tool in the effort to slow the increase in atmospheric CO2 and global warming. However, some current policies governing forest carbon credits actually promote avoidable CO2 release and punish actions that would increase long-term carbon storage. In fire-prone forests, management that reduces the risk of catastrophic carbon release resulting from stand-replacing wild-fire is considered to be a CO2 source, according to current accounting practices, even though such management may actually increase long-term carbon storage. Examining four of the largest wildfires in the US in 2002, we found that, for forest land that experienced catastrophic stand-replacing fire, prior thinning would have reduced CO2 release from live tree biomass by as much as 98%. Altering carbon accounting practices for forests that have historically experienced frequent, low-severity fire could provide an incentive for forest managers to reduce the risk of catastrophic fire and associated large carbon release events.

W. A. Kurz, G. Stinson, G. J. Rampley, C. C. Dymond, E. T. Neilson (2008). Risk of natural disturbances makes future contribution of Canada's forests to the global carbon cycle highly uncertain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (5): 1551-1555

ABSTRACT: A large carbon sink in northern land surfaces inferred from global carbon cycle inversion models led to concerns during Kyoto Protocol negotiations that countries might be able to avoid efforts to reduce fossil fuel emissions by claiming large sinks in their managed forests. The greenhouse gas balance of Canada's managed forest is strongly affected by naturally occurring fire with high interannual variability in the area burned and by cyclical insect outbreaks. Taking these stochastic future disturbances into account, we used the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) to project that the managed forests of Canada could be a source of between 30 and 245 Mt CO2 e yr−1 during the first Kyoto Protocol commitment period (2008–2012). The recent transition from sink to source is the result of large insect outbreaks. The wide range in the predicted greenhouse gas balance (215 Mt CO2 e yr−1 ) is equivalent to nearly 30% of Canada's emissions in 2005. The increasing impact of natural disturbances, the two major insect outbreaks, and the Kyoto Protocol accounting rules all contributed to Canada's decision not to elect forest management. In Canada, future efforts to influence the carbon balance through forest management could be overwhelmed by natural disturbances. Similar circumstances may arise elsewhere if global change increases natural disturbance rates. Future climate mitigation agreements that do not account for and protect against the impacts of natural disturbances, for example, by accounting for forest management benefits relative to baselines, will fail to encourage changes in forest management aimed at mitigating climate change.

R. A. Sedjo (1991). Climate, forests, and fire: A North American perspective. Environment International 17 (2-3): 163-168

ABSTRACT: The earth's climate may currently be undergoing a warming in response to the well documented accumulation of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Changes in forestland areas and biomass are playing a role in the accumulation. This paper reviews and offers some observations on estimates of the role of forests in the carbon cycle. The temperate forests are roughly in carbon balance, with biomass growth equaling or exceeding losses. The tropical forests, by contrast, are a carbon source with forest area declining due primarily to land-use changes. A number of carbon-sequestering sources, such as wood construction and landfills, may be sequestering more carbon than is commonly assumed. Climate change can also affect forests. A number of mechanisms that influence forest growth and composition are discussed. In the absence of increased precipitation and/or a CO2 “fertilization” effect, warming is likely to diminish forest area and biomass. Forest burning is part of the natural cycle. During a burn, carbon is released through the post-burning period and typically involves carbon sequestering as the result of regeneration and vigorous growth. In an undisturbed natural system, a steady-state level of global forest biomass would be reached. Anthropogenic factors can upset the natural steady state. In a period of rapid climate transition, such as might accompany a global warming, forests are likely to lose vigor and thus be particularly susceptible to wildfire.

D. Tilman, P. Reich, H. Phillips, M. Menton, A. Patel, E. Vos, D. Peterson, J. Knops (2000). Fire suppression and ecosystem carbon storage. Ecology 81 (10): 2680-2685

ABSTRACT: A 35-year controlled burning experiment in Minnesota oak savanna showed that fire frequency had a great impact on ecosystem carbon (C) stores. Specifically, compared to the historical fire regime, fire suppression led to an average of 1.8 Mg·ha−1 ·yr−1 of C storage, with most carbon stored in woody biomass. Forest floor carbon stores were also significantly impacted by fire frequency, but there were no detectable effects of fire suppression on carbon in soil and fine roots combined, or in woody debris. Total ecosystem C stores averaged 110 Mg/ha in stands experiencing presettlement fire frequencies, but 220 Mg/ha in stands experiencing fire suppression. If comparable rates of C storage were to occur in other ecosystems in response to the current extent of fire suppression in the United States, fire suppression in the USA might account for 8–20% of missing global carbon.

