Climate Change and...

Annotated Bibliography

Carbon Dynamics

Wetlands

Aerts, R., de Caluwe, H. (1999). Nitrogen deposition effects on carbon dioxide and methane emissions from temperate peatland soils. Oikos 84 (1): 44-54

ABSTRACT: Northern peatlands are important sources of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased atmospheric N deposition may have a significant impact on the emission of these greenhouse gases. We studied CO2 and CH4 emissions from untreated temperate peat soils from a eutrophic and a mesotrophic fen in a high N deposition area (the Netherlands) and from a mesotrophic fen in a low N deposition area (north-east Poland). In addition, we investigated the effects of N, P and glucose amendments on the emissions of CO2 and CH4 from these soils. Nitrogen availability (extractable NH4 + in untreated peat from the high N area was 2.5-7.5 times higher than in the low N area, whereas the pH was 0.9-1.7 units lower. Using 6-week laboratory incubations of peat columns, we found that mean daily CO2 emission from untreated peat soils from the high N area was lower than that from the low N area. Both linear and multiple regression analysis showed that CO2 emission was positively related to soil pH (r2 =0.64). Additional N supply led to pH reduction and to lower CO2 emission, especially in the low N peat soils. Thus, increased atmospheric N deposition leads, probably as a result of soil acidification, to lower CO2 emission. Although glucose amendments resulted in increased CO2 and CH4 emission, we did not find evidence that this was caused by increased mineralization of native peat. Mean daily CH4 - C emission was about 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than mean daily CO2 - C emission. In the untreated peat soils from the high N eutrophic site, methane emission was higher than in the high N mesotrophic site and in the low N mesotrophic site. Linear regression analysis showed a positive relation between methane emission and soil fertility variables (r2 =0.42-0.55), whereas a multiple regression model revealed that methane emission was determined by N-related soil chemistry variables (r2 =0.93). Increased nutrient supply initially resulted in higher methane emission from soils of both mesotrophic sites, but there was no effect on the high N eutrophic soil. These results show that increased atmospheric N deposition leads to increased methane emission from low-fertility peat soils. However, the ultimate effect of atmospheric N deposition on trace gas emissions and thereby on global warming is determined by the balance between the ratios of the change in CO2 - C emission and CH4 - C emission and the ratio of their global warming potentials (1:21).

Aerts, R., Logtestijn, R., Karlsson, P. (2005). Nitrogen supply differentially affects litter decomposition rates and nitrogen dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.. Oecologia 146 (4): 652-658

ABSTRACT: High-latitude peatlands are important soil carbon sinks. In these ecosystems, the mineralization of carbon and nitrogen are constrained by low temperatures and low nutrient concentrations in plant litter and soil organic matter. Global warming is predicted to increase soil N availability for plants at high-latitude sites. We applied N fertilizer as an experimental analogue for this increase. In a three-year field experiment we studied N fertilization effects on leaf litter decomposition and N dynamics of the four dominant plant species (comprising >75% of total aboveground biomass) in a sub-arctic bog in northern Sweden. The species wereEmpetrum nigrum (evergreen shrub),Eriophorum vaginatum (graminoid),Betula nana (deciduous shrub) andRubus chamaemorus (perennial forb). In the controls, litter mass loss rates increased in the order:Empetrum <Eriophorum <Betula <Rubus . Increased N availability had variable, species-specific effects: litter mass loss rates (expressed per unit litter mass) increased inEmpetrum , did not change inEriophorum andBetula and decreased inRubus . In the leaf litter from the controls, we measured no or only slight net N mineralization even after three years. In the N-fertilized treatments we found strong net N immobilization, especially inEriophorum andBetula . This suggests that, probably owing to substantial chemical and/or microbial immobilization, additional N supply does not increase the rate of N cycling for at least the first three years.

Anisimov, O. A. (2007). Potential feedback of thawing permafrost to the global climate system through methane emission. Environmental Research Letters 2 (4): 7 p.

ABSTRACT: Large amounts of soil carbon deposited in permafrost may be released due to deeper seasonal thawing under the climatic conditions projected for the future. An increase in the volume of the available organic material together with the higher ground temperatures may lead to enhanced emission of greenhouse gasses. Particular concerns are associated with methane, which has a much stronger greenhouse effect than an equal amount of CO2 . Production of methane is favored in the wetlands, which occupy up to 0.7 million km2 in Russian permafrost regions and have accumulated about 50 Gt of carbon (Gt C). We used the permafrost model and several climatic scenarios to construct projections of the soil temperature and the depth of seasonal thawing. To evaluate the effect of such changes on the volume of the seasonally thawing organic material, we overlaid the permafrost projections on the digitized geographically referenced contours of 59 846 wetlands in the Russian Arctic. Results for the mid-21st century climate indicated up to 50% increase in the volume of organic substrate in the northernmost locations along the Arctic coast and in East Siberia, where wetlands are sparse, and a relatively small increase by 10%–15% in West Siberia, where wetlands occupy 50%–80% of the land. We developed a soil carbon model and used it to estimate the changes in the methane fluxes due to higher soil temperature and increased substrate availability. According to our results, by mid-21st century the annual net flux of methane from Russian permafrost regions may increase by 6–8 Mt, depending on climatic scenario. If other sinks and sources of methane remain unchanged, this may increase the overall content of methane in the atmosphere by approximately 100 Mt, or 0.04 ppm, and lead to 0.012 °C global temperature rise.

Armentano, T.V., Menges, E.S. (1986). Patterns of changes in the carbon balance of organic soil-wetlands of the temperate zone. Journal of Ecology 74 (3): p.755-774

ABSTRACT: (1) Organic soil-wetlands, particularly those in the temperate zone, under natural conditions, are net carbon sinks and hence are important links in the global cycling of carbon dioxide and other atmospheric gases. Human alteration of wetlands has brought about shifts in the balance of carbon movement between the wetlands and the atmosphere. Because previous analyses have not fully considered these shifts, disturbance of carbon storage in organic soil-wetlands of the temperate zone has been analysed for the last two centuries and considered in relation to other sources of atmospheric CO2 from the biosphere. (2) Storage before recent disturbance is estimated as 57 to 83 Mt of carbon per year, over two-thirds of this in boreal peatlands. The total storage rate, lower than previous estimates, reflects accumulation rates of carbon of only 0.20 t ha-1 yr-1 and less in the boreal zone where 90% of temperate organic soils are found. (3) Widespread drainage of organic soil-wetlands for agriculture has significantly altered the carbon balance. A computer model was used to track the consequent changes in the carbon balance of nine wetland regions. Drainage reduced or eliminated net carbon sinks, converting some wetlands into net carbon sources. Different regions thus can function as smaller carbon sinks, or as sources, depending on the extent of drainage. In either case a shift in carbon balance can be quantified. (4) The net carbon sink in Finland and the U.S.S.R. has been reduced by 21-33%, in Western European wetlands by nearly 50%, and in Central Europe the sink has been completely lost. Overall, by 1900 the temperate zone sink was reduced 28-38% by agricultural drainage alone. (5) By 1980 the total annual shift in carbon balance attributable to agricultural drainage was 63-85 Mt of carbon, 38% in Finland and U.S.S.R. wetlands, and 37% in Europe. Twenty-five percent of the shift occurred in North American wetlands south of the boreal zone. No apparent change occurred in boreal Canada and Alaskan wetlands. (6) Peat combustion for fuel released 32-39 Mt of carbon annually, nearly all in the U.S.S.R. A total of 590-700 Mt of carbon has been released from peat combustion since 1795, compared with a release of 4140-5600 Mt from agricultural drainage. (7) The aggregate shift in the carbon balance of temperate zone wetlands, when added to a far smaller shift from tropical wetlands, equalled 150-185 Mt of carbon in 1980 and 5711-6480 Mt since 1795. Despite occupying an area equivalent to only 2% of the world's tropical forest, the wetlands have experienced an annual shift in carbon balance 15-18% as great. Wetlands thus are seen on an area-specific basis to be concentrated sources of atmospheric CO2 which respond differently from those ecosystems assumed to have no net carbon exchange before disturbance.

Basiliko, N., Blodau, C., Roehm, C., Bengtson, P., Moore, T. (2007). Regulation of decomposition and methane dynamics across natural, commercially mined, and restored northern peatlands. Ecosystems 10 (7): 1148-1165

ABSTRACT: We examined aerobic and anaerobic microbial carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) exchange in peat samples representing different profiles at natural, mined, mined-abandoned, and restored northern peatlands and characterized the nutrient and substrate chemistry and microbial biomass of these soils. Mining and abandonment led to reduced nutrient and substrate availability and occasionally drier conditions in surface peat resulting in a drastic reduction in CO2 and CH4 production, in agreement with previous studies. Owing mainly to wetter conditions, CH4 production and oxidation were faster in restored block-cut than natural sites, whereas in one restored site, increased substrate and nutrient availability led to much more rapid rates of CO2 production. Our work in restored block-cut sites compliments that in vacuum-harvested peatlands undergoing more recent active restoration attempts. The sites we examined covered a large range of soil C substrate quality, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and microbial activities, allowing us to draw general conclusions about controls on microbial CO2 and CH4 dynamics using stepwise regression analysis among all sites and soil depths. Aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of peat was constrained by organic matter quality, particularly phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) chemistry, and closely linked to the size of the microbial biomass supported by these limiting resources. Methane production was more dominantly controlled by field moisture content (a proxy for anaerobism), even after 20 days of anaerobic laboratory incubation, and to a lesser extent by C substrate availability. As methanogens likely represented only a small proportion of the total microbial biomass, there were no links between total microbial biomass and CH4 production. Methane oxidation was controlled by the same factors influencing CH4 production, leading to the conclusion that CH4 oxidation is primarily controlled by substrate (that is, CH4 ) availability. Although restoring hydrology similar to natural sites may re-establish CH4 dynamics, there is geographic or site-specific variability in the ability to restore peat decomposition dynamics.