M.S. Balshi, A.D. McGuire, P. Duffy, M. Flannigan, D.W. Licklighter, J. Melillo (2009). Vulnerability of carbon storage in North American boreal forests to wildfires during the 21st century. Global Change Biology 15 (6): 1491-1510

ABSTRACT: The boreal forest contains large reserves of carbon. Across this region, wildfires influence the temporal and spatial dynamics of carbon storage. In this study, we estimate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage for boreal North America over the 21st century. We use a gridded data set developed with a multivariate adaptive regression spline approach to determine how area burned varies each year with changing climatic and fuel moisture conditions. We apply the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to evaluate the role of future fire on the carbon dynamics of boreal North America in the context of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration and climate in the A2 and B2 emissions scenarios of the CGCM2 global climate model. Relative to the last decade of the 20th century, decadal total carbon emissions from fire increase by 2.5–4.4 times by 2091–2100, depending on the climate scenario and assumptions about CO2 fertilization. Larger fire emissions occur with warmer climates or if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur. Despite the increases in fire emissions, our simulations indicate that boreal North America will be a carbon sink over the 21st century if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur in the future. In contrast, simulations excluding CO2 fertilization over the same period indicate that the region will change to a carbon source to the atmosphere, with the source being 2.1 times greater under the warmer A2 scenario than the B2 scenario. To improve estimates of wildfire on terrestrial carbon dynamics in boreal North America, future studies should incorporate the role of dynamic vegetation to represent more accurately post-fire successional processes, incorporate fire severity parameters that change in time and space, account for human influences through increased fire suppression, and integrate the role of other disturbances and their interactions with future fire regime.

R. F. Noss, J. F. Franklin, W. L. Baker, T. Schoennagel, P. B. Moyle (2006). Managing fire-prone forests in the western United States. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4 (9): 481-487

ABSTRACT: The management of fire-prone forests is one of the most controversial natural resource issues in the US today, particularly in the west of the country. Although vegetation and wildlife in these forests are adapted to fire, the historical range of fire frequency and severity was huge. When fire regimes are altered by human activity, major effects on biodiversity and ecosystem function are unavoidable. We review the ecological science relevant to developing and implementing fire and fuel management policies for forests before, during, and after wildfires. Fire exclusion led to major deviations from historical variability in many dry, low-elevation forests, but not in other forests, such as those characterized by high severity fires recurring at intervals longer than the period of active fire exclusion. Restoration and management of fire-prone forests should be precautionary, allow or mimic natural fire regimes as much as possible, and generally avoid intensive practices such as post-fire logging and planting.

D. V. Spracklen, L. J. Mickley, J. A. Logan, R. C. Hudman, R. Yevich, M. D. Flannigan, A. L. Westerling (2009). Impacts of climate change from 2000 to 2050 on wildfire activity and carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in the western United States. Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (D20301): doi:10.1029/2008JD010966

ABSTRACT: We investigate the impact of climate change on wildfire activity and carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in the western United States. We regress observed area burned onto observed meteorological fields and fire indices from the Canadian Fire Weather Index system and find that May–October mean temperature and fuel moisture explain 24–57% of the variance in annual area burned in this region. Applying meteorological fields calculated by a general circulation model (GCM) to our regression model, we show that increases in temperature cause annual mean area burned in the western United States to increase by 54% by the 2050s relative to the present day. Changes in area burned are ecosystem dependent, with the forests of the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains experiencing the greatest increases of 78 and 175%, respectively. Increased area burned results in near doubling of wildfire carbonaceous aerosol emissions by midcentury. Using a chemical transport model driven by meteorology from the same GCM, we calculate that climate change will increase summertime organic carbon (OC) aerosol concentrations over the western United States by 40% and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations by 20% from 2000 to 2050. Most of this increase (75% for OC and 95% for EC) is caused by larger wildfire emissions with the rest caused by changes in meteorology and for OC by increased monoterpene emissions in a warmer climate. Such an increase in carbonaceous aerosol would have important consequences for western U.S. air quality and visibility.

D. C. Odion, C. T. Hanson (2008). Fire severity in the Sierra Nevada revisited: conclusions robust to further analysis. Ecosystems 11 (1): 12-15

ABSTRACT: In our previous article (Odion and Hanson, Ecosystems 9:1177–89, 2006), we reported that fire severity in the conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, contrary to prevailing assumptions, did not burn with predominately stand-replacing, high severity fire. The reply by Safford and others (Ecosystems, this issue) using a new mapping approach also found this pattern. Their methods identify more high severity fire; however, as we illustrate here, this may be attributed to the different mapping approaches used. We previously also found that condition class based upon fire return interval departure (FRID) was not an effective predictor of fire severity. Safford and others (this issue) concluded that there was a strong correlation between FRID-based condition class and fire severity based upon data from the McNally fire of 2002. The difference between these findings about McNally fire reflects the fact that they combined FRID categories whereas we kept the categories separate. Here, using their fire severity data to evaluate all three fires, we found that severity was not predicted by FRID. Developing a consensus definition of fire severity within the scientific community might help alleviate future contradictions regarding fire effects.

T. Schoennagel, E. A. H. Smithwick, M. G. Turner (2008). Landscape heterogeneity following large fires: insights from Yellowstone National Park, USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17 (6): 742

ABSTRACT: We characterised the remarkable heterogeneity following the large, severe fires of 1988 in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), in the northern Rocky Mountains, Wyoming, USA, by focussing on spatial variation in post-fire structure, composition and ecosystem function at broad, meso, and fine scales. Ecological heterogeneity at multiple scales may enhance resilience to large, severe disturbances by providing structural, biological and functional redundancy. Post-fire heterogeneity in stand age, coarse wood abundance, microbial and understorey communities reflected interactions between existing pre-fire patterns and fire severity at different scales, suggesting that environmental context plays an important role in successional responses to large fires. In response to these post-fire patterns, heterogeneity in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage, N mineralisation, decomposition, and productivity was also evident at multiple scales and may confer resiliency to large fires. For example, at broad scales, C storage in YNP appears resistant to changes in age-class structure associated with large stand-replacing fires. In summary, the YNP landscape is recovering rapidly from the 1988 fires through natural mechanisms, owing to the abundance and spatial heterogeneity of post-fire residuals, but other systems with fewer biotic legacies may be less resilient to such large, severe fires.

M. Hurteau, M. North (2009). Fuel treatment effects on tree-based forest carbon storage and emissions under modeled wildfire scenarios. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7 (8): 409-414

ABSTRACT: Forests are viewed as a potential sink for carbon (C) that might otherwise contribute to climate change. It is unclear, however, how to manage forests with frequent fire regimes to maximize C storage while reducing C emissions from prescribed burns or wildfire. We modeled the effects of eight different fuel treatments on tree-based C storage and release over a century, with and without wildfire. Model runs show that, after a century of growth without wildfire, the control stored the most C. However, when wildfire was included in the model, the control had the largest total C emission and largest reduction in live-tree-based C stocks. In model runs including wildfire, the final amount of tree-based C sequestered was most affected by the stand structure initially produced by the different fuel treatments. In wildfire-prone forests, tree-based C stocks were best protected by fuel treatments that produced a low-density stand structure dominated by large, fire-resistant pines.