Basiliko, N., Moore, T. R., Lafleur, P. M., Roulet, N. T. (2005). Seasonal and inter-annual decomposition, microbial biomass, and nitrogen dynamics in a Canadian bog. Soil Science 170 (11): 902-912

ABSTRACT: To establish the temporal and spatial variability of substrate contribution to ecosystem respiration (ER), we measured the seasonal and inter-annual microbial carbon dioxide (CO2 ) production potential, microbial biomass, and nitrogen dynamics over a period of 2 years in the upper 30 cm of a peat bog in southern Ontario. Samples collected during a warmer year with lower average summer water table position had larger inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) concentrations and microbial CO2 production potentials. Across all sampling dates, the distance of the water table beneath the surface was significantly and positively correlated with N availability, and in turn N availability was significantly and positively correlated with CO2 production, although direct correlation between water table position and CO2 production was only significant at P = 0.1. Inter-seasonal variability in CO2 production, microbial biomass, or N did not follow consistent patterns between years, and inorganic N species, particularly nitrate, concentrations varied relatively the most between sampling dates, although concentrations were always small relative to microbial biomass N and potassium sulfate- extractable organic N. Microbial CO2 production from the surface peat profile was calculated to be between 2.5 and 5.7 g CO2 m-2 day-1 . Data extrapolation showed that microbial production of CO2 can be between 41 and 67% of the CO2 emitted as ER with the larger value falling in a warmer, drier year and that inter-annual changes in production potentials may partially explain increased ER in warmer, drier years. These results suggest that changes in microbial CO2 production and microbial community and nutrient characteristics may play an important role in controlling the emission of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems such as peatlands.

Bedard-Haughn, A., Jongbloed, F., Akkerman, J., Uijl, A., de Jong, E., Yates, T., Pennock, D. (2006). The effects of erosional and management history on soil organic carbon stores in ephemeral wetlands of hummocky agricultural landscapes. Geoderma 135: 296-306

ABSTRACT: Carbon sequestration by agricultural soils has been widely promoted as a means of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. In many regions agricultural fields are just one component of a complex landscape matrix and understanding the interactions between agricultural fields and other landscape components such as wetlands is crucial for comprehensive, whole-landscape accounting of soil organic carbon (SOC) change. Our objective was to assess the effects of management and erosional history on SOC storage in wetlands of a typical hummocky agricultural landscape in southern Saskatchewan. Wetlands were classed into three land management groups: native wetlands (i.e., within a native landscape), and uncultivated and cultivated wetlands within an agricultural landscape. Detailed topographic surveys were used to develop a digital elevation model of the sites and landform segmentation algorithms were used to delineate the topographic data into landform elements. SOC density to 45 cm was assessed at seven uncultivated wetlands, seven cultivated wetlands, and twelve native wetlands. Mean SOC density decreased from 175.1 mg ha−1 to 30 cm (equivalent mass depth) for the native wetlands to 168.6 mg ha−1 for the uncultivated wetlands and 87.2 mg ha−1 for the cultivated wetlands in the agricultural field. The SOC density of sediment depositional fans in the uncultivated wetlands is high but the total SOC stored in the fans is low due to their small area. The uncultivated wetlands occupy only 11% of the site but account for approximately 23% of SOC stores. Re-establishing permanent vegetation in the cultivated wetlands could provide maximum C sequestration with minimum energy inputs and a minimum loss of productive acreage but the overall consequences for the gas emissions would have to be carefully assessed.

Bhatti, J. S., Errington, R. C., Bauer, I. E., Hurdle, F. A. (2006). Carbon stock trends along forested peatland margins in central Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86 (2): 321-333

ABSTRACT: Forested peatlands store significant amounts of soil carbon (C) compared with upland forests and are strongly influenced by climatic parameters. Carbon stocks at peatland margins, although likely to be most sensitive to changes in climate, have not been well quantified, making it difficult to predict their response to climate change. The purpose of this study was to characterize the physical environment and associated changes in C stocks across the forested margins of two boreal fens. Peat depth increased and water table depth decreased toward the peatland centre, and these parameters acted as the controlling environmental variables. Above-ground biomass C was primarily derived from tree biomass and decreased from upland to peatland, despite an opposite trend in understorey (herbaceous and shrubby) biomass stocks. Leaf area index was related to peat depth through a negative power function and increased linearly with above-ground tree biomass. Total ecosystem C increased from upland to peatland, with minimum and maximum values of 270 and 2100 Mg C ha-1, respectively, and was largely dominated by soil C stocks, even at the upland end of the gradient. Although numerous small trees toward the peatland interior might allow a rapid increase in tree biomass C with lowering water tables, it seems likely that this would be a limited response, overshadowed in the long term by declines in the more substantial soil C stocks.

Blodau, C., Roulet, N. T., Heitmann, T., Stewart, H., Beer, J., Lafleur, P., Moore, T. R. (2007). Belowground carbon turnover in a temperate ombrotrophic bog. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21 (1): B1021

ABSTRACT: To examine belowground carbon (C) turnover in peatlands, we measured fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) by chamber measurements, estimated respiration by in situ incubations of peat, and in situ production of dissolved carbon (CO2 ; CH4 ; and dissolved organic carbon, DOC) by pore water modeling at an ombrotrophic temperate bog. Ecosystem respiration (ER) averaged 205 mmol m−2 d−1 in summer and was related to temperature, but not water table position, and in situ rates of heterotrophic respiration in the unsaturated zone were also temperature-dependent, with Q10 = 5.0 − 6.4. In the saturated zone, concentrations of 0.1−2.5 mmol L−1 (CO2 ), 0 to 0.6 mmol L−1 (CH4 ), and <10−120 mg L−1 (DOC) were recorded. Turnover was dominated by DOC unrelated to respiration, which ranged from <0.5 to 7 mmol m−2 d−1 and amounted on average to < 1% of ER. Peat decomposition constants kd were 0.060 yr−1 to 0.034 yr−1 in the unsaturated and <0.002 yr−1 in the saturated zone. Monthly averages of CH4 fluxes ranged from 0 to 1.6 mmol m−2 d−1 and were higher than modeled diffusive fluxes when threshold concentrations for CH4 ebullition were recorded closer to the peatland surface. Our results suggest that the saturated zone is of little relevance to ER in this dry temperate bog and that mobilization of DOC is a potentially more relevant process. Temperature is a more important control on ER than water table position because most of the ER is generated close to the peatland surface. Concurrent, moderate increases in temperature and soil moisture are thus likely to increase losses of CO2 from ER and of CH4 from this type of peatland.

Bridgham, S. D., Megonigal, J. P., Keller, J. K., Bliss, N. B., Trettin, C. (2006). The carbon balance of North American wetlands. Wetlands 26 (4): 889-916

ABSTRACT: We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-1 , although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the largest unknown being the role of carbon sequestration by sedimentation in freshwater mineral-soil wetlands. We estimate that North American wetlands emit 9 Tg methane (CH4 ) yr-1 ; however, the uncertainty of this estimate is also greater than 100%. With the exception of estuarine wetlands, CH4 emissions from wetlands may largely offset any positive benefits of carbon sequestration in soils and plants in terms of climate forcing. Historically, the destruction of wetlands through land-use changes has had the largest effects on the carbon fluxes and consequent radiative forcing of North American wetlands. The primary effects have been a reduction in their ability to sequester carbon (a small to moderate increase in radiative forcing), oxidation of their soil carbon reserves upon drainage (a small increase in radiative forcing), and reduction in CH4 emissions (a small to large decrease in radiative forcing). It is uncertain how global changes will affect the carbon pools and fluxes of North American wetlands. We will not be able to predict accurately the role of wetlands as potential positive or negative feedbacks to anthropogenic global change without knowing the integrative effects of changes in temperature, precipitation, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur on the carbon balance of North American wetlands.

Cui, J. B., Li, C. S., Trettin, C. (2005). Analyzing the ecosystem carbon and hydrologic characteristics of forested wetland using a biogeochemical process model. Global Change Biology 11 (2): 278-289

ABSTRACT: A comprehensive biogeochemical model, Wetland-DNDC, was applied to analyze the carbon and hydrologic characteristics of forested wetland ecosystem at Minnesota (MN) and Florida (FL) sites. The model simulates the flows of carbon, energy, and water in forested wetlands. Modeled carbon dynamics depends on physiological plant factors, the size of plant pools, environmental factors, and the total amount and turnover rates of soil organic matter. The model realistically simulated water level fluctuation, forest production, carbon pools change, and CO2 and CH4 emission under natural variations in different environmental factors at two sites. Analyses were focused on parameters and inputs potentially cause the greatest uncertainty in calculated change in plant and soil C and water levels fluctuation and shows that it was important to obtain accurate input data for initial C content, climatic conditions, and allocation of net primary production to various forested wetland components. The magnitude of the forest responses was dependent not only on the rate of changes in environmental factors, but also on site-specific conditions such as climate and soil. This paper explores the ability of using the biogeochemical process model Wetland-DNDC to estimate the carbon and hydrologic dynamics of forested wetlands and shifts in these dynamics in response to changing environmental conditions.

D'Angelo, E. M., Karathanasis, A. D., Sparks, E. J., Ritchey, S. A., Wehr-McChesney, S. A. (2005). Soil carbon and microbial communities at mitigated and late successional bottomland forest wetlands. Wetlands 25 (1): 162-175

ABSTRACT: The practice of wetland mitigation has come into question during the past decade because the relative capacity of the mitigated wetlands to perform normal wetland functions is mostly unknown. In this study, we wanted to determine whether soil microbial communities were significantly different in early successional mitigated wetlands (<10 years) (ES) compared to late successional bottomland hardwood forest wetlands (LS) due to differences in soil properties, such as carbon quality and storage and water-holding capacity. Carbon storage in litter and soil was 1.5 times greater in LS wetlands than ES wetlands. Soil water-holding capacity was significantly greater in LS wetlands and was related to soil organic C content (r2 =0.87, p-value=0.0007). Gravimetric water content was a moderately strong predictor of microbial respiration (r2 =0.55–0.61, p-value=0.001–0.0004) and microbial biomass (r2 =0.70, p-value=0.0019). Anaerobic microbial groups were enriched in soils from LS wetlands in both the dry and wet seasons, which suggested that LS soils were wetter for longer periods of the year than ES soils. The capacity of these wetlands to support anaerobic microbial processes depends on soil water retention characteristics, which were dictated by organic matter content. As an integrator of microbial growth conditions in soils, determination of microbial community composition by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis may be an important new tool for monitoring successional development of compensatory mitigation wetlands.