S. C. Hart, T. H. DeLuca, G. S. Newman, M. D. MacKenzie, S. I. Boyle (2005). Post-fire vegetative dynamics as drivers of microbial community structure and function in forest soils. Forest Ecology and Management 220 (1-3): 166-184

ABSTRACT: Soil microorganisms have numerous functional roles in forest ecosystems, including: serving as sources and sinks of key nutrients and catalysts of nutrient transformations; acting as engineers and maintainers of soil structure; and forming mutualistic relationships with roots that improve plant fitness. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in temperate forests of North America, few studies have addressed the long-term influence of such disturbances on the soil microflora in these ecosystems. Fire alters the soil microbial community structure in the short-term primarily through heat-induced microbial mortality. Over the long-term, fire may modify soil communities by altering plant community composition via plant-induced changes in the soil environment. In this review, we summarize and synthesize the various studies that have assessed the effects of fire on forest soil microorganisms, emphasizing the mechanisms by which fire impacts these vital ecosystem engineers. The examples used in this paper are derived primarily from studies of ponderosa pine-dominated forests of the Inland West of the USA; these forests have some of the shortest historical fire-return intervals of any forest type, and thus the evolutionary role of fire in shaping these forests is likely the strongest. We argue that the short-term effects of fire on soil microflora and the processes they catalyze are transient, and suggest that more research be devoted to linking long-term plant community responses with those of the mutually dependent soil microflora.

Meigs, G. W. (2009). Forest fire Impacts on carbon uptake, storage, and emission: the role of burn severity in the eastern Cascades, Oregon. Ecosystems Online First

ABSTRACT: This study quantifies the short-term effects of low-, moderate-, and high-severity fire on carbon pools and fluxes in the Eastern Cascades of Oregon. We surveyed 64 forest stands across four fires that burned 41,000 ha (35%) of the Metolius Watershed in 2002 and 2003, stratifying the landscape by burn severity (overstory tree mortality), forest type (ponderosa pine [PP] and mixed-conifer [MC]), and prefire biomass. Stand-scale C combustion ranged from 13 to 35% of prefire aboveground C pools (area − weighted mean = 22%). Across the sampled landscape, total estimated pyrogenic C emissions were equivalent to 2.5% of statewide anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes for the same 2-year period. From low- to moderate- to high-severity ponderosa pine stands, average tree basal area mortality was 14, 49, and 100%, with parallel patterns in mixed-conifer stands (29, 58, 96%). Despite this decline in live aboveground C, total net primary productivity (NPP) was only 40% lower in high- versus low-severity stands, suggesting strong compensatory effects of non-tree vegetation on C uptake. Dead wood respiratory losses were small relative to total NPP (range: 10–35%), reflecting decomposition lags in this seasonally arid system. Although soil C, soil respiration, and fine root NPP were conserved across severity classes, net ecosystem production (NEP) declined with increasing severity, driven by trends in aboveground NPP. The high variability of C responses across this study underscores the need to account for landscape patterns of burn severity, particularly in regions such as the Pacific Northwest, where non-stand-replacement fire represents a large proportion of annual burned area.

Kashian, D.M., W.H. Romme, D.B. Tinker, M.G. Turner, M.G. Ryan (2006). Carbon storage on landscapes with stand-replacing fires. BioScience 56 (7): 598-606

ABSTRACT: Many conifer forests experience stand-replacing wildfires, and these fires and subsequent recovery can change the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere because conifer forests contain large carbon stores. Stand-replacing fires switch ecosystems to being a net source of carbon as decomposition exceeds photosynthesis—a short-term effect (years to decades) that may be important over the next century if fire frequency increases. Over the long term (many centuries), net carbon storage through a fire cycle is zero if stands replace themselves. Therefore, equilibrium response of landscape carbon storage to changes in fire frequency will depend on how stand age distribution changes, on the carbon storage of different stand ages, and on postfire regeneration. In a case study of Yellowstone National Park, equilibrium values of landscape carbon storage were resistant to large changes in fire frequency because these forests regenerate quickly, the current fire interval is very long, the most rapid changes in carbon storage occur in the first century, and carbon storage is similar for stands of different ages. The conversion of forest to meadow or to sparser forest can have a large impact on landscape carbon storage, and this process is likely to be important for many conifer forests.