Djurhuus, Sune, Krogh, Lars, Greve, Mogens H. (2005). Estimates of the carbon stocks in Danish mires. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 18 (1): 11-20

ABSTRACT: Substantial amounts of organic carbon may be stored in peat lands. The carbon stocks in selected Danish mires were investigated by comparing two national surveys of peat resources from 1930 and 1956 and new data based on field work which involved mapping of six drained bogs and fens. The objective was to evaluate whether the old surveys may be used for estimating the present carbon stocks in Danish mires. A total of 150 peat samples representing different mire types and land use history were analysed for bulk density. carbon, degree of humification, ash content and pH. GIS and kriging interpolation were used to make 3D models of peat volume and to calculate the carbon stocks in the mires. The results showed that the carbon stocks were reduced about 40% between 1930 and 1956 due to cutting of peat for fuel, suggesting that the 1930 survey is unsuitable for estimating the present carbon stocks. Only small changes were found in the carbon stocks from 1956 to 2000 with no clear dependency on land use, indicating that the 1956 survey is more suitable for present carbon stock calculations. The peat samples showed a carbon density in both bogs and fens between 50 and 70 kg m-2 (mean 60 kg m-2 ) in the uppermost one meter of soil. The Danish mire area is estimated at 90,000 hectares, which gives a carbon stock of 54.6 Mt. Total carbon stocks in Danish soils (uppermost one meter) have recently been estimated as high as 579 Mt. This means that although peat land soils cover only 2.1% of the Danish land area, they store nearly 10% of the total soil organic carbon stock, and even more if deeper layers are included.

Dunn, A. L., Barford, C. C., Wofsy, S. C., Goulden, M. L., Daube, B. C. (2007). A long-term record of carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest: means, responses to interannual variability, and decadal trends. Global Change Biology 13 (3): 577-590

ABSTRACT: We present a decadal (1994–2004) record of carbon dioxide flux in a 160-year-old black spruce forest/veneer bog complex in central Manitoba, Canada. The ecosystem shifted from a source (+41 g C m−2 , 1995) to a sink (−21 g C m−2 , 2004) of CO2 over the decade, with an average net carbon balance near zero. Annual mean temperatures increased 1–2° during the period, consistent with the decadal trend across the North American boreal biome. We found that ecosystem carbon exchange responded strongly to air temperature, moisture status, potential evapotranspiration, and summertime solar radiation. The seasonal cycle of ecosystem respiration significantly lagged that of photosynthesis, limited by the rate of soil thaw and the slow drainage of the soil column. Factors acting over long time scales, especially water table depth, strongly influenced the carbon budget on annual time scales. Net uptake was enhanced and respiration inhibited by multiple years of rainfall in excess of evaporative demand. Contrary to expectations, we observed no correlation between longer growing seasons and net uptake, possibly because of offsetting increases in ecosystem respiration. The results indicate that the interactions between soil thaw and water table depth provide critical controls on carbon exchange in boreal forests underlain by peat, on seasonal to decadal time scales, and these factors must be simulated in terrestrial biosphere models to predict response of these regions to future climate.

Ellis, C. J., Rochefort, L. (2006). Long-term sensitivity of a high arctic wetland to Holocene climate change. Journal of Ecology 94 (2): 441-454

ABSTRACT: 1 The response of peat-rich permafrost soils to human-induced climate change may be especially important in modifying the global C-flux. We examined the Holocene developmental record of a High Arctic peat-forming wetland to investigate its sensitivity to past climate change and aid understanding of the likely effects of future climate warming on high-latitude ecosystems.

2 The microhabitat of mosses was quantified in the present-day polygon-complex at Bylot Island (73° N, 80° W) and used to interpret the radiocarbon-dated macrofossil record of three cores, comprising c. 3500 years of wetland development. Recurrent wet and dry phases in the reconstructed palaeohydrological record indicated pronounced temporal variability. Wet and dry phases were compared between cores and with palaeoclimatic proxy values, measured as percentage melt andδ18 O in nearby ice cores.3 Periodic wet and dry phases appear unrelated to past climate over c. 50% of the combined stratigraphic records, and are attributable instead to geomorphological mechanisms. At other times, association of wet and dry phases with significantly lower and higher values of percentage melt and δ18 O indicate a possible effect of past climate change on polygon hydrology and vegetation, although inconsistencies between cores suggest that local geomorphological processes continued to modify a regional climatic effect. However, during a period incorporating the Little Ice Age (c. 305–530 cal. years bp), reconstructed moisture and vegetation change is pronounced and consistent among all three cores.

4 The results provide strong evidence for the sensitivity of a High Arctic terrestrial ecosystem to past climate change during the Holocene. The estimated magnitude of changes in soil moisture between wet and dry phases is sufficient to imply recurrent shifts in wetland function, periodically impacted upon by pronounced climatic variability, although controlled principally by autogenic processes. The structure and function of such wetlands may therefore be susceptible to predicted, human-induced climate warming.

Euliss, N.H., Jr., Gleason, R.A., Olness, A., McDougal, R.L., Murkin, H.R., Robarts, R.D., Bourbonniere, R.A., Warner, B.G. (2006). North American prairie wetlands are important nonforested land-based carbon storage sites. Science of The Total Environment 361 (1-3): 179-188

ABSTRACT: We evaluated the potential of prairie wetlands in North America as carbon sinks. Agricultural conversion has resulted in the average loss of 10.1 Mg ha-1 of soil organic carbon on over 16 million ha of wetlands in this region. Wetland restoration has potential to sequester 378 Tg of organic carbon over a 10-year period. Wetlands can sequester over twice the organic carbon as no-till cropland on only about 17% of the total land area in the region. We estimate that wetland restoration has potential to offset 2.4% of the annual fossil CO2 emission reported for North America in 1990.

Hendriks, D.M.D., van Huissteden, J., Dolman, A.J., van der Molen, M.K. (2007). The full greenhouse gas balance of an abandoned peat meadow. Biogeosciences Discussions 4 (1): 277-316

ABSTRACT: Globally, peat lands are considered to be a sink of CO2 , but a source when drained. Additionally, wet peat lands are thought to emit considerable amounts of CH4 and N2 O. Hitherto, reliable and integrated estimates of emissions and emission factors for this type of area have been lacking and the effects of wetland restoration on methane emissions have been poorly quantified. In this paper we estimate the full GHG balance of a restored natural peat land by determining the fluxes of CO2 , CH4 and N2 O through atmosphere and water, while accounting for the different GWP's.

This site is an abandoned agricultural peat meadow, which has been converted into a wetland nature reserve ten years ago by raising the water level. GHG fluxes were measured continuously with an eddy-correlation system (CO2 ) and flux chamber measurements (CH4 and N2 O). Meteorological and hydrological measurements were done as well. With growing seasons of respectively 192 and 155 days, the net annual CO2 uptake was 276±61 g C m−2 for 2004 and 311±58 g C m−2 for 2005. Ecosystem respiration was estimated as 887±668 g C m−2 for 2004 and 866±666 g C m−2 for 2005. CH4 fluxes from water, saturated land and relatively dry land varied: total annual CH4 fluxes are 10.4±19.2 g C m−2 yr−1 , 101 g C m−2 yr−1 ±30 and 37.3±10.9 g C m−2 yr−1 , respectively, and a annual weighed total CH4 emission of 31.27±20.44 g C m−2 yr−1 . N2 O fluxes were too low to be of significance. The carbon-balance consists for the largest part of CO2 uptake, CO2 respiration and CH4 emission from wet land and water. CO2 emission has decreased significantly as result of the raised water table, while CH4 fluxes have increased. In global warming potentials the area is a very small sink of 71 g CO2 -equiv m−2 (over a 100-year period).

Hirano, T., Segah, H., Harada, T., Limin, S., June, T., Hirata, R., Osaki, M. (2007). Carbon dioxide balance of a tropical peat swamp forest in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Global Change Biology 13 (2): 412-425

ABSTRACT: Tropical peatlands, which coexist with swamp forests, have accumulated vast amounts of carbon as soil organic matter. Since the 1970s, however, deforestation and drainage have progressed on an enormous scale. In addition, El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drought and large-scale fires, which grow larger under the drought condition, are accelerating peatland devastation. That devastation enhances decomposition of soil organic matter and increases the carbon release to the atmosphere as CO2 . This phenomenon suggests that tropical peatlands have already become a large CO2 source, but related quantitative information is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the CO2 balance of a tropical peat swamp forest in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, using 3 years of CO2 fluxes measured using the eddy covariance technique from 2002 through 2004. The forest was disturbed by drainage; consequently, groundwater level (GL) was reduced. The net ecosystem CO2 production (NEP) measurements showed seasonal variation, which was slightly positive or almost zero in the early dry season, and most-negative late in the dry season or early the rainy season. This seasonality is attributable to the seasonal pattern of climate, tree phenology and fires. Slightly positive NEP resulted from smaller ecosystem respiration (RE) and larger gross primary production (GPP) under conditions of high photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and large leaf area index (LAI). The most-negative NEP resulted from smaller GPP and larger RE. The smaller GPP was related to high vapor pressure deficit (VPD), small LAI and low PPFD because of smoke from fires. The larger RE was related to low GL. Annual NEP values were estimated respectively as −602, −382 and −313 g C m−2 yr−1 for 2002, 2003 and 2004. These negative NEP values show that the tropical peat swamp forest, disturbed by drainage, functioned as a CO2 source. That source intensity was highest in 2002, an ENSO year, mainly because of low PPFD caused by dense smoke emitted from large fires.

Humphreys, E. R., Lafleur, P. M., Flanagan, L. B., Hedstrom, N., Syed, K. H., Glenn, A. J., Granger, R. (2006). Summer carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes across a range of northern peatlands. Journal of Geophysical Research -- Biogeosciences 111 (G04011)

ABSTRACT: Northern peatlands are a diverse group of ecosystems varying along a continuum of hydrological, chemical, and vegetation gradients. These ecosystems contain about one third of the global soil carbon pool, but it is uncertain how carbon and water cycling processes and response to climate change differ among peatland types. This study examines midsummer CO2 and H2 O fluxes measured using the eddy covariance technique above seven northern peatlands including a low-shrub bog, two open poor fens, two wooded moderately rich fens, and two open extreme-rich fens. Gross ecosystem production and ecosystem respiration correlated positively with vegetation indices and with each other. Consequently, 24-hour net ecosystem CO2 exchange was similar among most of the sites (an average net carbon sink of 1.5 ± 0.2 g C m−2 d−1 ) despite large differences in water table depth, water chemistry, and plant communities. Evapotranspiration was primarily radiatively driven at all sites but a decline in surface conductance with increasing water vapor deficit indicated physiological restrictions to transpiration, particularly at the peatlands with woody vegetation and less at the peatlands with 100%Sphagnum cover. Despite these differences, midday evapotranspiration ranged only from 0.21 to 0.34 mm h−1 owing to compensation among the factors controlling evapotranspiration. Water use efficiency varied among sites primarily as a result of differences in productivity and plant functional type. Although peatland classification includes a great variety of ecosystem characteristics, peatland type may not be an effective way to predict the magnitude and characteristics of midsummer CO2 and water vapor exchanges.

Jinbo, Z., Changchun, S., Shenmin, W. (2007). Dynamics of soil organic carbon and its fractions after abandonment of cultivated wetlands in northeast China. Soil and Tillage Research 96 (1-2): 350-360

ABSTRACT: Soil organic carbon (SOC) and its different labile fractions are important in minimizing negative environmental impacts and improving soil quality. However, very little is known of the dynamics of SOC and its labile fractions after the cultivated wetlands have been abandoned in northeast China. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the dynamics of SOC after the abandonment of cultivated soil, (2) to investigate the most sensitive fraction for detecting changes in organic C due to the abandonment of cultivated soil, and (3) to explore the key factors affecting the dynamics of soil C after the abandonment of cultivated soil in the freshwater marsh region of northeast China. Our results showed that the abandonment of cultivated wetlands resulted in an increase in SOC and the availability of C. The SOC content increased to 31, 44, and 107 g kg−1 after these cultivated wetlands were abandoned for 1, 6, and 13 years, respectively, as compared to an SOC content of 28 g kg−1 in the soil that had been cultivated on for 9 years. In northeast China, where a cultivated wetland was abandoned, the initial regeneration of SOC pools was considerably rapid and in accordance with the Boltzmann equation. An analysis of the stepwise regression indicated that the dynamics of SOC (g kg−1 ) can be quantitatively described by a linear combination of the root density and the mean soil temperature 5 cm underground in the growing season, as expressed by the following relationship: TOC = 0.008 root density −3.264T + 96.044 (R2 = 0.67, n = 9, p < 0.05. T is the mean soil temperature 5 cm underground in the growing season), indicating that approximately 67% of the variability in SOC can be explained by these two parameters. The root biomass was the key factor affecting SOC concentration according to the observation made during the recovery of cultivated soil that was abandoned. Soil temperature indirectly influenced the SOC concentration by affecting soil microbial activity. The abandonment of cultivated wetlands resulted in an increase in the light-fraction organic C (LF-OC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and dissolved organic C (DOC) concentration. The rate of increase in LF-OC was considerably higher than that in SOC and HF-OC. Similarly, the rate of increase in MBC was also considerably higher than that in SOC in cultivated soils abandoned for 4–8 years. However, the rate of increase in DOC was far lower than that in SOC. The R2 value for the correlation between the increments of the LF-OC and SOC was significantly higher than that for the correlation between DOC and MBC (0.99 vs. 0.90), indicating that LF-OC was the most sensitive fraction for detecting changes in organic C due to the abandonment of cultivated soil.

Johnston, C. A., Shmagin, B. A., Frost, P. C., Cherrier, C., Larson, J. H., Lamberti, G. A., Bridgham, S. D. (2008). Wetland types and wetland maps differ in ability to predict dissolved organic carbon concentrations in streams. Science of The Total Environment 404 (2-3): 326-334

ABSTRACT: Three categories of digital wetland maps widely available in the United States were used to develop models relating wetlands to DOC: (1) wetlands mapped by the U.S. National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) (2) wetland vegetation cover mapped by the U.S. National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), and (3) maps of hydric soils. Data extracted from these maps for 27 headwater catchments of the Ontonagon River in northern Michigan, USA were used with DOC concentrations measured in catchment streams to develop stepwise multiple regressions based on wetland area and type. The catchments of the 27 tributaries ranged in area from 2 to 66 km2 and wetlands constituted 10 to 53% of their area. Although all three databases provided regressions that were highly significant (p < 0.001), the variance explained was greater for NWI maps (R2 = 0.75) than for NLCD (R2 = 0.61) or soil maps (R2 = 0.60). Wetland–stream relationships were strongest during September 2002, but were significant for nine out of ten dates sampled during subsequent seasons. The individual wetland type most highly correlated (r > 0.62) with stream DOC concentrations was conifer peatland, represented on the NWI maps as Palustrine Needle-leaved Forest, the NLCD maps as woody wetland, and the soil maps as organic soils. For the NWI dataset, DOC was negatively correlated with area of palustrine emergent wetlands (i.e., sedge meadows and graminoid fens) and bog shrubs, inferring that these wetland types may be sinks for DOC. Because of the different effects of wetland vegetation types on DOC, a GIS data source such as the NWI which depicts those wetland types is superior for predicting landscape contributions to stream DOC concentrations.

Ju, W., J.M. Chen, T.A. Black, A.G. Barr, H. McCaughey, N.T. Roulet (2006). Hydrological effects on carbon cycles of Canada's forests and wetlands.. Tellus: Series B 58 (1): 16-30

ABSTRACT: The hydrological cycle has significant effects on the terrestrial carbon (C) balance through its controls on photosynthesis and C decomposition. A detailed representation of the water cycle in terrestrial C cycle models is essential for reliable estimates of C budgets. However, it is challenging to accurately describe the spatial and temporal variations of soil water, especially for regional and global applications. Vertical and horizontal movements of soil water should be included. To constrain the hydrology-related uncertainty in modelling the regional C balance, a three-dimensional hydrological module was incorporated into the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon-budget model (InTEC V3.0). We also added an explicit parameterization of wetlands. The inclusion of the hydrological module considerably improved the model's ability to simulate C content and balances in different ecosystems. Compared with measurements at five flux-tower sites, the model captured 85% and 82% of the variations in volumetric soil moisture content in the 0–10 cm and 10–30 cm depths during the growing season and 84% of the interannual variability in the measured C balance. The simulations showed that lateral subsurface water redistribution is a necessary mechanism for simulating water table depth for both poorly drained forest and peatland sites. Nationally, soil C content and their spatial variability are significantly related to drainage class. Poorly drained areas are important C sinks at the regional scale, however, their soil C content and balances are difficult to model and may have been inadequately represented in previous C cycle models. The InTEC V3.0 model predicted an annual net C uptake by Canada's forests and wetlands for the period 1901–1998 of 111.9 Tg C yr−1 , which is 41.4 Tg C yr−1 larger than our previous estimate (InTEC V2.0). The increase in the net C uptake occurred mainly in poorly drained regions and resulted from the inclusion of a separate wetland parameterization and a detailed hydrologic module with lateral flow in InTEC V3.0.

Karberg, N. J., Pregitzer, K. S., King, J. S., Friend, A. L., Wood, J. R. (2005). Soil carbon dioxide partial pressure and dissolved inorganic carbonate chemistry under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone. Oecologia 142 (2): 296-306

ABSTRACT: Global emissions of atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising and expected to impact large areas of the Earths forests. While CO2 stimulates net primary production, O3 reduces photosynthesis, altering plant C allocation and reducing ecosystem C storage. The effects of multiple air pollutants can alter belowground C allocation, leading to changes in the partial pressure of CO2 (p CO2 ) in the soil , chemistry of dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC) and the rate of mineral weathering. As this system represents a linkage between the long- and short-term C cycles and sequestration of atmospheric CO2 , changes in atmospheric chemistry that affect net primary production may alter the fate of C in these ecosystems. To date, little is known about the combined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on the inorganic C cycle in forest systems. Free air CO2 and O3 enrichment (FACE) technology was used at the Aspen FACE project in Rhinelander, Wisconsin to understand how elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 interact to alter pCO2 and DIC concentrations in the soil. Ambient and elevated CO2 levels were 360±16 and 542±81 l l–1 , respectively; ambient and elevated O3 levels were 33±14 and 49±24 nl l–1 , respectively. Measured concentrations of soil CO2 and calculated concentrations of DIC increased over the growing season by 14 and 22%, respectively, under elevated atmospheric CO2 and were unaffected by elevated tropospheric O3 . The increased concentration of DIC altered inorganic carbonate chemistry by increasing system total alkalinity by 210%, likely due to enhanced chemical weathering. The study also demonstrated the close coupling between the seasonal13 C of soilp CO2 and DIC, as a mixing model showed that new atmospheric CO2 accounted for approximately 90% of the C leaving the system as DIC. This study illustrates the potential of using stable isotopic techniques and FACE technology to examine long- and short-term ecosystem C sequestration.

Large, D. J., Jones, T. F., Briggs, J., Macquaker, J. H. S., Spiro, B. F. (2004). Orbital tuning and correlation of 1.7 My of continuous carbon storage in an early Miocene peatland. Geology 32 (10): 873-876

ABSTRACT: Peatland is an important terrestrial carbon reservoir that contains >25% of soil carbon and accounts for 25%-38% of natural methane emissions. Most of this carbon is contained in postglacial boreal peat. Our understanding of the carbon cycle within this reservoir and its links to the atmosphere is therefore restricted to periods of <10 k.y. A record of the longer-term behavior of the peatland carbon reservoir under nonglacial conditions does, however, exist in thick lignite deposits formed over periods of >1 m.y. Spectral analysis of varying lignite color reveals that 120 m of early Miocene lignite from the Gippsland Basin, Australia, contains a 1.7 m.y. record of orbitally paced climate oscillations dominated by the response to obliquity. Use of the regular orbital signal indicates that the average long-term rate of peatland carbon accumulation recorded in the lignite is 27.5 g.m-2 yr-1 . This rate is constant over periods of >100 k.y. and is independent of shorter-term, <10 k.y., fluctuations in climate and hydrology. Matching the lignite record to the theoretical insolation curve indicates that the lignite formed between 22.5 and 20.8 Ma. Contemporaneous long-term changes in lignite color and the13 C/12 C ratios of marine foraminifera may relate to changing peatland methane flux and thus point to a link between terrestrial and marine carbon dynamics.