C. M. Girod, G. C. Hurtt, S. Frolking, J. D. Aber, A. W. King (2007). The tension between fire risk and carbon storage: evaluating U.S. carbon and fire management strategies through ecosystem models. Earth Interactions 11 (2): 1-33

ABSTRACT: Fire risk and carbon storage are related environmental issues because fire reduction results in carbon storage through the buildup of woody vegetation, and stored carbon is a fuel for fires. The sustainability of the U.S. carbon sink and the extent of fire activity in the next 100 yr depend in part on the type and effectiveness of fire reduction employed. Previous studies have bracketed the range of dynamics from continued fire reduction to the complete failure of fire reduction activities. To improve these estimates, it is necessary to explicitly account for fire reduction in terrestrial models. A new fire reduction submodel that estimates the spatiotemporal pattern of reduction across the United States was developed using gridded data on biomass, climate, land-use, population, and economic factors. To the authors’ knowledge, it is the first large-scale, gridded fire model that explicitly accounts for fire reduction. The model was calibrated to 1° × 1° burned area statistics [Global Burnt Area 2000 Project (GBA-2000)] and compared favorably to three important diagnostics. The model was then implemented in a spatially explicit ecosystem model and used to analyze 1620 scenarios of future fire risk and fire reduction strategies. Under scenarios of climate change and urbanization, burned area and carbon emissions both increased in scenarios where fire reduction efforts were not adjusted to match new patterns of fire risk. Fuel reducing management strategies reduced burned area and fire risk, but also limited carbon storage. These results suggest that to promote carbon storage and minimize fire risk in the future, fire reduction efforts will need to be increased and spatially adjusted and will need to employ a mixture of fuel-reducing and non-fuel-reducing strategies.

Baird, M., D. Zabowski, R. L. Everett (1999). Wildfire effects on carbon and nitrogen in inland coniferous forests. Plant And SoilPlant Soil 209 (2): 233-243

ABSTRACT: A ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest (Pinus ponderosa Dougl., Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco; PP/DF) and a lodgepole pine/Engelmann spruce forest (Pinus contorta Loud., Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.; LP/ES) located on the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains in Washington state, USA, were examined following severe wildfire to compare total soil carbon and nitrogen capitals with unburned (control) forests. One year after fire, the average C content (60 cm depth) of PP/DF and LP/ES soil was 30% (25 Mg ha-1 ) and 10% (7 Mg ha-1 ) lower than control soil. Average N content on the burned PP/DF and LP/ES plots was 46% (3.0 Mg ha-1 ) and 13% (0.4 Mg ha-1 ) lower than control soil. The reduction in C and N in the PP/DF soil was largely the result of lower nutrient capitals in the burned Bw horizons (12–60 cm depth) relative to control plots. It is unlikely that the 1994 fire substantially affected nutrient capitals in the Bw horizons; however, natural variability or past fire history could be responsible for the varied nutrient capitals observed in the subsurface soils. Surface erosion (sheet plus rill) removed between 15 and 18 Mg ha-1 of soil from the burned plots. Nutrient losses through surface erosion were 280 kg C ha-1 and 14 kg N ha-1 in the PP/DF, whereas LP/ES losses were 640 and 22 kg ha-1 for C and N, respectively. In both forests, surface erosion of C and N was ~1% to 2% of the A-horizon capital of these elements in unburned soil. A bioassay (with lettuce as an indicator plant) was used to compare soils from low-, moderate- and high-severity burn areas relative to control soil. In both forests, low-severity fire increased lettuce yield by 70–100% of controls. With more severe fire, yield decreased in the LP/ES relative to the low-intensity burn soil; however, only in the high-severity treatment was yield reduced (14%) from the control. Moderate- and high-severity burn areas in the PP/DF were fertilized with ~56 kg ha-1 of N four months prior to soil sampling. In these soils, yield was 70–80% greater than the control. These results suggest that short-term site productivity can be stimulated by low-severity fire, but unaffected or reduced by more severe fire in the types of forests studied. Post-fire fertilization with N could increase soil productivity where other environmental factors do not limit growth.

C. Wiedinmyer, J. C Neff, 2007, 2:10 (1 November 2007) (2007). Estimates of CO2 from fires in the United States: implications for carbon management. Carbon Balance and Management 2 (10): 12 p.