Leifeld, J. (2006). Soils as sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. : 23-44

ABSTRACT: Soils annually emit between 6.8 and 7.9 Gt CO2 equivalents, mainly as CH4 from intact peatlands and from rice agriculture; as N2 O from unmanaged and managed soils; and as CO2 from land-use change. Methane emissions attributable to other wetlands add another 1.6–3.8 Gt CO2 equivalents. From a global standpoint, N2 O from unmanaged soils and CH4 from peatlands and other wetlands make soils naturally net greenhouse gas emitters. In addition, the storage of carbon in soils and the fluxes of CH4 and N2 O have been changed by anthropogenic effects towards emission rates 52 to 72% above those under natural conditions before the dawn of intensive agriculture and land-use change. Land-use changes on mineral soils induced most of the recorded losses of soil organic matter (SOM), but there is evidence that proper agricultural management of soil resources is able to recover some of these losses and to maintain soil functions. However, the discrepancy between so-called ‘sequestration potentials’ and the measures already adopted is amazingly large. Globally, only about 5% of the cropped areas is managed according to practices such as no tillage or organic farming. The contribution of soil loss by erosion, desertification and sealing to global oxidative SOM losses is uncertain; however, in the case of soil erosion, it is considered to be a major factor in global SOM decline. Mitigation options calculated for SOM restoration, reduced CH4 and N2O emissions are able to alleviate mean annual emissions by 1.2 to 2.9 Gt CO2 equivalents, mainly as a result of carbon sequestration, which is the most efficient measure for the next few decades. In the longer term, however, the large potential for reducing CH4 and N2 O emissions outweigh the finite capacity of soils to recover C. Integrated assessment of net greenhouse-gas fluxes is key for evaluating management practices aimed at reducing overall emissions. From the viewpoint of climate change and taking into consideration the mean fluxes of CO2 , CH4 and N2 O, peatland protection is more favourable than peatland cultivation in the long term. The most important gaps in our understanding appear to be with regard to estimating fluxes along with soil erosion and desertification processes, in the extent of peatland cultivation; the role of black carbon formation, natural ‘background’ sequestration rates of undisturbed soils; and the net response of soils, particularly in cold regions, to global warming. With regard to the societal perception of soil contributing to the global cycling of greenhouse gases, it is important to emphasize that significant proportions of the emissions are inevitably linked to intensive agriculture.

Melling, L., Hatano, R., Goh, K. J. (2005). Global warming potential from soils in tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia. Phyton 45 (4): 275-284

SUMMARY: Tropical peatlands are important sources and sinks of atmospheric methane (CH4 ) and major sources of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Recently, large areas of tropical peatland have been developed for agriculture plantations in Southeast Asia whereby drainage is a prerequisite, which can increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions substantially and therefore, global warming potential (GWP). Despite this, there is still a paucity of knowledge on GHG emissions from different ecosystems on tropical peatland and their roles and contribution to the global gas budget. Thus, three ecosystems from tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia, mixed peatswamp forest, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis ) plantation and sago (Metroxylon sagu ) plantation, were chosen for the study of GHG emissions from the soils to determine their contribution towards GWP. The GHG emissions were measured monthly over 12 months using a closed chamber technique.

GWP from forest soils was higher (7850 g CO2 m-2 y-1 ) compared with oil palm ecosystem (5706 g CO2 m-2 y-1 ) and sago ecosystem (4233 g CO2 m-2 y-1 ). A high GWP in forest ecosystem was due to its high soil respiration rate of 7817 g CO2 m-2 y-1 . Soil respiration rates for sago and oil palm were 4074 g CO2 m-2 y-1 and 5652 g CO2 m-2 y-1 respectively. About 4 % of GWP from peat soils in sago ecosystem was due to CH4 (5.5 g CO2 m-2 y-1 ) and N2 O (153.4 g CO2 m-2 y-1 ) emissions, which were negligible in forest and oil palm ecosystems. Thus, the GWP of the soils in the three ecosystems on tropical peatland were mainly dominated by CO2 fluxes from the soil implying that tropical peatlands may function as a source for atmospheric CO2 on a global scale.

Mitra, S., Wassmann, R., Vlek, P. L. G. (2005). An appraisal of global wetland area and its organic carbon stock. Current Science 88 (1): 25-35

ABSTRACT: Wetlands are among the most important natural resources on earth. They are the sources of cultural, economic and biological diversity. With their wealth of stored carbon, wetlands provide a potential sink for atmospheric carbon, but if not managed properly could become sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide and methane. Two important long-term uncertainties have initiated much debate in the scientific community. These are global wetland area and the amount of carbon stored in it. Compilation of relevant databases could be useful in setting up a long-term strategy for wetland conservation. It has been difficult to estimate the net carbon sequestration potential of a wetland, because the rate of decomposition of organic matter and the abundance of methanogenic micro-organisms and fluxes from the sediment are extremely complex, and there are often gaps in relevant scientific knowledge. The present discussion on density distribution of soil organic C in global wetlands could well be instrumental in formulating efficient strategies related to carbon sequestration and reduction of GHG emissions in wetland ecosystems. Effective assessment of wetlands will only take place when the available information becomes accessible and usable for all stakeholders.

Peregon, A., Uchida, M., Shibata, Y. (2007). Sphagnum peatland development at their southern climatic range in West Siberia: trends and peat accumulation patterns. Environmental Research Letters 2 (4): 45014

ABSTRACT: A region of western Siberia is vulnerable to the predicted climatic change which may induce an important modification to the carbon balance in wetland ecosystems. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of peat (carbon) accumulation and its patterns at the southern climatic range ofSphagnum peatlands in western Siberia. Visible and physical features of peat and detailed reconstructions of successional change (or sediment stratigraphies) were analysed at two types of forest–peatland ecotones, which are situated close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. Our results suggest that Siberian peatlands exhibit a general trend towards being a carbon sink rather than a source even at or near the southern limit of their distribution. Furthermore, two types of peat accumulation were detected in the study area, namely persistent and intermittent. As opposed to persistent peat accumulation, the intermittent one is characterized by the recurrent degradation of the upper peat layers at the marginal parts of raised bogs. Persistent peat accumulation is the case for the majority ofSphagnum peatlands under current climatic conditions. It might be assumed that more peat will accumulate under the 'increased precipitation' scenarios of global warming, although intermittent peat accumulation could result in the eventual drying that may change peatlands from carbon sinks to carbon sources.

Petrescu, A. M. R., Van Huissteden, J., Jackowicz-Korczynski, M., Yurova, A., Christensen, T. R., Crill, P. M., Bäckstrand, K., Maximov, T. C. (2008). Modelling CH4 emissions from Arctic wetlands: effects of hydrological parameterization. Biogeosciences 5 (1): 111-121

ABSTRACT: This study compares the CH4 fluxes from two arctic wetland sites of different annual temperatures during 2004 to 2006. The PEATLAND-VU model was used to simulate the emissions. The CH4 module of PEATLAND-VU is based on the Walter-Heimann model. The first site is located in northeast Siberia, Indigirka lowlands, Kytalyk reserve (70° N, 147° E) in a continuous permafrost region with mean annual temperatures of −14.3°C. The other site is Stordalen mire in the eastern part of Lake Torneträsk (68° N, 19° E) ten kilometres east of Abisko, northern Sweden. It is located in a discontinuous permafrost region. Stordalen has a sub arctic climate with a mean annual temperature of −0.7°C. Model input consisted of observed temperature, precipitation and snow cover data.

In all cases, modelled CH4 emissions show a direct correlation between variations in water table and soil temperature variations. The differences in CH4 emissions between the two sites are caused by different climate, hydrology, soil physical properties, vegetation type and NPP.

For Kytalyk the simulated CH4 fluxes show similar trends during the growing season, having average values for 2004 to 2006 between 1.29–2.09 mg CH4 m−2 hr−1 . At Stordalen the simulated fluxes show a slightly lower average value for the same years (3.52 mg CH4 m−2 hr−1 ) than the observed 4.7 mg CH4 m−2 hr−1 . The effect of the longer growing season at Stordalen is simulated correctly.

Our study shows that modelling of arctic CH4 fluxes is improved by adding a relatively simple hydrological model that simulates the water table position from generic weather data. Our results support the generalization in literature that CH4 fluxes in northern wetland are regulated more tightly by water table than temperature. Furthermore, parameter uncertainty at site level in wetland CH4 process models is an important factor in large scale modelling of CH4 fluxes.

Phillips, R., Beeri, O. (2008). The role of hydropedologic vegetation zones in greenhouse gas emissions for agricultural wetland landscapes. CATENA 72 (3): 386-394

ABSTRACT: Net greenhouse gas (GHG) source strength for agricultural wetland ecosystems in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is currently unknown. In particular, information is lacking to constrain spatial variability associated with GHG emissions (CH4 , CO2 , and N2 O). GHG fluxes typically vary with edaphic, hydrologic, biologic, and climatic factors. In the PPR, characteristic wetland plant communities integrate hydropedologic factors and may explain some variability associated with trace gas fluxes at ecosystem and landscape scales. We addressed this question for replicate wetland basins located in central North Dakota stratified by hydropedologic vegetation zone on Jul 12 and Aug 3, 2003. Data were collected at the soil-atmosphere interface for six plant zones: deep marsh, shallow marsh, wet meadow, low prairie, pasture, and cropland. Controlling for soil moisture and temperature, CH4 fluxes varied significantly with zone (p < 0.05). Highest CH4 emissions were found near the water in the deep marsh (277,800μg m−2 d−1 CH4 ), which declined with distance from water to − 730μg m−2 d−1 CH4 in the pasture. Carbon dioxide fluxes also varied significantly with zone. Nitrous oxide variability was greater within zones than between zones, with no significant effects of zone, moisture, or temperature. Data were extrapolated for a 205.6 km2 landscape using a previously developed synoptic classification for PPR plant communities. For this landscape, we found croplands contributed the greatest proportion to the net GHG source strength on Jul 12 (45,700 kg dd−1 GHG-C equivalents) while deep marsh zones contributed the greatest proportion on Aug 3 (26,145 kg d− 1 GHG-C equivalents). This was driven by a 30-fold reduction in cropland N2 O–N emissions between dates. The overall landscape average for each date, weighted by zone, was 462.4 kg km−2 d−1 GHG-C equivalents on Jul 12 and 314.3 kg km−2 d−1 GHG-C equivalents on Aug 3. Results suggest GHG fluxes vary with hydropedologic soil zone, particularly for CH4 , and provide initial estimates of net GHG emissions for heterogeneous agricultural wetland landscapes.

Potter, C., Klooster, S., Hiatt, S., Fladeland, M., Genovese, V., Gross, P. (2006). Methane emissions form natural wetlands in the United States: satellite-derived estimation based on ecosystem carbon cycling. Earth Interactions 10 (22): 1-12

ABSTRACT: Wetlands are an important natural source of methane to the atmosphere. The amounts of methane emitted from inundated ecosystems in the United States can vary greatly from area to area. Seasonal temperature, water table dynamics, and carbon content of soils are principal controlling factors. To calculate the effect of wetlands (and their potential conversion to other land uses) on global greenhouse gas emissions, information on area covered by various wetland types is needed, along with verified projections of spatial variation in net methane emissions. Both of these variables are poorly known, and estimates are largely unavailable at the country level. Nationwide satellite datasets for the coterminous United States (excluding Alaska) have been combined with ecosystem model predictions of monthly net carbon exchange with the atmosphere to produce the first detailed mapping of methane fluxes from natural wetlands on a monthly and annual basis. The Carnegie–Ames–Stanford Approach (CASA) model’s predicted mean emission flux of methane from wetlands of the continental United States totaled 5.5 Tg CH4 per year. Ranked in terms of total annual flux, the 10 states with the highest predicted emissions (not considering Alaska) are all located in the Great Lakes region and the southern coastal regions of the country.

Robinson, S. D. (2006). Carbon accumulation in peatlands, southwestern Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86 (2): 305-319

ABSTRACT: Northern peatlands have stored significant quantities of carbon (C) since the early Holocene at rates that vary among peatland types. Pollen concentration dating was used to provide estimates of true C accumulation and sequestration efficiency in different peatland systems in the discontinuous permafrost zone near Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, Canada. The catotelm portions of bog, permafrost-affected peat plateau, andSphagnum -dominated cores were interpreted to conform to Clymo’s (1984) model of C accumulation, while peat deposited under conditions with high water tables (rich fen and collapse fen) did not. The model assumes a consistent surface production, yet production in fens is thought to be highly sensitive to water table changes and may have contributed to poor model fits. Decay rates measured over the past 1200 yr range from 0.0015 to 0.0004 yr-1 . True C accumulation rates (range 7.0 in peat plateau to 18.6 g C m-2 yr-1 in bog) and sequestration efficiencies (range 0.24 in peat plateau to 0.67 in poor fen) by 1200 yr BP were low in comparison with other North American sites. Decay rates measured over 1200 yr were significantly greater than that measured over the entire life span of the peatland (0.00033 yr-1), suggesting that a catotelm true C accumulation model incorporating a decreasing rate of decay would be more applicable.

Rouse,W. R., Lafleur,P. M., Bello,R. L., D'Souza,A., Griffis,T. J. (2002). The annual carbon budget for fen and forest in a wetland at Arctic treeline. Arctic 55 (3): 229-237

ABSTRACT: Three separate research efforts conducted in the same wetland-peatland system in the northern Hudson Bay Lowland near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, allow a comparison of two carbon budget estimates, one derived from long-term growth rates of organic soil and the other based on shorter-term flux measurements. For a tundra fen and an open subarctic forest, calculations of organic soil accumulation or loss over the last half-century indicate that while the fen on average has lost small amounts of carbon from the ecosystem, the adjacent forest has gained larger amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide. These longer-term data are supported by shorter-term flux measurements and estimates, which also show carbon loss by the fen and carbon uptake by the forest. The shorter-term data indicate that the fen's carbon loss is largely attributable to exceptionally dry years, especially if they are warm. The forest may gain carbon at an increased rate as it matures and during warm growing seasons. Also, the changes in relief of the dynamic hummock-hollow landscape in the fen may inhibit photosynthesis.

Sottocornola, M., Kiely, G. (2005). An Atlantic blanket bog is a modest CO2 sink. Geophysical Research Letters 32 (23)

ABSTRACT: Northern peatlands contain 1/3 of the world's soil carbon pool. Blanket bogs are peatlands that occur in maritime regions where precipitation is much greater than evapotranspiration. The role of blanket bogs in C dynamics has not been quantified. We describe an investigation of CO2 fluxes using an eddy covariance (EC) system in a pristine Atlantic blanket bog in Ireland during 2003 and 2004. This is the first multiyear study using EC techniques in a blanket bog. We found that the bog ecosystem was a CO2 sink for five months in each year. The annual CO2 flux had a sink magnitude of −49 (2003) and −61 g C m−2 (2004). These magnitudes are similar to boreal raised bogs, while higher values have been reported for boreal fens and lower for subarctic fens.

Tipping, E., Smith, E., Bryant, C., Adamson, J. (2007). The organic carbon dynamics of a moorland catchment in N. W. England. Biogeochemistry

ABSTRACT: The carbon cycle was quantified in the catchment of Doe House Gill, which drains high-relief moorland, with thin organic-rich soils (leptosols and podzols) 10–25 cm deep, in northern England. The soil C pool of 8,300 g m-2 is due mainly to humic acid and older humin. If steady state is assumed, and a single soil C pool, the average14 C content of the whole soil (93% modern) yields a mean carbon residence time of 800 years, although this varied from 300 to 1,600 years in the four samples studied. Stream water fluxes of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) were 2.5 and 0.4 g m−2 a−1 respectively in 2002–2003, lower than values for some other upland streams in the UK. The C pool, flux, and isotope data were used, with the assumption of steady state, to calibrate DyDOC, a model that simulates the soil carbon cycle, including the generation and transport of DOC. According to DyDOC, the litter pool (ca. 100 gC m−2 ) turns over quickly, and most (>90%) of the litter carbon is rapidly mineralised. The soil is calculated to gain only 16 gC m−2 a−1 , and to lose the same amount, about 80% as CO2 and 20% as DOC. From the DO14 C content of 107.5% modern (due to “bomb carbon”) the model could be calibrated by assuming all DOC to come directly from litter, but DOC is more likely a mixture, derived from more than one soil C pool. The seasonal variability exhibited by stream water DOC concentration (maximum in September, minimum in January) is attributed mainly to variations in rainfall and evapotranspiration, rather than in the metabolic production rate of “potential DOC”. The model predicts that, for a Q10 of 2, the total soil organic C pool would decrease by about 5% if subjected to warming over 200 years. DyDOC predicts higher DOC fluxes in response to increased litter inputs or warming, and can simulate changes in DOC flux due to variations in sorption to soil solids, that might occur due to acidification and its reversal.

Tokida, T., Miyazaki, T., Mizoguchi, M., Nagata, O., Takakai, F., Kagemoto, A., Hatano, R. (2007). Falling atmospheric pressure as a trigger for methane ebullition from peatland. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21 (GB2003): doi:10.1029/2006GB002790

ABSTRACT: Peatlands are widely regarded as a significant source of atmospheric CH4 , a potent greenhouse gas. At present, most of the information on environmental emissions of CH4 comes from infrequent, temporally discontinuous ground-based flux measurements. Enormous efforts have been made to extrapolate measured emission rates to establish seasonal or annual averages using relevant biogeochemical factors, such as water table positions or peat temperatures, by assuming that the flux was stationary during a substantial nonsampling period. However, this assumption has not been explicitly verified, and little is known about the continuous variation of the CH4 flux in a timescale of individual flux measurement. In this study, we show an abrupt change in the CH4 emission rate associated with falling atmospheric pressure. We found that the CH4 flux can change by 2 orders of magnitude within a matter of tens of minutes owing to the release of free-phase CH4 triggered by a drop in air pressure. The contribution of the ebullition to the total CH4 flux during the measurements was significant (50–64%). These results clearly indicated that field campaigns must be designed to cover this rapid temporal variability caused by ebullition, which may be especially important in intemperate weather. Process-based CH4 emission models should also be modified to include air pressure as a key factor for the control of ebullient CH4 release from peatland.

Trettin, C.C., Jurgensen, M.F., Kimble, J.M., Heath, L.S., Birdsey, R.A., Lal, R. (2003). Carbon cycling in wetland forest soils. CRC Press: 311-331

ABSTRACT; Wetlands comprise a small proportion (i.e., 2 to 3%) of earth's terrestrial surface, yet they contain a significant proportion of the terrestrial carbon (C) pool. Soils comprise the largest terrestrial C pool (ca. 1550 Pg C in upper 100 cm; Eswaran et al., 1993; Batjes, 1996), and wetlands contain the single largest component, with estimates ranging between 18 and 30% of the total soil C. In addition to being an important C pool, wetlands contribute approximately 22% of the annual global methane emissions (Bartlett and Harris, 1993; Matthews and Fung, 1987). Despite the importance of wetlands in the global C budget, they are typically omitted from large-scale assessments because of scale, inadequate models, and limited information on C turnover and temporal dynamics.

Trettin, C. C., Laiho, R., Minkkinen, K., Laine, J. (2006). Influence of climate change factors on carbon dynamics in northern forested peatlands. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86 (2): 269-280

ABSTRACT: Peatlands are carbon-accumulating wetland ecosystems, developed through an imbalance among organic matter production and decomposition processes. Soil saturation is the principal cause of anoxic conditions that constrain organic matter decay. Accordingly, changes in the hydrologic regime will affect the carbon (C) dynamics in forested peatlands. Our objective is to review ecological studies and experiments on managed peatlands that provide a basis for assessing the effects of an altered hydrology on C dynamics. We conclude that climate change influences will be mediated primarily through the hydrologic cycle. A lower water table resulting from altered precipitation patterns and increased atmospheric temperature may be expected to decrease soil CH4 and increase CO2 emissions from the peat surface. Correspondingly, the C balance in forested peatlands is also sensitive to management and restoration prescriptions. Increases in soil CO2 efflux do not necessarily equate with net losses from the soil C pool. While the fundamentals of the C balance in peatlands are well-established, the combined affects of global change stressors and management practices are best considered using process-based biogeochemical models. Long-term studies are needed both for validation and to provide a framework for longitudinal assessments of the peatland C cycle.

Trumbore, S.E., Bubier, J.L., Harden, J.W., Crill, P.M. (1999). Carbon cycling in boreal wetlands: a comparison of three approaches. Journal of Geophysical Research Volume 104 (D22): 27,673-27,682

ABSTRACT: Three independent methods were used to measure net ecosystem production (NEP) in four wetlands near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. The first method calculated NEP by subtracting heterotrophic respiration from net primary productivity, using both measurements and estimates derived from the literature. The second method used radiocarbon data from cores to derive long-term NEP averaged over the past several decades. The third method used direct measurement of NEP combined with a model to fill in for days with no data. The three methods, with their independently derived uncertainties, all show the same magnitude and pattern of NEP variation across four different wetland types. However, direct measurement yielded distinctly lower estimates of NEP in the most productive sites. Highest NEP (31 – 180 gC m−2 yr−1 ) was observed in the two wetlands with the highest proportion of sedge vegetation. A bog collapse scar and a nutrient-rich fen had NEP values not significantly different from zero. The maximum NEP at sites with intermediate nutrient status is due to slower overall decomposition and is likely associated with greater allocation of production below ground by sedges. The three methods for estimating NEP differ in the effort required, the sources of error, and in the timescale over which they apply. Used in combination, they allow estimation of parameters such as below- ground production and the contribution of heterotrophic decomposition to total soil respiration. Using the radiocarbon method, we also derived estimates of the rate of N accumulation in the four wetland types.