ABSTRACT:Fires emit significant amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere. These emissions, however, are highly variable in both space and time. Additionally, CO2 emissions estimates from fires are very uncertain. The combination of high spatial and temporal variability and substantial uncertainty associated with fire CO2 emissions can be problematic to efforts to develop remote sensing, monitoring, and inverse modeling techniques to quantify carbon fluxes at the continental scale. Policy and carbon management decisions based on atmospheric sampling/modeling techniques must account for the impact of fire CO2 emissions; a task that may prove very difficult for the foreseeable future. This paper addresses the variability of CO2 emissions from fires across the US, how these emissions compare to anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and Net Primary Productivity, and the potential implications for monitoring programs and policy development.Average annual CO2 emissions from fires in the lower 48 (LOWER48) states from 2002–2006 are estimated to be 213 (± 50 std. dev.) Tg CO2 yr-1 and 80 (± 89 std. dev.) Tg CO2 yr-1 in Alaska. These estimates have significant interannual and spatial variability. Needleleaf forests in the Southeastern US and the Western US are the dominant source regions for US fire CO2 emissions. Very high emission years typically coincide with droughts, and climatic variability is a major driver of the high interannual and spatial variation in fire emissions. The amount of CO2 emitted from fires in the US is equivalent to 4–6% of anthropogenic emissions at the continental scale and, at the state-level, fire emissions of CO2 can, in some cases, exceed annual emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel usage.The CO2 released from fires, overall, is a small fraction of the estimated average annual Net Primary Productivity and, unlike fossil fuel CO2 emissions, the pulsed emissions of CO2 during fires are partially counterbalanced by uptake of CO2 by regrowing vegetation in the decades following fire. Changes in fire severity and frequency can, however, lead to net changes in atmospheric CO2 and the short-term impacts of fire emissions on monitoring, modeling, and carbon management policy are substantial.

Mkhabela, M. S., Amiro, B. D., Barr, A. G., Black, T. A., Hawthorne, I., Kidston, J., McCaughey, J. H., Orchansky, A. L., Nesic, Z.; Sass, A., Shashkov, A., Zha, T. (2009). Comparison of carbon dynamics and water use efficiency following fire and harvesting in Canadian boreal forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149 (5): 783-794

ABSTRACT; Fire and harvesting are major forest renewal processes in the Canadian boreal forest. The eddy covariance method was used to compare ecosystem fluxes of carbon dioxide between harvested and burned boreal forest sites in Saskatchewan, Canada. The harvest chronosequence had sites harvested in 2002 (HJP02), 1994 (HJP94) and 1975 (HJP75), whereas the fire chronosequence sites were burned in 1998 (F98), 1989 (F89), 1977 (F77) and 1929 (OJP). All sites were dominated by jack pine prior to the disturbance. During 2004 and 2005, net ecosystem production showed an average carbon gain (g C m−2 year−1 ) at F89 = 84, HJP75 = 80, HJP94 = 14 and OJP = 20. The other sites lost carbon (g C m−2 year−1 ) at HJP02 = −139, F98 = −20, and F77 = −58. Gross ecosystem production (GEP), ecosystem respiration (Re ) and evapotranspiration tended to be greater at the burned sites than the harvested sites. The F89 and F77 sites had the strongest response of GEP to photosynthetically active radiation, and the strongest response of Re to soil temperature at the 2-cm depth. HJP02 had the weakest responses, followed by HJP94. This apparent greater ecosystem activity at the burned sites is likely caused by local differences in soil moisture and nutrients, differences in vegetation development, and differences in the decomposition of coarse woody debris.

Balshi, M. S., McGuire, A. D., Duffy, P., Flannigan, M., Walsh, J., Melillo, J. (2009). Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach. Global Change Biology 15 (3): 578-600

ABSTRACT: Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will area burned in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5° (latitude × longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. Burned area was also not very predictable in areas of substantial topographic relief and in areas along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual area burned for the period 1960–2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual area burned. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual area burned through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991–2000, the results suggest that average area burned per decade will double by 2041–2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5–5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional vegetation changes on area burned to account more fully for interactions among fire, climate, and vegetation dynamics.

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