Turetsky, M. R., Ripley, S. (2005). Decomposition in extreme-rich fens of boreal Alberta, Canada. Soil Science Society Of America JournalSoil Sci So 69 (6): 1856-1860

ABSTRACT: Rich fens (minerotrophic peatlands with surface water pH > 5.5) have greater alkalinity and species richness than other boreal peatlands. We used short-term laboratory incubations to quantify CO2 and CH4 production in peat from five extreme-rich fens in Alberta. Carbon dioxide production rates averaged 48.29 ± 1.36 µmol CO2 g organic matter–1 d–1 across sites and sampling events. Peat from all sites produced CH4 during anaerobic incubations, leading to average anaerobic CH4 production rates of 359.53 ± 138.7 nmol CH4 g organic matter–1 d–1 . However, methane frequently was consumed (oxidized) during aerobic incubations, leading to aerobic CH4 consumption rates averaging 75.2 ± 63.7 nmol CH4 g organic matter–1 d–1 across sites. Calculated rates of dissolved H2 CO3 + HCO3 – production averaged 59.7 ± 13.4mmol g organic matter–1 d–1 , suggesting that dissolved inorganic C is important to the overall C fluxes in these rich fens. Our results suggest that changing hydrologic conditions will influence the balance between methanogenesis and methanotrophy in rich fens, but that surface water chemistry, likely influenced by marl precipitation, also is important to decomposition. Rich fens are estimated to represent the most common wetland type in Alberta, and these peatland ecosystems could play an important role in trace gas emissions across boreal regions.

Turetsky, M.R., Wieder, R.K., Halsey, L., Vitt, D.H. (2002). Current disturbance and the diminishing peatland carbon sink. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (11)

ABSTRACT: Cumulative impacts of disturbances on peatland carbon must be understood to predict future soil carbon stocks, yet the vulnerability and response of peatlands to disturbance have been neglected. We provide the first regional-scale assessment of peatland carbon storage across 1.7 million km2 of western boreal land. We estimate that disturbances, mainly fire, release approximately 6460 ± 930 GgCyr−1 to the atmosphere. Concurrently, disturbances reduce carbon uptake in continental peatlands by 85% compared to a no-disturbance scenario. A 17% increase in the area of peatland burned annually and the intensity of organic matter combustion would convert these peatlands into a regional net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Peatlands widely are considered to represent a northern carbon sink, however, we suggest reevaluation of this paradigm for continental boreal regions.

Ullah, S., Frasier, R., King, L., Picotte-Anderson, N., Moore, T.R. (2008). Potential fluxes of N2 O and CH4 from soils of three forest types in Eastern Canada. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40 (4): 986-994

ABSTRACT: We conducted laboratory incubation experiments to elucidate the influence of forest type and topographic position on emission and/or consumption potentials of nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) from soils of three forest types in Eastern Canada. Soil samples collected from deciduous, black spruce and white pine forests were incubated under a control, an NH4 NO3 amendment and an elevated headspace CH4 concentration at 70% water-filled pore space (WFPS), except the poorly drained wetland soils which were incubated at 100% WFPS. Deciduous and boreal forest soils exhibited greater potential of N2 O and CH4 fluxes than did white pine forest soils. Mineral N addition resulted in significant increases in N2 O emissions from wetland forest soils compared to the unamended soils, whereas well-drained soils exhibited no significant increase in N2 O emissions in-response to mineral N additions. Soils in deciduous, boreal and white pine forests consumed CH4 when incubated under an elevated headspace CH4 concentration, except the poorly drained soils in the deciduous forest, which emitted CH4 . CH4 consumption rates in deciduous and boreal forest soils were twice the amount consumed by the white pine forest soils. The results suggest that an episodic increase in reactive N input in these forests is not likely to increase N2 O emissions, except from the poorly drained wetland soils; however, long-term in situ N fertilization studies are required to validate the observed results. Moreover, wetland soils in the deciduous forest are net sources of CH4 unlike the well-drained soils, which are net sinks of atmospheric CH4 . Because wetland soils can produce a substantial amount of CH4 and N2 O, the contribution of these wetlands to the total trace gas fluxes need to be accounted for when modeling fluxes from forest soils in Eastern Canada.

Updegraff, Karen, Pastor, John, Bridgham, Scott D., Johnston, Carol A. (1995). Environmental and substrate controls over carbon and nitrogen mineralization in northern wetlands. Ecological Applications 5 (1): 151-163.

ABSTRACT: Northern wetlands may be a potential carbon source to the atmosphere upon global warming, particularly with regard to methane. However, recent conclusions have largely been based on short-term field measurements. We incubated three wetland soils representing a range of substrate quality for 80 wk in the laboratory under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 15° and 30°C. The soils were obtained from aScirpus -Carex -dominated meadow in an abandoned beaver pond and from the surface and at 1 m depth of a spruce (Picea )-Sphagnum bog in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Substrate quality was assessed by fractionation of carbon compounds and summarized using principal components analysis. Nitrogen and carbon mineralization, the partitioning of carbon between carbon dioxide and methane, pH, and Eh were measured periodically over the course of the incubation. The responses of nitrogen mineralization, carbon mineralization, and trace gas partitioning to both temperature and aeration depended strongly on the substrate quality of the soils. Sedge meadow soil had the highest nitrogen and carbon mineralization rates and methane production under anaerobic conditions, and carbon mineralization under aerobic conditions, but the surface peats had the highest nitrogen mineralization rates under aerobic conditions. Methanogenesis was highest in the sedge soil but less sensitive to temperature than in the peats. A double exponential model showed that most of the variation in nitrogen and carbon mineralization among the soils and treatments was accounted for by differences in the size and kinetics of a relatively small labile pool. The kinetics of this pool were more sensitive to changes in temperature and aeration than that of the larger recalcitrant pool. Principal components analysis separated the soils on the basis of labile and recalcitrant carbon fractions. Total C and N mineralization correlated positively with the factor representing labile elements, while methanogenesis also showed a negative correlation with the factor representing recalcitrant elements. Estimates of atmospheric feedbacks from northern wetlands upon climatic change must account for extreme local variation in substrate quality and wetland type; global projections based on extrapolations from a few field measurements do not account for this local variation and may be in error.

Van Huissteden, J., Van Den Bos, R., Alvarez, I. M. (2006). Modelling the effect of water-table management on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from peat soils. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 85 (1): 3-18

ABSTRACT: Drainage of peatlands for agriculture causes an increase of CO2 flux from peat decomposition, contributing to national CO2 emission. The reverse process, i.e. for re-creation of wetlands, reduces the CO2 flux, but increases the CH4 flux. We developed a process model (PEATLAND) to simulate these fluxes from peat soils subject to different water-table management scenarios. The model combines primary production, aerobic decomposition of soil organic matter (including the soil-parent material, peat), CH4 formation, oxidation, and transport. Model input requires specification of water table and air temperature data sets, vegetation parameters such as primary production and parameters related to gas transport, and basic soil physical data. Validation using closed flux-chamber measurements of CO2 and CH4 from five different sites in the western Netherlands shows that seasonal changes in fluxes of CO2 and CH4 are correctly modelled. However, the CO2 submodel underestimates peat decomposition when peat decomposition rates obtained from laboratory incubation experiments are used as input. Field decomposition rates are considerably higher. This is attributed to enhancement of decomposition by the addition of easily decomposable material from root exudation (‘priming effect’). Model experiments indicate that 1) drainage increases the CO2 production from peat decomposition strongly; 2) restoring a high water table may decrease the total greenhouse gas flux by a small amount although the CH4 flux increases strongly; 3) a warmer climate may cause higher greenhouse gas fluxes from peat soils resulting in a positive feedback to climate warming, and 4) high vegetation productivity in fen meadows may stimulate peat decomposition by the priming effect.

Von Arnold, K., Hsnell, B., Stendahl, J., Klemedtsson, L. (2005). Greenhouse gas fluxes from drained organic forestland in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 20 (5): 400-411

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution of drained organic forestlands in Sweden to the national greenhouse gas budget. Drained organic forestland in Sweden collectively comprises an estimated net sink for greenhouse gases of −5.0 Mt carbon dioxide (CO2 ) equivalents year −1 (range −12.0 to 1.2) when default emission factors provided by the Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry are used, and an estimated net source of 0.8 Mt CO2 equivalents year−1 (range −6.7 to 5.1) when available emission data for the climatic zones spanned by Sweden are used. This discrepancy is mainly due to differences in the emission factors for heterotrophic respiration. The main uncertainties in the estimates are related to carbon changes in the litter pool and releases of soil CO2 and nitrous oxide.

Waldron, S., Flowers, H., Arlaud, C., Bryant, C., McFarlane, S. (2008). The significance of organic carbon and nutrient export from peatland-dominated landscapes subject to disturbance. Biogeosciences Discussions 5 (2): 1139-1174

ABSTRACT: The terrestrial-aquatic interface is a crucial environment in which to consider the fate of exported terrestrial carbon in the aquatic system. To a large extent the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may be controlled by nutrient availability. However, peat-dominated headwater catchments are normally considered of low nutrient status and thus there is little data on the interaction of DOC and nutrients. Here we present nutrient and DOC data exported from two UK catchments, both dominated by peat headwaters, but of differing land-use. Glen Dye is a moorland with no trees; Whitelee has partially forested peats and peaty podzols, and is now undergoing development to host Europe's largest on-shore windfarm, the Whitelee Windfarm. There are significant linear relationships between DOC and soluble reactive phosphorus and nitrate concentrations in the drainage waters, but inter-catchment differences exist. Changes in the pattern of nutrient and carbon export in Whitelee suggest that disturbance of peatlands soils can impact the receiving water and that nutrient export does not increase in a stoichiometric manner that will promote increase in biomass. As such the changes are more likely to cause increased aquatic respiration, and thus lead to higher dissolved CO2 concentrations (and therefore CO2 efflux). Hence disturbance of terrestrial carbon stores may also impact the gaseous carbon cycle. Confirming the source of carbon and nutrients in these study sites is not possible. However, nearby14 C measurements are in keeping with other published literature values from similar sites which show C in DOM exported from peatlands is predominantly modern, and thus supports an interpretation that nutrients, additional to carbon, are derived from shallow soils. Estimates of organic carbon loss from Whitelee catchments to the drainage waters suggest a system where losses are approaching likely sequestration rates. We suggest such sequestration assessment should inform the decision-making tools required prior to development of terrestrial carbon stores.

A. E. Altor, W. J. Mitsch (2008). Methane and carbon dioxide dynamics in wetland mesocosms: effects of hydrology and soils. Ecological Applications 18 (5): 1307-1320

ABSTRACT: Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in created and restored wetlands, and the influence of hydrology and soils on these fluxes, have not been extensively documented. Minimizing methane fluxes while maximizing productivity is a relevant goal for wetland restoration and creation projects. In this study we used replicated wetland mesocosms to investigate relationships between contrasting hydrologic and soil conditions, and methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in emergent marsh systems. Hydrologic treatments consisted of an intermittent flooding regime vs. continuously inundated conditions, and soil treatments utilized hydric vs. non-hydric soils. Diurnal patterns of methane flux were examined to shed light on the relationship between emergent macrophytes and methane emissions for comparison with vegetation–methane relationships reported from natural wetlands. Microbially available organic carbon content was significantly greater in hydric soils than non-hydric soils, despite similar organic matter contents in the contrasting soil types. Mesocosms with hydric soils exhibited the greatest rates of methane flux regardless of hydrology, but intermittent inundation of hydric soils produced significantly lower methane fluxes than continuous inundatation of hydric soils. Methane fluxes were not affected significantly by hydrologic regime in mesocosms containing non-hydric soils. There were no diurnal differences in methane flux, and carbon dioxide and methane fluxes were not significantly correlated. The highest rates of CO2 uptake occurred in the continuously inundated treatment with non-hydric soils, and there were no significant differences in nighttime respiration rates between the treatments. Implications for hydrologic design of created and restored wetlands are discussed.

W.R. Rouse, M.S.V. Douglas, R.E. Hecky, A.E. Hershey, G.W. Kling, L.E> Lesack, P. Marsh, M. McDonald, B.J. Nicholson, N.T. Roulet, J.P. Smol (1997). Effects of climate change on the freshwaters of Arctic and subarctic North America. Hydrological Processes 11 (8): 873-902

ABSTRACT: Region 2 comprises arctic and subarctic North America and is underlain by continuous or discontinuous permafrost. Its freshwater systems are dominated by a low energy environment and cold region processes. Central northern areas are almost totally influenced by arctic air masses while Pacific air becomes more prominent in the west, Atlantic air in the east and southern air masses at the lower latitudes. Air mass changes will play an important role in precipitation changes associated with climate warming. The snow season in the region is prolonged resulting in long-term storage of water so that the spring flood is often the major hydrological event of the year, even though, annual rainfall usually exceeds annual snowfall. The unique character of ponds and lakes is a result of the long frozen period, which affects nutrient status and gas exchange during the cold season and during thaw. GCM models are in close agreement for this region and predict temperature increases as large as 4°C in summer and 9°C in winter for a 2 × CO2 scenario. Palaeoclimate indicators support the probability that substantial temperature increases have occurred previously during the Holocene. The historical record indicates a temperature increase of > 1°C in parts of the region during the last century. GCM predictions of precipitation change indicate an increase, but there is little agreement amongst the various models on regional disposition or magnitude. Precipitation change is as important as temperature change in determining the water balance. The water balance is critical to every aspect of hydrology and limnology in the far north. Permafrost close to the surface plays a major role in freshwater systems because it often maintains lakes and wetlands above an impermeable frost table, which limits the water storage capabilities of the subsurface. Thawing associated with climate change would, particularly in areas of massive ice, stimulate landscape changes, which can affect every aspect of the environment. The normal spring flooding of ice-jammed north-flowing rivers, such as the Mackenzie, is a major event, which renews the water supply of lakes in delta regions and which determines the availability of habitat for aquatic organisms. Climate warming or river damming and diversion would probably lead to the complete drying of many delta lakes. Climate warming would also change the characteristics of ponds that presently freeze to the bottom and result in fundamental changes in their limnological characteristics. At present, the food chain is rather simple usually culminating in lake trout or arctic char. A lengthening of the growing season and warmer water temperature would affect the chemical, mineral and nutrient status of lakes and most likely have deleterious effects on the food chain. Peatlands are extensive in region 2. They would move northwards at their southern boundaries, and, with sustained drying, many would change form or become inactive. Extensive wetlands and peatlands are an important component of the global carbon budget, and warmer and drier conditions would most likely change them from a sink to a source for atmospheric carbon. There is some evidence that this may be occurring already. Region 2 is very vulnerable to global warming. Its freshwater systems are probably the least studied and most poorly understood in North America. There are clear needs to improve our current knowledge of temperature and precipitation patterns; to model the thermal behaviour of wetlands, lakes and rivers; to understand better the interrelationships of cold region rivers with their basins; to begin studies on the very large lakes in the region; to obtain a firm grasp of the role of northern peatlands in the global carbon cycle; and to link the terrestrial water balance to the thermal and hydrological regime of the polar sea. Overall, there is a strong need for basic research and long-term monitoring.

Bridgham, S.D., C.A. Johnston, J. Pastor, K. Updegraff (1995). Potential feedbacks of northern wetlands on climate change. BioScience 45 (4): 262-274

ABSTRACT: Changes in wetland ecosystems in the northern latitudes may have feedback effects on greenhouse gases. An approach for predicting the climate-change impact of northern wetlands is outlined.

Bridgham, S.D., K. Updegraff, J. Pastor (1998). Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization in northern wetlands. Ecology 79 (5): 1545-1561

ABSTRACT: We examined rates of C, N, and P mineralization in soils from 16 northern Minnesota wetlands that occur across an ombrotrophic–minerotrophic gradient. Soils were incubated at 30°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 59 wk, and the results were fit with a two-pool kinetic model. Additionally, 39 different soil quality variables were used in a principal components analysis (PCA) to predict mineralization rates.

Mineralization of C, N, and P differed significantly among wetland types, aeration status (aerobic vs. anaerobic), and their interaction term. Despite low total soil N and P, there was a rapid turnover of the nutrient pools in ombrotrophic sites, particularly under aerobic conditions. On a volumetric basis, C and N mineralization increased in a predictable manner across the ombrotrophic–minerotrophic gradient, largely due to increasing soil bulk density. However, P mineralization per cubic centimeter remained relatively high in the bogs. The higher total P content of more minerotrophic soils appears to be offset by greater P immobilization due to geochemical sorption, yielding overall lower availability.

Total C turnover rates were relatively similar among sites, despite large differences in soil quality. We suggest that, over time, the decay rates of organic matter in different wetland communities converge to a common rate. In contrast, CH4 production was extremely low in ombrotrophic peats.

The apparent labile pools of N (N0 ), P (P0 ), and C (C0 ) were generally <10% of their respective total pool sizes, except for P0 in the bogs, which constituted up to 33% of total soil P. From 10% to 87% of the N, P, and C mineralized after 59 wk was derived from their respective labile pools.

A simple group of variables describing the physical degree of decomposition of organic matter was often as good as, or superior to, more complicated chemical analyses in predicting C, N, and P mineralization. Because peats are classified and mapped according to these variables, it should make scaling efforts in landscape analyses much more tractable.

Large differences in mineralization rates in northern wetland communities demonstrate that climate change models should not consider these areas as homogeneous entities. Our C mineralization results suggest that soil respiratory response to climate change (as CO2 and CH4 ) will vary considerably in different wetland communities. Our results also suggest that the common perception that more ombrotrophic sites are inherently more nutrient deficient needs to be reassessed.

Gorham, E. (1991). Northern peatlands: role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climatic warming. Ecological Applications 1 (2): 182-195

ABSTRACT: Boreal and subarctic peatlands comprise a carbon pool of 455 Pg that has accumulated during the postglacial period at an average net rate of 0.096 Pg/yr (1 Pg = 1015 g). Using Clymo's (1984) model, the current rate is estimated at 0.076 Pg/yr. Longterm drainage of these peatlands is estimated to be causing the oxidation to CO2 of a little more than 0.0085 Pg/yr, with combustion of fuel peat adding ~0.026 Pg/yr. Emissions of C4 are estimated to release ~ 0.046 Pg of carbon annually. Uncertainties beset estimates of both stocks and fluxes, particularly with regard to Soviet peatlands. The influence of water table alterations upon fluxes of both C2 and CH4 is in great need of investigation over a wide range of peatland environments, especially in regions where permafrost melting, thermokarst erosion, and the development of thaw lakes are likely results of climatic warming. The role of fire in the carbon cycle of peatlands also deserves increased attention. Finally, satellite-monitoring of the abundance of open water in the peatlands of the West Siberian Plain and the Hudson/James Bay Lowland is suggested as a likely method of detecting early effects of climatic warming upon boreal and subarctic peatlands.

A. Britta, K. Sannel, P. Kuhry (2008). Long-term stability of permafrost in subarctic peat plateaus, west-central Canada. The Holocene 18 (4): 589-601

ABSTRACT: Long-term vegetation succession and permafrost dynamics in subarctic peat plateaus of west-central Canada have been studied through detailed plant macrofossil analysis and extensive AMS radiocarbon dating of two peat profiles. Peatland inception at these sites occurred around 5800–5100 yr BP (6600–5900 cal. BP) as a result of paludification of upland forests. At the northern peat plateau site, located in the continuous permafrost zone, palaeobotanical evidence suggests that permafrost was already present under the forested upland prior to peatland development. Paludification was initiated by permafrost collapse, but re-aggradation of permafrost occurred soon after peatland inception. At the southern site, located in the discontinuous permafrost zone, the aggradation of permafrost occurred soon after peatland inception. In the peat plateaus, permafrost conditions have remained very stable until present. Sphagnum fuscum-dominated stages have alternated with more xerophytic communities characterized by ericaceous shrubs. Local peat fires have occurred, but most of these did not cause degradation of the permafrost. Starting from 2800–1100 yr BP (2900–1000 cal. BP) consistently dry surface conditions have prevailed, possibly related to continued frost heave or nearby polygon crack formation.

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